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  • Thanks to Linode for supporting this SciShow video.

    感謝 Linode 贊助這個 SciShow 影片。

  • You can get $100 60-day credit on a new Linode account at scishow.

    你可以在 上的新 Linode 帳戶獲得 100 美元的 60 天信用。

  • In the early 1990s, researchers in the UK began clinical trials using a drug called Sildenafil to treat chest pain.


  • It didn't turn out to be particularly promising for that purpose, but subjects reported an unexpected side effect that caught the researchers' attention.


  • They began focusing on that instead, and in 1998, the FDA approved sildenafil for sale under the brand name Viagra.


  • This isn't the only time that a drug has been repurposed because of useful side effects.


  • In fact, it might be about to happen again, but this time, we may be honing in on a treatment for addiction.


  • Our star today is a medication called semaglutide, which you may be familiar with by its brand names, Ozempic and Wegovy.

    我們今天的主角是一種名為 semaglutide 的藥物,你可能對它的品牌名稱 Ozempic 和 Wegovy 比較熟悉。

  • The two brands are the same active compound but at different doses and they also have different uses.


  • Ozempic was originally approved by the FDA in 2017 to treat type 2 diabetes, and Wegovy was approved in 2021 for what doctors refer to as "chronic weight management."

    Ozempic 最初於 2017 年獲得 FDA 準許用於治療二型糖尿病,並於 2021 年獲批用於醫生所說的慢性體重管理。

  • After semaglutide was approved for weight management, the drug skyrocketed in popularity.

    在 semaglutide 被批准用於體重管理之後,這種藥物的受歡迎程度急劇上升。

  • Which turned out to be kind of a problem, because people who'd been taking it for years to treat their diabetes were all of a sudden having trouble getting their hands on it, due to supply shortages.


  • But as more people began taking semaglutide, some of them also began reporting that once they started taking Ozempic, they were no longer all that interested in drinking alcohol.

    但隨著更多人開始服用 semaglutide,其中一些人也開始報告說,一旦他們開始服用 Ozempic,他們對飲酒不再感興趣。

  • Even those who'd self-reported addictive tendencies or unhealthy fixations on alcohol suddenly felt cravings stop, just like that.


  • And that isn't quite as far out of left field as it sounds, once you understand exactly how semaglutide works.

    這聽起來並沒有那麼出乎意料,一旦你了解 semaglutide 的原理,就會明白。

  • Semaglutide mimics a naturally occurring hormone called glucagon-like peptide 1, or GLP-1, that's released primarily in the gut after eating, and raises insulin levels to stabilize your blood sugar.


  • Semaglutide is only one of many medications that mimic GLP-1, and the first of these drugs was approved in 2005.


  • They work by binding with receptors in the pancreas to stimulate insulin production.


  • Plus, they can also slow down how quickly your stomach empties, which leaves you feeling fuller for longer.


  • The entire class of drugs is actually named after those receptors the hormone binds with, not the hormone itself, so they're called GLP-1 receptor agonists.


  • It's the insulin boosting effect that GLP-1 receptor agonists capitalize on to treat diabetes.


  • The increased feeling of fullness means less appetite and fewer cravings for high-fat foods, which can result in weight loss.


  • Even though GLP is mostly released in the gut, there are GLP-1 receptors throughout the body including areas of the brain typically associated with reward and addiction.


  • And so scientists have studied various GLP-1 agonists to see how they might affect addictive behaviors.


  • In mice, rats, and even non-human primates, giving an animal a GLP-1 agonist reduces how much alcohol they drink and decreases the rewarding effects of drinking alcohol.


  • And in other animal studies, those GLP-1 agonists have also been shown to decrease cocaine consumption, cocaine-related hyperactivity, and dopamine release in reward-related areas of the brain.


  • Rodent studies also show decreased rewarding effects of nicotine as well as decreased nicotine-induced hyperactivity.


  • In other words, this class of drugs may make addictive substances less desirable by blunting the effects and making them less rewarding.


  • That's different from the current treatments that make you feel sick when you take drugs or drink alcohol so you stop doing it.


  • These GLP-1 agonists appear to actually be changing how much of a dopamine hit comes from the addictive substance, although scientists don't yet know exactly how they interact with that dopamine.

    這些 GLP-1 激動劑似乎實際上改變了上癮物質對多巴胺的刺激程度。

  • But there still aren't many human studies on GLP-1 and addiction that have been completed yet, and almost none involve semaglutide specifically.

    雖然科學家們還不清楚它們如何與多巴胺相互作用,但關於 GLP-1 和成癮的人體研究還不多,而且幾乎都不涉及半過剩問題。

  • One of those few human studies found that one GLP-1 receptor agonist reduced alcohol use in patients who were obese, but not in patients who weren't.

    其中一項少數人類研究發現,GLP-1 受體激動劑減少了肥胖患者的酒精消耗,但對非肥胖患者則無影響。

  • As of June 2023, there have only been a handful of studies published that specifically look at semaglutide and addiction.

    截至 2023 年 6 月,只有少數幾項研究專門探討了 semaglutide 和成癮的關係。

  • Those studied rodents, and they suggested semaglutide decreases alcohol intake and the activity of reward-mechanisms in the brain, so they're a really promising start.

    這些研究主要針對小鼠進行,並且暗示 semaglutide 可以減少酒精攝入量,並降低大腦中的獎賞機制活動,所以這是一個非常有希望的開始。

  • But the jury's still out on whether GLP-1 receptor agonists in general will work to reduce addictive behaviors in clinical trials on humans.


  • Semaglutide definitely seems to have an effect in people, but right now we only have anecdotal reports of reduced interest in drinking and other addictive behaviors.


  • It's possible that this only happens in a small minority of people, it just feels like a lot right now because so many people have recently started taking it and we're paying attention to those reports.


  • Plus, a lot of the rodent testing has focused on short-term effects after getting a GLP-1 receptor agonist injection.

    此外,許多囓齒動物測試都集中在註射 GLP-1 受體激動劑後的短期效果。

  • That doesn't really tell us if a drug will continue to be effective for long-term treatment.


  • And since substance use disorders are long term chronic issues, that's an important question to answer to.


  • Really, just about any question about addiction treatment is an important one.


  • Addiction is incredibly difficult to treat.


  • There are only a few medications on the market to treat some substance use disorders, and they don't work for everyone.


  • And while a few drugs show promise, there are currently no approved medications for cocaine or methamphetamine addiction, so finding and approving new drugs could truly be a gamechanger.


  • But we can't do that without human studies looking at semaglutide and substance use, which are currently underway.


  • And if it does work, an added bonus is that drugs already approved by the FDA for another condition are approved more quickly than brand-new drugs.

    如果它確實有效,還有一個額外的好處是,已經獲得 FDA 批准用於另一種疾病的藥物比全新藥物獲得批准的速度更快。

  • New drugs take years of animal and human safety testing to get the green light.


  • With an already approved drug, the mechanism of how it works is already known, as are the side effects, which makes the whole process move faster.


  • It even happened with Viagra in 2005, when the active ingredient was finally approved for pulmonary hypertension, on a shorter timeline than it took to get the first one.

    22005 年威而鋼的發生了這種情況,當時該活性成分最終被批准用於治療肺動脈高壓,但時間比獲得第一種威而鋼所需的時間更短。

  • Hopefully, the clinical trials of semaglutide are successful, and these anecdotal reports will be the first step toward more effective treatment of addiction.

    希望 semaglutide 的臨床試驗能夠成功,這些軼事報告將成為更有效治療成癮的第一步。

  • It could save a lot of lives and a lot of pain, all because a new drug happened to have very useful side effects.


  • This episode of SciShow is supported by Linode: a cloud computing company from Akamai. Cloud computing is technology.

    本期 SciShow 由 Linode 贊助播出。Linode 是 Akamai 旗下的一家雲端運算公司。 雲端運算是一種技術。

  • I mean, it practically has the word "computer" in the name.


  • But Linode has found ways to keep the human connection front and center, even in the tech world.

    但 Linode 已經找到了保持人與人之間聯繫的方法,即使在科技領域也是如此。

  • Linode has award-winning customer support staff, so you can talk to a real person any time, any day.

    Linode 擁有屢獲殊榮的客戶支援人員,因此您可以隨時隨地與真人交談。

  • Or you can check out their website, full of video tutorials, blogs, and guides that explain the tech in plain language so you don't have to be a developer to understand what's going on.


  • But the community of people who love Linode expands beyond their employees.

    但熱愛 Linode 的人們的社群不僅限於他們的員工。

  • As a Linode customer, you can communicate with other people just like you in forums to troubleshoot new applications and work together to achieve your goals.

    作為 Linode 客戶,您可以在論壇中與其他像您一樣的人進行交流,對新應用程式進行故障排除並共同實現您的目標。

  • To get started with Linode, you can click the link in the description down below or go to for a $100 60-day credit on a new Linode account.

    要開始使用 Linode,你可以點開下面說明欄中的連結,或者前往,為新的 Linode 帳戶獲取 100 美元的 60 天信用額度。

  • Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow.

    感謝你收看本期 SciShow 節目。

Thanks to Linode for supporting this SciShow video.

感謝 Linode 贊助這個 SciShow 影片。

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