字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 Hi there, Steve Kaufmann here, and today I wanna talk about something very important and that is that language earning is not that complicated. The reason I wanna talk about that is because I was going through my library here, uh, in the section where I have books on language acquisition, language learning, many of which I bought 20 years ago when we were getting started with LingQ, and I was reading up on the subject from attending conferences and so forth. And I went back through some of these books and I realized just how complicated the sort of language acquisition academics make the subject of a language journey. It's really not that complicated. And so I wanted to go through with you some of the books that I have and some of the concepts that appear in these books. You know, learning book, Second Language Acquisition, Rod Ellis. Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy. Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Vocabulary in Language Teaching, uh, you know, Applied Linguistics, uh, I mean there's lots. Okay. I even have a Swedish one. I mean, I used to wherever I was, and I would go into a bookstore and, and see what there was on this subject. And they make it so complex because what the language acquisition experts, with the exception of Stephen Krashed, what they try to do is describe... it's as if language learning is a motion picture, and they're going to describe it frame by frame, uh, or even not a motion picture, but uh, animated cartoon where every little step, every little possibility is explained. Whereas actually it's a very simple, natural phenomenon. It's the process of acquiring new language habits, largely through a lot of listening at reading and the kind, for example, uh, I don't wanna pick on this one because this Rod Ellis Second Language Acquisition is in many ways the best of all these books because it's short and sweet, not as good as Krashen, who has a number of very short books explaining language acquisition. But some of the things he refers to here and I jotted some of them down so that I could more easily go through them. So, uh, first of all, he goes to great length to explain that the order of acquisition depends on the learner's native language. Again, that's obvious if you don't have articles in your own language, articles in English or in languages which have articles are going to be more difficult to learn, uh, if you don't have plurals in your own language, plurals, which would be absolutely easy for someone who speaks a language that has plurals, is that's gonna be a lot more difficult to get right each time. If you're not used to the idea that every plural noun, you know, might have to add an s or do something that indicates that it's plural. So it's an obvious thing. Uh, again, he goes into all the different kinds of context that influence how a learner learns. The linguistic context, the situational context, the psycho-linguistic context, the form function mappings, fossilization, all of these things that affect how the process whereby a learner learns, but it doesn't influence how the learner learns. The learner still has to learn the same way through massive input, through massive listening and reading. Talks about learner language and the properties of learner language and how, again, you know, the forms of the kinds of errors that learner makes are influenced by all of these things. Um, then he talks about, you know, social distance and he gives an example of, of a, perhaps I think it was a Japanese person learning English. The teacher made reference to Bart Simpson of The Simpsons, and she didn't know what that was, and that then created the social distance for her between the language she was learning English and you know, not feeling part of that culture. Well, of course that's always a part of language acquisition. You're acquiring a language that's initially quite distant, eventually gets closer as you get closer to the language and as you engage with content, cultural aspects of that language, it becomes less and less distant. But along the way, there are going to be things that remind you that you are trying to get into this other culture. Talks about different discourse rules that, uh, you know, in American society if, if someone makes a compliment, then the response is quite a lengthy one. Oh, you have a nice shirt and you're supposed to, according to him, you're supposed to say, well, you know, I've gotten, my mother gave it to me, or some lengthy explanation. Whereas I'm not sure that's obviously the case. The danger when you try to make generalizations is, in fact, very often that's not the case. And if someone says to me, you've got a nice shirt, I say, thanks. I don't get into a lengthy explanation of where I got the shirt. Terms like speech acts and speech events. Then they get into this whole critical period hypothesis that we are best able to learn languages when we're young before the age of 10 or 12, which is true because the brain has not yet coalesced and, and and kind of hardened if you want around the native language. And we could just as easily learn any language and later on it's a little more difficult. But then again, there's not much we can do with that. If I'm a 20 year old learning a language, whatever are the conditions that affect a 20 year old, that's gonna affect me. It's not that useful to me as a language learner to know that I should have learned the language, that language at age eight. Uh, he even goes on in Ellis's book. He says, you know, integrative motivation. He says, for example, uh, English Canadians learning French are very motivated to learn French because they want to integrate into the French society. Well, that's absolutely not the case. Most English Canadians learning French are not at all motivated to learn French. Some are, and those that are, they learn, but others learn it as a subject uh, that has to be learned just like, uh, is the case I think with, uh, language learners in many countries, it's a subject they're not necessarily that interested in learning. Those that are motivated do learn. Uh, it talks about negotiating meaning all these terms. Uh, so, uh, that's Ellis. So I, I gave him particular, uh, attention here, but you know, again, I've sort of dogeared some pages. So here he talks about, Uh, you know, it's important to allow, uh, students to select books themselves. Well, yes. There you go. That's a good thing to say. Um, you know, things that affect the ability to learn a word, what makes it difficult, uh, how it's spelled. Yes. If you're learning Spanish and, uh, there's a one-to-one relationship between how it's spelled and how it's pronounced, that's gonna be a lot easier than if you're learning English. Not to mention, uh, Arabic. Length, longer words are more difficult, you know, four or five chapters and why it's harder to learn those words. Uh, all of these things that are relatively obvious. You know, if learners do not know, or they must discover its meaning by guessing from their structural knowledge of the language. Guessing from an L1 cognate, guessing from context. Well, they don't necessarily have to guess. I don't guess. If I'm reading online, I just look it up and, uh, I know full well that looking it up, I won't remember that word. How on LingQ, of course, the blue word becomes yellow. The next time I see it, I'll know that I've seen that word before, but I'll look it up again and again and again. And gradually those words become known. So some of this, uh, material is sort of predates the advent of the internet. Paul Nation is an expert on language and particularly vocabulary acquisition. When, uh, so noticing involves decontextualization, decontextualization occurs when learners give attention to a language item as a part of the language rather than as part of a sentence, or excuse me, part of a, of a message. I don't know that I deliberately decontextualize if I see a word in different context, eventually the sense of that word grows on me. While listening or reading a learner notices that a word is new or thinks I've seen that word before, or thinks that word is used differently from the ways I've seen it used before. First of all, if you're not on a system like LingQ, you may not even know that you've seen that word before. Learners negotiate the meaning of a word with each other. Well, that's a, again, on the assumption as is often the case with people who talk about language acquisition. Um, the assumption is that people are sitting in a classroom. Creative or generative use, a third major process that may lead to a word being remembered is generation. Increasing number of studies that show that generative processing, uh, is an important factor. Generative processing occurs when previously met words are subsequently met or used in ways that differ from the previous meeting with the word. Yeah. That's something that occurs naturally as you read more and more. The more you read, the more you listen. The more you encounter words in different contexts, the more this kind of generative processing takes place. He also recommends spending time on words. Yeah. The more time you spend on one word, the less time you have to spend on acquiring more words and exposing yourself to more of the language. That again, can be a function of what you like to do and how you like to learn. Here is again, norberd Schmidt, who is an expert on acquiring vocabulary. Again, he, the majority of words, do not have a one-to-one relationship with a single referrent. Yeah.