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  • I'm Anne Chappelle.

    - 我是安妮-查普爾。

  • I'm a board-certified toxicologist, and I'm here today to answer your questions from Twitter.

    我是一個經委員會認證的毒理學家。

  • This is "Poison Support".

    我今天在這裡回答你們在Twitter上的問題。

  • First up, we have a question from @koobylikon.

    這就是 "毒藥支持"。

  • Dude, what makes poison poisonous?

    首先,我們有一個來自@koobylikon的問題。

  • Well, a poison is a substance that can do damage to any living organism or to the environment,

    老兄,是什麼讓毒藥變成了毒藥?

  • but it's really all about the dose.

    嗯,毒藥是一種可以造成損害的物質

  • Low dose, less effects.

    對任何生物機體或環境的影響。

  • High dose, generally higher effects.

  • If you drank six liters of water, that probably could kill you.

    但這實際上是關於劑量的問題。

  • How about 118 cups of coffee in a row, or 75 espressos?

    劑量低,影響小。

  • That would give you an overdose of caffeine.

  • Something else that could kill you right on your table: 225 gram of salt.

    劑量大,一般效果較好。如果你喝了六公升的水。

  • There's a lot of things that you might not think are poisonous, but in the right dose they most definitely are.

    這可能會殺死你。

  • @nextyounginn, WTF is sun poisoning?

    連續喝118杯咖啡,或75杯濃縮咖啡如何?那會讓你的咖啡因過量。 還有一些東西可以在你的桌子上殺死你。

  • I thought it was just called sunburn.

    225克的鹽。

  • Both sun poisoning and sunburn are both caused by over exposure to UV rays.

    有很多事情

  • A severe, so sunburn becomes sun poisoning when it moves from just that red, hot rash to blisters,

    你可能不認為是有毒的。

  • feeling like you have the flu, dizzy, or nauseous.

  • Sun poisoning is your body's immune reaction to all of that sun damage.

  • So what do you do if you have either of those things?

    但在正確的劑量下,它們絕對是。

  • Make sure you drink lots and lots of water.

  • That sun damage will dehydrate you, and dehydration is the cause of a whole lot of other problems.

    @nextyounginn, WTF is sun poisoning?

  • Stay out of the sun, apply cool, not icy cold, compresses on your skin.

  • Take an over-the-counter anti-inflammatory agent as well.

    我以為這只是叫做晒傷。

  • @WalkingDad_IE.

    陽光中毒和晒傷都是由以下原因造成的過度暴露在紫外線下。

  • So if one happened to smash a mercury thermometer and then happened to spend an hour forensically gathering tiny dots of quicksilver from the floor,

    嚴重的晒傷會變成陽光中毒

  • how would one happen to safely dispose of the evidence?

    當它從那種紅色的、熱的皮疹轉變成水泡時。

  • It is very, very important that you are careful and complete in how you actually clean up this spill.

    感覺像得了流感,頭暈,或噁心。

  • Mercury can vaporize, get into the air, and you can breathe it.

  • So you wanna see if you can have your windows open.

  • Please don't touch it.

    陽光中毒是你身體的免疫反應

  • I know it's fun to let it play in your hand, but you can't do that anymore.

    對所有的陽光傷害。

  • So wear some gloves.

    那麼,如果你有這兩種情況,你該怎麼辦?

  • Be very careful.

    確保你喝很多很多的水。

  • Use duct tape to kind of pound on the ground to clean it up.

    這種陽光傷害會使你脫水。

  • You can use damp paper towels.

    而脫水是導致其他一大堆問題的原因。

  • All of those thing, those cleaning supplies, everything, put into some kind of giant Ziploc-type bag,

  • and then you're gonna have to wait until you have a hazardous waste collection day and dispose of it properly.

  • Do not clean up spilled mercury with the vacuum cleaner.

    遠離陽光。

  • Mercury is very, very dangerous for the environment, and it's also not great for you either.

    在皮膚上進行涼敷,而不是冰冷的敷料。也可以服用非處方消炎藥。

  • From @RickNowack, what is the most poisonous mushroom?

    @WalkingDad_IE。是以,如果有人碰巧打碎了一個水銀溫度計

  • It's a poisonous mushroom.

    然後發生了

  • Does it have to have the most poisonous?

    花一個小時的時間來收集微小的點狀物

  • Well, if you really want to know, it's probably the death cap mushroom.

    奎克銀從地板上滑落。

  • Within six to 12 hours, you are in incredible pain.

  • Nausea, vomiting, violent chills, muscle contractions, all of these nasty things.

  • And eventually, if the dose was high enough, you end up having liver failure, multiple organ failure, and death.

    如何安全地處理這些證據呢?

  • From Crimson Sexta,

  • I've been trying for so long to explain the difference between venom and poison when it comes to snakes to my friends. Help!

    求助於一個朋友...

  • The difference really is how that poison is delivered to the person.

    非常非常重要的是,你要注意

  • A poison is administered or you're exposed to it via breathing or touching it or ingesting it.

    並在你如何實際清理這個洩漏的過程中完成。

  • Venom, that is also a poison, but it's how you get that poison.

    汞可以汽化,進入空氣中。

  • That's more of a sting or a bite. So it's more active.

    而且你可以呼吸它。

  • You eat a frog, that's a poison.

    所以你想看看你的窗戶是否可以打開。

  • You get bit by a copperhead snake, that's a venomous attack.

  • @WildlifeDefence asks, what is Compound 1080?

  • Compound 1080 is an extremely potent predacide.

  • Predacide is designed to kill predators.

  • So if you've got sheep and goats in your field and you've got a problem with coyotes, well, this is what you would use.

    請不要碰它。

  • Because Compound 1080 is so potent, they have a special way to administer it to avoid killing broad numbers of animals in your field.

  • There's a collar that they put around the neck.

    我知道讓它在你手中發揮是很有趣的。

  • So it's got a collar with a reservoir of the 1080 right along the neck so that when the coyote comes along and grabs the neck,

  • it bites into that reservoir and is immediately poisoned and dies.

  • @LTHSAPES asks, what does a toxicologist study?

    但你不能再這樣做了。

  • Just like there's different kinds of doctors, there's lots of different kinds of toxicologists.

    所以要戴上一些手套。要非常小心。

  • I am an occupational toxicologist, and my job is to look at all the things that could be in a workplace.

    用透明膠帶在地上敲打一下,把它清理乾淨。

  • Food toxicologists, for example, they work to make sure our food supply is safe.

    你可以使用潮溼的紙巾。

  • I even know a toxicologist that works at a winery.

    所有那些東西,那些清潔用品。

  • From @bluebellbats, Google search how to detect poison.

  • Unfortunately, to detect a poison, I'm gonna need to have a little bit more information.

    所有的東西,都放到某種巨大的Ziploc型袋子裡。

  • If the lead singer is Brett Michaels, then I'm sure it is poison.

    然後你將不得不等待

  • If it's just bad medicine, sorry, that's Bon Jovi.

    直到你有一個危險廢物收集日

  • If it's party poison, that's My Chemical Romance.

    並對其進行適當處置。

  • @katlinnrebecca asks, so is alcohol actually poison, or...

    不要用吸塵器清理溢出的汞。

  • Anything can be a poison in the right dose, and alcohol is definitely a poison If you drink too much.

    汞對環境非常、非常危險。而且對你來說也不是很好。 來自@RickNowack,什麼是最毒的蘑菇?

  • First of all, alcohol can impair your central nervous system so that can slow your breathing.

    這是一種有毒的蘑菇。

  • A byproduct of alcohol metabolism is the formation of acetaldehyde.

    是否一定要有最毒的東西?

  • Acetaldehyde is a chemical that really likes to damage parts of your liver.

  • Long-term, that slow exposure over time to alcohol and its metabolites can result in cirrhosis and other kinds of liver damage,

  • eventually leading to potentially liver cancer.

    好吧,如果你真的想知道。

  • From @lkhouvanjou75, mad hatters were mad because of the lead/mercury? Anybody know(s) why?

    這可能是死亡帽蘑菇。

  • I do.

  • Hatters were mad because of the lead mercury anybody know why I do.

    在6至12小時內,你會感到難以置信的痛苦。

  • It was mercury.

    噁心,嘔吐,劇烈的寒顫。

  • Mercury was used to help make the different skins.

    肌肉收縮,所有這些討厭的東西。

  • They used for hats, help that firm matt really well.

    而最終,如果劑量足夠大的話。

  • It also toughened up the fibers and was made of very high quality felt that was going to be used in the hat.

    你最終會出現肝衰竭。

  • Part of the hat making process is that you steam the hat that releases all of that mercury into the air and then they briefed it.

    多器官衰竭,以及死亡。

  • They said that they were mad Hatters, it's because of many of the psychological symptoms that the over exposure to the mercury caused hallucinations, dizziness.

    來自深紅的Sexta。

  • Tremors.

    我已經努力了這麼久

  • You think of Mad Hatter's actually is something being from victorian times.

    解釋毒液和毒藥的區別

  • But actually it wasn't until 19 forties that in the United States the governor of Connecticut banned the use of mercury in hats Appy paul asks, how long does poison take to work?

    當涉及到蛇時,我的朋友們。

  • Some poisons can make you sick right after you ingest breathe or touch it.

    幫助!

  • Other poise reasons those can take a lifetime to really manifest in its adverse effects.

    真正的區別在於如何提供這種毒藥

  • Something like cyanide.

    到的人。

  • You've seen them eat those poison pills in movies that definitely can kill you within a few minutes.

    施放毒藥或接觸到毒藥

  • Cyanide is a very toxic chemical and it is extremely potent.

    通過呼吸或觸摸或攝取它。

  • When you get exposed to cyanide, it quickly enters your cell and stops your cell's ability to actually make energy.

    毒液,那也是一種毒藥。

  • You see the convulsions, you have a heart attack, you have different problems within your heart and it's all because cyanide is really good about getting in your body and inside those cells where irreversibly stops all energy production.

    但這是你如何得到這種毒藥。

  • Let's take another example like e.

    這更像是一種刺痛或咬傷。

  • Coli contaminated lettuce, you eat your sandwich, you're happy and then that bacteria produces a toxin that slowly gets released and absorbed into your gut and into the rest of your body.

    所以它更活躍。

  • So it takes a few days often for e.

    你吃了一隻青蛙,那是一種毒藥。

  • Coli to really start to exert its adverse effect.

    你被一條銅頭蛇咬了。

  • That's one of the reasons why food poisoning is so difficult to diagnose.

    那是一種毒辣的攻擊。

  • You have to go back to food that you ate maybe three or four days ago and I can't even remember what I had for breakfast 96 Berry asks if a poison expires will it still be poisonous or will it not actually it really depends.

    @WildlifeDefence問道,什麼是複合1080?

  • Some drugs, some pesticides, some um chemicals that are poisons, they break down very readily when they're exposed to air moisture.

    化合物1080是一種極其有力的殺蟲劑。

  • Some poisons are what I would consider shelf stable.

    獵殺劑的目的是殺死捕食者。

  • It doesn't matter how long that they sit around they're still going to be just as potent as the day they came out of the factory.

    是以,如果你的田裡有綿羊和山羊的話

  • A two pathways.

    而你有一個關於小狼的問題。

  • Media asks, what are the long term effects of lead poisoning serious?

    好吧,這就是你要用的東西。

  • The problem with lead is that it is still in your bones as you age and you naturally lose bone density, lead is slowly released?

    因為化合物1080是如此有力。

  • A young child who happens to ingest lead paint?

    他們有一個特殊的方式來管理它

  • They're gonna be seen with lower I.

    以避免在你的田裡殺死大量的動物。

  • Q.

    有一個項圈,他們把它放在脖子上。

  • Potentially hearing problems and adults a lot of times the adverse effects most associated with lead exposure is high blood pressure and what happens when you have constant high blood pressure.

    所以它有一個領子,上面有一個1080英尺的水庫。

  • You're at higher risk for stroke and heart attack.

    沿著頸部,這樣,當小狼走過來的時候

  • The Larson asked what is the deadliest poison?

    並抓住了脖子。

  • Clostridium botulinum bacteria?

    它咬了那個水庫,立即被毒死

  • These are usually happy little microbes that live in soil when they are deprived of oxygen.

    和死亡。

  • They produce the world's most deadliest toxin botulinum.

    @LTHSAPES問,毒理學家研究的是什麼?

  • You can find botulism toxin in expired food containers, don't eat those botulism toxin causes an inhibition of the release of acetylcholine as diagrammed here.

    就像有不同種類的醫生一樣。

  • So if you cannot release acetylcholine then you can't have your muscles contract then you really can't breathe and your heart won't work correctly.

    有很多不同種類的毒理學家。

  • But there's actually an upside to botulism toxin.

    我是一名職業毒理學家。

  • It's called Botox.

    我的工作是看所有的東西

  • There are lots of people that really don't want certain muscles in their face to contract anymore.

    這可能是在一個工作場所。

  • They go to the doctor and they get an injection of Botox.

    例如,食品毒理學家。

  • You can also use botulism toxin to treat several other kinds of conditions like migraines.

    他們的工作是確保我們的食品供應是安全的。

  • Certain rapid blinking diseases.

    我甚至認識一個在酒廠工作的毒理學家。

  • You can also get Botox injections to stop excessive sweating.

    來自@bluebellbats。

  • A young slave asked question, how does overdosing on pills actually work?

    谷歌搜索如何檢測毒物。

  • Genuinely curious.

    不幸的是,為了檢測一種毒藥。

  • An overdose doesn't necessarily mean death.

    我需要有更多一點的資訊。

  • An overdose means that you've absolutely taken too much of that particular medicine and that could result in adverse effects that are detrimental to life and health.

    如果主唱是Brett Michaels。

  • Another way that you can overdose results from a combination may be of different drugs that you normally would take separately.

    那麼我肯定它是毒藥。

  • That when combined they all have the same intended effect.

    如果只是藥效不好,對不起,那是邦喬維。

  • And then that overwhelms your body and that can be what kills you.

    如果是派對毒藥,那就是我的化學浪漫。

  • Here's another example.

    @katlinnrebecca問,那麼酒精實際上是毒藥嗎,還是...

  • You build up tolerance for a certain drug for a while and then you stop taking it.

    任何東西在適當的劑量下都可以是一種毒藥。

  • Your body goes back to the pre levels of how it was able to metabolize it and then all of a sudden you take another high dose thinking, hey, that's the dose I used to take and that throws you into an overdose.

    如果你喝多了,酒精絕對是一種毒藥。

  • Okay, Adele press how fast does hemlock work.

    首先,酒精會損害你的中樞神經系統

  • I'm thinking I should stockpile Brompton's cocktails in the 19 thirties.

    所以這可以減緩你的呼吸。

  • A Brompton cocktail was commonly given to term me ill people.

    酒精代謝的一個副產品是形成

  • It was this crazy mixture of morphine, cocaine alcohol, anti nausea agents as well as tranquilizers.

    的乙醛。

  • The goal of a Brompton cocktail was to relieve pain and to help you be awake enough so that you could talk to your friends when they came to visit you on your deathbed.

    乙醛是一種非常喜歡的化學物質

  • You also ask about hemlock hemlock is a plant that the leaves and especially the roots are very, very poisonous.

    以損害你的肝臟部分。

  • So you really wouldn't take a Brompton cocktail and add some hemlock to it because the Brompton cocktail was really made not to help you die, but to help you be happy and pain free when your friends came to visit Nick's blue pen y'all.

    長期以來,隨著時間的推移,緩慢地接觸到酒精

  • How poisonous is pen ink?

    和其代謝物可導致肝硬化

  • It isn't very talk according to the world health organization.

    和其他種類的肝臟損害。

  • Ball point pens felt tip pens, fountain pens, all of them do not contain enough toxic ingredients, even if you sucked on them to cause serious adverse effects.

    最終導致潛在的肝癌。

  • However, you might have a blue tongue question from sports pundit, anybody ever had rebound poison ivy rash?

    來自@lkhouvanjou75。

  • No, just me.

    瘋帽子們因為鉛/汞而瘋狂?