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  • Importing liquid natural gas is  going to be essential for Europe

    進口液態天然氣對歐洲來說將是至關重要的

  • to keep heating and electricity supplies  running this winter and next.

    以保持今冬和明年的供暖和電力供應運行。

  • We're heading toward the only fixed LNG terminal in Greece, which receives, stores and turns

    我們正朝著希臘唯一的固定液化天然氣終端走去,該終端接收、儲存和轉換

  • this critical fuel back into gas. That gas is then piped around the country.

    這種關鍵的燃料重新變成天然氣。然後這些氣體被輸送到全國各地。

  • Natural gas is often found  in secluded, far-flung areas.

    天然氣通常在隱蔽、遙遠的地區被發現。

  • But its portability in the liquid form means  that it can be shipped anywhere in the world.

    但其液體形式的便攜性意味著它可以被運送到世界任何地方。

  • Liquefied natural gas, or LNG, can be used  in the power sector to make electricity

    液化天然氣,或稱LNG,可以在電力部門用於發電

  • and in the industrial sector to make fertilizers and petrochemicals.

    以及在工業部門製造化肥和石化產品。

  • It can also be used for cooking and to heat homes.

    它還可用於烹飪和為家庭供暖。

  • But how is LNG made?

    但LNG是如何製造的?

  • First, natural gas is extracted from the groundIt's then cleaned up and sent to a plant,

    首先,天然氣被從地下開採出來。 然後,它被淨化並被送到一個工廠。

  • where it's cooled to approximately minus 260 degrees Fahrenheit

    在那裡,它被冷卻到大約零下260華氏度

  • or minus 160 degrees Celsius.

    或零下160攝氏度。

  • By turning the gas into a liquidits volume is 600 times smaller

    將氣體變成液體,其體積就會縮小600倍

  • allowing it to be safely and easily  transported on LNG carriers.

    允許它安全和容易地在液化天然氣船上運輸。

  • Once the liquid arrives at its  destination, it's turned back into gas.

    一旦液體到達目的地,它就會變回氣體。

  • Aristotelis Nastos is the plant manager  at the Revithoussa LNG Terminal,

    Aristotelis Nastos是Revithoussa液化天然氣碼頭的工廠經理。

  • the only LNG import terminal in Greece.

    是希臘唯一的液化天然氣進口終端。

  • This is the gasification process. The LNG is in  minus 160 and must be in positive temperature.

    這就是氣化過程。LNG處於零下160度,必須處於正溫度。

  • So, we had the heat exchangers with seawater, we take the thermal energy from the seawater,

    是以,我們有帶海水的熱交換器,我們從海水中獲取熱能。

  • which is 20 degrees normally, and we need  this thermal energy to gasify the LNG.

    這通常是20度,我們需要這種熱能來氣化液化天然氣。

  • What happens after the regasification  process? Where does the gas go?

    再氣化過程之後會發生什麼?氣體去了哪裡?

  • The gas goes to the grid, in the pressure about  from 50 to 60 Bars, and comes all over Greece,

    燃氣進入電網,壓力約為50至60巴,並在希臘各地使用。

  • and also the countries near Greece, Bulgaria and other European countries

    以及希臘、保加利亞和其他歐洲國家附近的國家"

  • There are two main types of LNG import facilities,

    有兩種主要的液化天然氣進口設施。

  • Fixed terminals and ships called Floating Storage Regasification Units or FSRUs.

    固定碼頭和船舶被稱為浮動存儲再氣化單元或FSRU。

  • Fixed terminals are very costly and take years to build, unlike FSRUs,

    與FSRU不同,固定碼頭的成本非常高,需要數年才能建成。

  • which can be leased for a fixed number of  years and are moored near a pipeline.

    可以租借固定年限,並停泊在管道附近。

  • The downside to the more flexible FSRUs is that  they cannot process large quantities of LNG,

    更靈活的FSRU的缺點是,它們不能處理大量的LNG。

  • unlike the fixed terminals on land.

    與陸地上的固定終端不同。

  • The biggest exporters of LNG are Australia, Qatar and the United States.

    最大的液化天然氣出口國是澳洲、卡達和美國。

  • Since Russia's invasion of Ukraine, the U.S.

    自俄羅斯入侵烏克蘭以來,美國。

  • has stepped up its supply efforts to Europedoubling its LNG exports to the continent.

    已經加強了對歐洲的供應努力,將其對歐洲大陸的液化天然氣出口增加了一倍。

  • The U.S. is set to be the world's  biggest LNG exporter.

    美國將成為世界上最大的液化天然氣出口國。

  • Before the invasion of Ukraine, Europe was  heavily reliant on Russian pipeline gas.

    在入侵烏克蘭之前,歐洲在很大程度上依賴俄羅斯的管道天然氣。

  • As Russian supplies started dwindling,

    隨著俄羅斯的供應開始減少。

  • Europe had to act fast and pivot  away from Russian gas to LNG.

    歐洲必須迅速採取行動,從俄羅斯天然氣轉向液化天然氣。

  • What has it been like here in  the current energy crisis?

    在目前的能源危機中,這裡的情況是怎樣的?

  • How has your regular business activity changed?

    你的常規商業活動有什麼變化?

  • Normally, we receive four  to five vessels per month.

    通常情況下,我們每個月會收到四到五艘船。

  • And now with the crisis, we are  receiving 10 vessels per month.

    而現在隨著危機的發生,我們每個月要收到10艘船。

  • Also, the regasification rate is doublednormally is five to 800 cubic meters per hour 

    同時,再氣化率提高了一倍,通常為每小時5至800立方米。

  • and now we are increasing up to the maximum which is 1,400 cubic meters per hour.

    而現在我們正在增加到最大限度,即每小時1400立方米。

  • The fresh supply of LNG allowed Europe to successfully fill its gas storage sites

    新的液化天然氣供應使歐洲成功地填補了其天然氣儲存點

  • to 95% ahead of the 2022 winter season.

    在2022年冬季到來之前,將達到95%。

  • The influx of LNG to Europe has meant

    湧入歐洲的液化天然氣意味著

  • that storage facilities on the  continent are filled to the brim.

    該大陸的儲存設施已被填滿。

  • It's a happy problem, but it means that Europe is now scrambling for new capacity.

    這是一個令人高興的問題,但這意味著歐洲現在正在爭相尋找新的產能。

  • While Europe's LNG infrastructure capacity is  significant, access is uneven across countries.

    雖然歐洲的液化天然氣基礎設施容量很大,但各國的使用情況並不均衡。

  • France, Spain, Italy and the U.K. all have their own fixed terminals,

    法國、西班牙、意大利和英國都有自己的固定終端。

  • while countries like Germany have noneGermany, Europe's largest gas importer,

    而像德國這樣的國家卻沒有。 德國,歐洲最大的天然氣進口國。

  • was instead reliant on Russian pipeline gas.

    而是依賴俄羅斯的管道天然氣。

  • Without it, Germany and others had to hire  floating terminals to tide through the crisis.

    沒有它,德國和其他國家不得不僱用浮動終端來渡過危機。

  • Plans are afoot to build more than a dozen more  LNG import facilities over the coming years.

    計劃在未來幾年內再建十幾個液化天然氣進口設施。

  • I spoke to Greece's Environment  and Energy Minister Kostas Skrekas.

    我採訪了希臘環境和能源部長Kostas Skrekas。

  • How would you say Europe is  doing in terms of its efforts 

    您認為歐洲在這方面的努力如何?

  • to replace those Russian  pipeline gas flows with LNG?

    用液化天然氣取代那些俄羅斯的管道天然氣流?

  • Europe is trying very hard. Greece is going to be

    歐洲正在非常努力地嘗試。希臘將成為

  • transformed to the main entrance gate, import gate of LNG for the cell system in Europe.

    轉變為主要的入口門,為歐洲的電池系統提供液化天然氣的進口門。

  • But it takes time for those infrastructure projects to be completed.

    但這些基礎設施項目的完成需要時間。

  • Greece currently has one terminal  here on Revithoussa that can receive LNG,

    希臘目前在Revithoussa有一個可以接收液化天然氣的碼頭。

  • temporarily store, regasify and supply it to the country's network of pipelines.

    暫時儲存、重新氣化並供應給國家的管道網絡。

  • A new Floating Storage Unit has recently been added to the

    最近增加了一個新的浮動存儲單元。

  • existing facilities at Revithoussa which will increase its storage capacity by 70%.

    在Revithoussa的現有設施,這將使其儲存能力增加70%。

  • Unlike an FSRU which has regasification capabilities, an FSU can only store the LNG in its liquid form

    與具有再氣化能力的FSRU不同,FSU只能以液體形式儲存LNG。

  • until there's space at the nearby terminal to begin the regasification process.

    直到附近的碼頭有空間開始再氣化過程。

  • Laura Page is the Senior LNG Analyst at Kpler,

    Laura Page是Kpler公司的高級液化天然氣分析師。

  • a data and analytics firm  focused on commodity markets.

    一個專注於商品市場的數據和分析公司。

  • We're seeing a lot of import terminals coming  online over the next couple of months and years

    我們看到在未來幾個月和幾年內有很多進口終端上線。

  • to enable Europe to import more LNGparticularly from the United States.

    以使歐洲能夠進口更多的液化天然氣,尤其是從美國進口。

  • How flexible is this new LNG import  capacity that Europe is investing in?

    歐洲正在投資的這種新的液化天然氣進口能力的靈活性如何?

  • Many of those terminals are being  charted for a period of five years.

    這些終端中的許多都是以五年為期限的圖表。

  • So once a period of five years is overand they can either be rechartered

    是以,一旦五年期結束,他們可以重新獲得特許權

  • for a shorter period of time, or they can float elsewhere and  

    在較短的時間內,或者他們可以漂浮在其他地方,並且

  • go to somewhere else in the world.

    去世界上的其他地方。

  • While all this new capacity in the EU should help ease storage bottlenecks,

    雖然歐盟的所有這些新產能應該有助於緩解存儲瓶頸。

  • supply of LNG is the bigger concern.

    LNG的供應是更大的擔憂。

  • As business activity starts to recover  in parts of Asia, especially China,

    隨著亞洲部分地區,特別是中國的商業活動開始復甦。

  • stiff competition for LNG  could lead to higher prices.

    對液化天然氣的激烈競爭可能導致價格上漲。

  • For now, Europe looks likely to avert a worst-case  scenario this winter with muted demand from Asia

    目前,歐洲看起來有可能在今年冬天避免出現最壞的情況,因為亞洲的需求不大。

  • and a milder than expected start to the seasonHowever, experts are warning against complacency.

    和比預期更溫和的季節開始。 然而,專家們正在警告不要自滿。

  • Maria Rita Galli is the CEO of DESFA, Greece's  natural gas transmission system operator.

    Maria Rita Galli是希臘天然氣傳輸系統運營商DESFA的CEO。

  • How worried are you about Europe's energy  situation, either this winter or next?

    你對歐洲的能源狀況有多擔心,無論是今年冬天還是明年?

  • The situation for this winter is certainly inmuch stable situation because more than 90% of

    今年冬天的情況肯定會更加穩定,因為90%以上的

  • the total storage capacity on Europe has been filled. The difficulty will be for the next summer

    歐洲的總儲存量已被填滿。困難將是在明年夏天

  • to replace the gas that will be  utilized during the winter.

    以取代將在冬季使用的天然氣。

  • So the key question for next year iswhat will the reopening in China mean

    是以,明年的關鍵問題是,中國的重新開放將意味著什麼?

  • for China's LNG demand going forwardAnd will that pull gas away from Europe?

    中國未來的液化天然氣需求? 這是否會將天然氣從歐洲拉走?

  • LNG is also not a long-term solution to Europe's  energy problems, given its green energy ambitions.

    鑑於歐洲的綠色能源雄心,液化天然氣也不是歐洲能源問題的長期解決方案。

  • Prior to Russia's invasion of Ukraine, Germany  aimed to abandon fossil-fueled power by 2035.

    在俄羅斯入侵烏克蘭之前,德國的目標是在2035年前放棄化石燃料發電。

  • For now, LNG is seen as an important fuel to  get Europe through the current energy crisis.

    就目前而言,液化天然氣被視為使歐洲度過當前能源危機的重要燃料。

  • And it doesn't hurt that some of Europe's new permanent LNG infrastructure

    而且,歐洲的一些新的永久性液化天然氣基礎設施並沒有受到影響。

  • can be converted to work with  renewable resources in the future.

    可以在未來轉換為使用可再生資源工作。

  • Over the longer term, we will be moving more  towards a renewable environment and gas

    從長遠來看,我們將更多地朝著可再生環境和天然氣的方向發展。

  • is a great bridging fuel because obviously the  sun doesn't shine and the wind doesn't flow

    是一種很好的銜接燃料,因為很明顯,太陽不會照耀,風也不會流動

  • all of the time. So, gas is a backup  fuel for when those situations arise.

    所有的時間。是以,汽油是在出現這些情況時的一種備用燃料。

  • Do you see the risk that this investment into LNG in Greece and across many countries

    你是否看到在希臘和許多國家投資液化天然氣的風險?

  • in Europe as undermining efforts  to power the green transition?

    破壞了歐洲為綠色轉型提供動力的努力?

  • Nobody is planning infrastructure that is going  finally all projects that are going to end up

    沒有人在規劃基礎設施,最後所有的項目都要結束了。

  • to be stranded assets. The LNG terminals

    成為擱淺的資產。液化天然氣終端

  • could be used in the future for hydrogen maybe.

    未來可能會被用於生產氫氣。

  • We have to plan projects in a very well-balanced manner.

    我們必須以一種非常平衡的方式來規劃項目。

Importing liquid natural gas is  going to be essential for Europe

進口液態天然氣對歐洲來說將是至關重要的

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B1 中級 中文

幫助歐洲躲避能源危機的希臘島嶼 (The Greek island helping Europe dodge an energy crisis)

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    Summer 發佈於 2023 年 01 月 17 日
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