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  • In the last lesson we simplified the torso into two boxes. Now we'll add the forms of

  • the rest of the body to complete the mannequin.

  • Watch "Structure Basics" for an introduction to structure principles.

  • What is Mannequinization?

  • What I think of as mannequinization is constructing the pose from simple 3 dimensional forms that

  • lock together all the way down the body. And when you look at all the parts they form what

  • resembles a person. All these parts, they're all separate, but they all connect to the

  • whole. And what brings them together is the gesture. Each part follows the flow of the

  • gesture.

  • Along that gesture, you'll see a lot of interlocking shapes. So, the end of one will be shaped

  • like the beginning of the next and they fit together like puzzle pieces.

  • Why Mannequinize?

  • Mannequinizing the figure is very hard. Much harder than it seems. But it's an important

  • skill when you want to add depth and volume to your figure drawing. If you just rely on

  • contour/outline to draw the figure, you'll get flat drawings. Constructing the body as

  • forms in perspective will give the drawing a sense of solidity.

  • It's also helpful when you start shading the drawing. Having established the plane

  • changes makes it much easier to imagine the angle of each plane relative to the light

  • source. You'll be able to sense some subtle gradations across forms that could have been

  • missed otherwise.

  • One of the biggest benefits is if you have to invent the figure from your imagination.

  • Starting with simple forms makes the problem much more manageable.

  • Basic Overview

  • When you're drawing the edges of the boxes and cylinders, don't look for the literal

  • lines on the body. They're not there. The edges between planes on a box are hard, so

  • they can be indicated by a line, but on a real person, the planes are soft, everything

  • is rounded off, so you won't see the lines. You must learn how to see an organic, complex

  • form, and simplify it to a basic form or a combination of basic forms.

  • When deciding what form to use for an organic object, you want to simplify it to the form

  • that best describes the character of the object while keeping it simple. There could also

  • be multiple ways of simplifying the same object. In this pose the whole torso could be simplified

  • to a cylinder. Or you could make it a little more complex and add some boxes. Mannequinization

  • is just a tool. You are the artist and you decide how you want to use it.

  • Most people you draw will have similar basic forms, but they do vary depending on the body

  • type. A lean, muscular, or overweight model will change some of the decisions you'll make.

  • Most of the surface forms of the body are muscles. Muscles are soft. They stretch and

  • compress to the position of the bones. So, the exact forms will change from pose to pose.

  • This pose calls for a rounded form in the belly. While this one has the abs stretching,

  • so it would be a flat plane. These decisions are made on the spot as you're constructing

  • your drawing. But you also want to have a generic mannequin in your mind. Typically

  • you'll see something like this:

  • A box for the hip region with the edges slightly rounded off. Making it kind of a combination

  • between a box and a flattened cylinder, depending on the person you're drawing.

  • The ribcage is shaped like an egg, pointier at the top and wider at the bottom. I also

  • like to think of the bottom as a boxier form with the corners at the 10th rib.

  • The waist is cylindrical. Women tend to have a thinner waist. Whereas, men are bulkier

  • on the sides at oblique muscle. But, this area will change greatly with different physics.

  • A box for the shoulder area similar to the robobean

  • Cylinder for the neck

  • A ball for the cranium and boxy shape for the jaw like I went over in the Head Drawing

  • Fundamentals series

  • A cylinder at the upper leg tapering thinner as it goes towards the boxy knee

  • And another tapering cylinder for the lower leg, which is actually widest at the calf

  • about ? of the way up

  • A boxy shape for the foot

  • and all the toes

  • And the upper arm is a cylinder, which does not taper. It generally stays about the same

  • width from top to bottom

  • another boxy or pyramid-like shape for the elbow

  • The forearm is round and cylindrical at the top and transitions to a box for the bony

  • part of the wrist.

  • Another box for the palm part of the hand ending at the knuckles.

  • The fingers are a combination of cylinders and boxes for the knuckles.

  • So, these general forms I just listed are a good starting point, but the body is more

  • complex than that. In order to accurately simplify the body, sometimes you need to be

  • more specific with some of the anatomical nuances of the particular pose you're drawing.

  • So, let's go through the body and look at each part in more detail.

  • Neck and Head

  • The rounded cranial mass is a ball with the side chopped off for the flat temple area.

  • Add a triangular shape for the jaw, paying attention to the angle of front plane and

  • bottom plane. The add a rhythm from the side of the head down to the chin to establish

  • the pane change from side of the jaw to front of the jaw. I also like to put a rhythm in

  • there for the brow ridge and an indication for the bottom of the nose.

  • Simplify the neck into a cylinder. The connection of the neck to the ribcage is diagonal, lower

  • in the front and higher in the back. Also, notice in this pose we can see the bottom

  • plane of the jaw. So make sure to wrap the jaw rhythm up to the chin and back down to

  • the other side.

  • Here's another example with a top view. This one has a more common, triangular shape

  • for the jaw.

  • Here's a back angle of the head and neck. From the back it's helpful to add the connection

  • of the trapezius muscle to the back of the head since it covers much of the cylinder

  • of the neck. This connection is about in line with the eyes.

  • In a neutral position the neck angles forward. It doesn't go straight up.

  • Torso

  • I'll usually use an egg shape or a cylinder for the rib cage. Sometimes I'll make the

  • bottom of the ribcage boxy by showing the side and front plane, just like in the robo

  • bean lesson. To be a bit more specific you could indicate the thoracic arch on the front

  • of the rib cage. Generally men will have a wider arch curving outward and thinner, inward

  • curves on women.

  • From the back, I just use an oval or egg shape for the rib cage, without any corner. Then

  • attach a box for the hips.

  • Sometimes on women, you can combine the ribcage and waist into a cylinder that locks right

  • into a ball shape for the hips. As you can see there's a lot of options for the shapes

  • you use. So, observe the body type and pose and simplify it in the way you think is best.

  • When I'm drawing a male, I will almost always choose to use more boxes. This adds more structure

  • and feels more masculine. Balls and cylinders have rounded edges that show the softer forms

  • of a female.

  • But boxes are also great to use when you're concerned about the perspective of the body.

  • Here's an example where I was drawing the pose imagining I was looking from higher up,

  • looking down. I established the angles to the vanishing point first and that helped

  • to construct the boxes of the torso.

  • Arms

  • Like we did with the robo bean, the shoulders can be simplified to a box. I always look

  • for the top plane to help me construct this box. You will see the top plane of the shoulders

  • if you're looking down at them. Otherwise, you'll see a corner. Here's another example

  • from the back. In this pose we see a very thin piece of the top plane. Attach the cylinder

  • for the upper arm, and in this case the elbow is pointing away from us slightly. Then connect

  • the top plane to the arm with the deltoid. This is basically the side and back plane

  • of the box, which comes to a point on the side of the arm.

  • The elbow is another box which with really help to show this arm coming toward us just

  • a little bit. Find an angle to the wrist. And attach the round part of the forearm.

  • At the wrist, add another box.

  • Make sure to think about the direction of the cross contour curves to show which way

  • the cylinders are pointing.

  • You can also think of the deltoid as a ball, with the cylinder of the arm wedging into

  • it.

  • Legs

  • Similar to the arms, the legs can be simplified to cylinders. Taper the cylinder to be thinner

  • at the knee.

  • Legs don't necessarily have to be attached to the bottom plane of the box. If they are

  • bent forward they will be on the front plane. Someone doing the splits will have them on

  • the side planes. Anything in between will be on a corner. Don't worry about it connecting

  • perfectly to one of the planes..

  • From the back, the orientation of the cylinders will affect the shape of the gluts. The gluts

  • curve with the direction of the cross contour of the leg cylinder. The right leg pulls the

  • glut down and it will curve down with the leg cylinder. On the left side, the leg pushes

  • the glut up and it will curve up just as the cross contour of that cylinder would. This

  • connection is a great place to design your shapes to better explain the forms.

  • Both of his legs are pointing in our direction, so I'll start by indicating the connect

  • of the cylinders. Then find an angle to the knee and indicate the boxy form at the knee

  • with a top, front and side plane.

  • I usually use a box in the joints. The joints are more bony and have more distinct plane

  • changes compared to the meaty areas between the joints. So, the joints are great areas

  • to show the orientation and perspective of the limbs.

  • The connection of the shin to the foot can just be a cylinder, or sometimes I like to

  • use a wrench shape to show the interlocking forms. A narrow cylinder at the ankle and

  • wider round form at the calf.

  • Procedure

  • When you're doing these mannequin sketches, always start by establishing the gesture.

  • Finding the flow, major angles, and checking proportional measurements. Then as a second

  • layer, start adding the 3d forms.

In the last lesson we simplified the torso into two boxes. Now we'll add the forms of

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B1 中級

人體模型--人體的結構。 (Mannequinization - Structure of the Human Body)

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    vulvul 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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