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• In the last lesson we simplified the torso into two boxes. Now we'll add the forms of

• the rest of the body to complete the mannequin.

• Watch "Structure Basics" for an introduction to structure principles.

• What is Mannequinization?

• What I think of as mannequinization is constructing the pose from simple 3 dimensional forms that

• lock together all the way down the body. And when you look at all the parts they form what

• resembles a person. All these parts, they're all separate, but they all connect to the

• whole. And what brings them together is the gesture. Each part follows the flow of the

• gesture.

• Along that gesture, you'll see a lot of interlocking shapes. So, the end of one will be shaped

• like the beginning of the next and they fit together like puzzle pieces.

• Why Mannequinize?

• Mannequinizing the figure is very hard. Much harder than it seems. But it's an important

• skill when you want to add depth and volume to your figure drawing. If you just rely on

• contour/outline to draw the figure, you'll get flat drawings. Constructing the body as

• forms in perspective will give the drawing a sense of solidity.

• It's also helpful when you start shading the drawing. Having established the plane

• changes makes it much easier to imagine the angle of each plane relative to the light

• source. You'll be able to sense some subtle gradations across forms that could have been

• missed otherwise.

• One of the biggest benefits is if you have to invent the figure from your imagination.

• Starting with simple forms makes the problem much more manageable.

• Basic Overview

• When you're drawing the edges of the boxes and cylinders, don't look for the literal

• lines on the body. They're not there. The edges between planes on a box are hard, so

• they can be indicated by a line, but on a real person, the planes are soft, everything

• is rounded off, so you won't see the lines. You must learn how to see an organic, complex

• form, and simplify it to a basic form or a combination of basic forms.

• When deciding what form to use for an organic object, you want to simplify it to the form

• that best describes the character of the object while keeping it simple. There could also

• be multiple ways of simplifying the same object. In this pose the whole torso could be simplified

• to a cylinder. Or you could make it a little more complex and add some boxes. Mannequinization

• is just a tool. You are the artist and you decide how you want to use it.

• Most people you draw will have similar basic forms, but they do vary depending on the body

• type. A lean, muscular, or overweight model will change some of the decisions you'll make.

• Most of the surface forms of the body are muscles. Muscles are soft. They stretch and

• compress to the position of the bones. So, the exact forms will change from pose to pose.

• This pose calls for a rounded form in the belly. While this one has the abs stretching,

• so it would be a flat plane. These decisions are made on the spot as you're constructing

• your drawing. But you also want to have a generic mannequin in your mind. Typically

• you'll see something like this:

• A box for the hip region with the edges slightly rounded off. Making it kind of a combination

• between a box and a flattened cylinder, depending on the person you're drawing.

• The ribcage is shaped like an egg, pointier at the top and wider at the bottom. I also

• like to think of the bottom as a boxier form with the corners at the 10th rib.

• The waist is cylindrical. Women tend to have a thinner waist. Whereas, men are bulkier

• on the sides at oblique muscle. But, this area will change greatly with different physics.

• A box for the shoulder area similar to the robobean

• Cylinder for the neck

• A ball for the cranium and boxy shape for the jaw like I went over in the Head Drawing

• Fundamentals series

• A cylinder at the upper leg tapering thinner as it goes towards the boxy knee

• And another tapering cylinder for the lower leg, which is actually widest at the calf

• about ? of the way up

• A boxy shape for the foot

• and all the toes

• And the upper arm is a cylinder, which does not taper. It generally stays about the same

• width from top to bottom

• another boxy or pyramid-like shape for the elbow

• The forearm is round and cylindrical at the top and transitions to a box for the bony

• part of the wrist.

• Another box for the palm part of the hand ending at the knuckles.

• The fingers are a combination of cylinders and boxes for the knuckles.

• So, these general forms I just listed are a good starting point, but the body is more

• complex than that. In order to accurately simplify the body, sometimes you need to be

• more specific with some of the anatomical nuances of the particular pose you're drawing.

• So, let's go through the body and look at each part in more detail.

• The rounded cranial mass is a ball with the side chopped off for the flat temple area.

• Add a triangular shape for the jaw, paying attention to the angle of front plane and

• bottom plane. The add a rhythm from the side of the head down to the chin to establish

• the pane change from side of the jaw to front of the jaw. I also like to put a rhythm in

• there for the brow ridge and an indication for the bottom of the nose.

• Simplify the neck into a cylinder. The connection of the neck to the ribcage is diagonal, lower

• in the front and higher in the back. Also, notice in this pose we can see the bottom

• plane of the jaw. So make sure to wrap the jaw rhythm up to the chin and back down to

• the other side.

• Here's another example with a top view. This one has a more common, triangular shape

• for the jaw.

• Here's a back angle of the head and neck. From the back it's helpful to add the connection

• of the trapezius muscle to the back of the head since it covers much of the cylinder

• of the neck. This connection is about in line with the eyes.

• In a neutral position the neck angles forward. It doesn't go straight up.

• Torso

• I'll usually use an egg shape or a cylinder for the rib cage. Sometimes I'll make the

• bottom of the ribcage boxy by showing the side and front plane, just like in the robo

• bean lesson. To be a bit more specific you could indicate the thoracic arch on the front

• of the rib cage. Generally men will have a wider arch curving outward and thinner, inward

• curves on women.

• From the back, I just use an oval or egg shape for the rib cage, without any corner. Then

• attach a box for the hips.

• Sometimes on women, you can combine the ribcage and waist into a cylinder that locks right

• into a ball shape for the hips. As you can see there's a lot of options for the shapes

• you use. So, observe the body type and pose and simplify it in the way you think is best.

• When I'm drawing a male, I will almost always choose to use more boxes. This adds more structure

• and feels more masculine. Balls and cylinders have rounded edges that show the softer forms

• of a female.

• But boxes are also great to use when you're concerned about the perspective of the body.

• Here's an example where I was drawing the pose imagining I was looking from higher up,

• looking down. I established the angles to the vanishing point first and that helped

• to construct the boxes of the torso.

• Arms

• Like we did with the robo bean, the shoulders can be simplified to a box. I always look

• for the top plane to help me construct this box. You will see the top plane of the shoulders

• if you're looking down at them. Otherwise, you'll see a corner. Here's another example

• from the back. In this pose we see a very thin piece of the top plane. Attach the cylinder

• for the upper arm, and in this case the elbow is pointing away from us slightly. Then connect

• the top plane to the arm with the deltoid. This is basically the side and back plane

• of the box, which comes to a point on the side of the arm.

• The elbow is another box which with really help to show this arm coming toward us just

• a little bit. Find an angle to the wrist. And attach the round part of the forearm.

• At the wrist, add another box.

• Make sure to think about the direction of the cross contour curves to show which way

• the cylinders are pointing.

• You can also think of the deltoid as a ball, with the cylinder of the arm wedging into

• it.

• Legs

• Similar to the arms, the legs can be simplified to cylinders. Taper the cylinder to be thinner

• at the knee.

• Legs don't necessarily have to be attached to the bottom plane of the box. If they are

• bent forward they will be on the front plane. Someone doing the splits will have them on

• the side planes. Anything in between will be on a corner. Don't worry about it connecting

• perfectly to one of the planes..

• From the back, the orientation of the cylinders will affect the shape of the gluts. The gluts

• curve with the direction of the cross contour of the leg cylinder. The right leg pulls the

• glut down and it will curve down with the leg cylinder. On the left side, the leg pushes

• the glut up and it will curve up just as the cross contour of that cylinder would. This

• connection is a great place to design your shapes to better explain the forms.

• Both of his legs are pointing in our direction, so I'll start by indicating the connect

• of the cylinders. Then find an angle to the knee and indicate the boxy form at the knee

• with a top, front and side plane.

• I usually use a box in the joints. The joints are more bony and have more distinct plane

• changes compared to the meaty areas between the joints. So, the joints are great areas

• to show the orientation and perspective of the limbs.

• The connection of the shin to the foot can just be a cylinder, or sometimes I like to

• use a wrench shape to show the interlocking forms. A narrow cylinder at the ankle and

• wider round form at the calf.

• Procedure

• When you're doing these mannequin sketches, always start by establishing the gesture.

• Finding the flow, major angles, and checking proportional measurements. Then as a second

• layer, start adding the 3d forms.

In the last lesson we simplified the torso into two boxes. Now we'll add the forms of

B1 中級

# 人體模型--人體的結構。 (Mannequinization - Structure of the Human Body)

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vulvul 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日