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  • Thank you so much to the SENS Research Foundation for sponsoring this video

    非常感謝 SENS 研究基金會對本期影片的贊助!

  • I asked Triangle Bob to design what he thinks humans will look like in the year 2200.

    我請三角形鮑勃設計他認為人類在 2200 年會是什麼樣子。

  • He's been at it for like five hours now, so I'm just gonna see what he's done.


  • For the Love of Animator! What the heck is that?


  • Uh I..I mean Wow, Triangle Bob! They look great!

    呃... 我是說,哇,三角形鮑勃,看起來很棒欸!

  • I see it says here that you've also added super mitochondria to make them live longer?


  • Okaywe'll have to explore this further! Cue the intro!


  • Hey there! Welcome to Life Noggin!


  • Turns out Triangle Bob was onto something with his mitochondrial Improvement DLC!


  • super small tweak can have a really huge impact on human evolution.


  • Yeah it's a pretty big dealbut to explain it further we need to travel inside the body.


  • Let's visit your body's power plantshall we?


  • Seat belts everyone! I've always wanted to say that.


  • Oh, wow! Here it is the city of mitotropolis!


  • If there's anything you humans remember from biology class, it's that mitochondria is the PowerHouse of the cell, but what does that really mean?


  • After you digest your food the byproducts make their way into your cellsand eventually into the mitochondria.


  • Here, they are broken down and made into a chemical called Adenosine Triphosphateor ATP.

    在這裡,它們被分解並被製成一種叫做三磷酸腺苷 (ATP) 的化學物質。

  • This is what your cells use to store and transport the energy they need to function.


  • Uh oh! This isn't good! That process created waste products called free radicals!


  • These guys can damage important parts of your cells like mitochondrial DNA.

    這些傢伙會破壞細胞中重要的部分,如線粒體 DNA。

  • I mean, look at the mess they're making!


  • Normally, when we talk about DNA, we mean the DNA in your chromosomes, which are located in the cell's nucleus,

    通常,我們談論 DNA 時,指的是染色體中的 DNA,它位於細胞的細胞核,

  • but mitochondria are really unique in that they have a small amount of their own DNAand I mean a really small amount.

    但線粒體很獨特,因為它們有極少量自己的 DNA。

  • There used to be a whole lot more actually, but as humans evolved the majority of them moved inside the nucleus, where it's a lot safer.

    以前其實有很多,但隨著人類進化,大部分 DNA 移往了細胞核內,那裡要安全得多。

  • Scientists believe that the remaining ones are the most essential to the energy production process.


  • For instance, 13 of these genes create the chemicals needed to make the wonderful ATP.

    比如,其中有 13 個基因產生出了製造奇妙的 ATP 所需的化學物質。

  • We have to protect those guys


  • So here's the issue happening inside you, the beautiful flesh monster watching this video.


  • When mitochondrial DNA is damaged by free radicals, it can delete portions of the genetic code,

    當線粒體 DNA 被自由基破壞,部分遺傳密碼會被刪除,

  • making it impossible to create these chemicals and make energy.


  • But the mutant mitochondria do keep making free radicals, which can cause oxidative stress,


  • leading to diseases like cancer, diabetesand heart disease, as well as aging. Humans disliked that.


  • Now, how do we even fix this?


  • While we can't prevent mitochondrial DNA from getting damaged,

    我們無法防止線粒體 DNA 受損,

  • scientists are finding ways to keep the mitochondria working properly by taking Evolution into their own hands!


  • Like the mitochondrial genes that already migrated to the nucleus on their own,


  • scientists are creating backup copies of the 13 essential genes in the mitochondrial DNA.

    科學家們正在創建線粒體 DNA 中 13 個必要基因的備份副本。

  • They're putting them in the nucleus as well, where they're protected.


  • Don't worry these backups will keep things running smoothly for longer.


  • One group of researchers has already begun working on this and created backup copies of two of the 13 genes, which they're testing in mice!

    有研究人員已經開始著手研究,並為 13 個基因的其中兩個創建了備份副本,也正在老鼠身上進行測試!

  • If this works out we could be seeing dramatic drops in cancer ratesage-related diseases,


  • and yeah, it'll slow down the aging process. Humans like that.


  • To learn more about this cool tech, go check out our sponsor over at the SENS Research Foundation.

    要了解有關這項酷技術的更多信息,請查看我們的讚助商 SENS 研究基金會。

  • They're doing amazing work in this fieldand they definitely should get your support!


  • So has there been anything you learned in school that you really want us to go into more detail about?


  • What would you love more information on?


  • Let me know in the comments section below!


  • Click here to watch this video about glowing bodies or click here to watch this video!


  • Subscribe and click the Bellso you're notified every time we upload a new video.


  • And click the like button because it really helps us out!


  • You can also check out the team at lifespan that powers life Noggin down in the description!

    還可以在描述欄中查看 life Noggin 的團隊!

  • As always, my name is Blocko. This has been Life Noggin. Don't forget to keep on thinking!

    老樣子,我叫 Blocko,你收看的是生活金頭腦,別忘了繼續思考!

Thank you so much to the SENS Research Foundation for sponsoring this video

非常感謝 SENS 研究基金會對本期影片的贊助!

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