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  • Now, since the onset of the war in Ukraine,


  • everyday life in Russia has been marked by repressive controls and new restrictions on public expression.


  • And some people are drawing comparisons with the brutal rule of Joseph Stalin, who came to power in 1924 and whose time in charge saw millions of Russians dying of famine or in prison camps.

    有些人將其與約瑟夫·史達林的殘暴統治相提並論,他在 1924 年上臺,在執政期間有數百萬名俄羅斯人死於饑荒或被關進勞改營。

  • As our Russia editor Steve Rosenberg reports from Saint Petersburg, there are calls for the Russian people to be reminded of the costs of dictatorship.

    我們駐俄羅斯編輯 Steve Rosenburg 在聖彼得堡報導的同時,出現了呼籲俄羅斯人民莫忘獨裁統治代價的聲音。

  • How many in Russia want to remember the darker chapters of their country's history?


  • Very few.


  • Every year, they gather to remember The Great Terror of the 1930s by reading out the names of Joseph Stalin's victims

    他們每年都會聚集在一起,透過朗讀約瑟夫·史達林統治受害者的名字來紀念 1930 年代大恐怖時期。

  • The million he executed; the millions more sent to prison camps.


  • The Gulag has gone, but fear is returning.

    古拉格已經消失,但恐懼又回來了。(譯註:Gulag 為俄羅斯「勞動改造營管理總局」的縮略詞,簡稱「古拉格」,代表蘇聯時期的「強迫勞動系統」)

  • Repression is increasing by the week.


  • Local politician Sergey Troshin tells me,

    當地政治家 Sergey Troshin 跟我說:

  • "You can feel the fear today in Russian society, and we can feel we're being watched and filmed; hardly undercover surveillance."


  • For critics of the authorities, there are consequences.


  • University lecturer Denis Skopin has just been sacked for immoral behavior.

    大學講師 Denis Skopin 剛因「不道德行為」被解僱。

  • (Having) Been arrested for protesting against mobilization for the war in Ukraine, he'd spent 10 days in jail.

    他因為反抗動員前往烏克蘭的戰爭而在監獄裡待了 10 天。

  • But look at the send-off his students gave him on his last day at work.


  • I love my students very much; they understand very well what is happening now in Russia.


  • Denis says that many of his colleaguesacademics and scientistshave fled Russia.

    Denis 說他許多學者、科學家同事都已經逃離俄羅斯。

  • Russia is losing the best people now.


  • The most educated, the most energetic, the most critically-thinking people are leaving the country.


  • Where is Russia heading right now?


  • In short, Russia is going in their own direction.


  • And it feels like the past is still casting a shadow over Russia's present and future.


  • History never repeats itself exactly, but there are worrying parallels between Russia's past and present.


  • Under Joseph Stalin, Soviet citizens who fell foul of the authorities were often labeled "enemies of the people".


  • After invading Ukraine, Vladimir Putin vowed to cleanse Russia of what he called "traitors, scum, and the fifth column".

    入侵烏克蘭後,弗拉迪米爾·普丁發誓要把他所謂的「叛徒、敗類和內奸」掃出俄羅斯。(譯註:fifth column 表示第五縱隊,也就是支持並秘密幫助其國家敵人的人)

  • To help him do that, President Putin has introduced a new patriotic lesson in Russian schools.


  • It's called "Conversations about What's Important".


  • In this conversation, Putin claims that in Ukraine, Russia is fighting to protect Russia.


  • Critics call it "indoctrination".


  • There are children who just believe they open eyes, and they are ready to believe in everything, and that is very dangerous.


  • Because if there's one thing Russian history teaches us, it is this:


  • That if you believe in everything a leader here says and does without question, that can have tragic consequences.


  • Steve Rosenberg, BBC News, Saint Petersburg.

    BBC 新聞記者 Steve Rosenberg 來自聖彼得堡的報導。

Now, since the onset of the war in Ukraine,


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