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  • I don't have a lot of time.

    我沒有太多時間,

  • I prepared 18 minutes of presentation;

    我準備了十八分鐘的演講

  • we are going to do in eight. So get ready.

    但現在必須在八分鐘內說完。 所以,就緒了!

  • First off, I want to talk about danger,

    首先,我要談談危險,

  • and I'm going to need a volunteer.

    而且我需要一位自願者。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Okay, I'm kidding. But... (Laughter)

    好啦!我開玩笑的。但是...

  • Here's the thing.

    是這樣的

  • My wife and I wrote this book,

    我太太跟我寫了這本書-

  • "Fifty Dangerous Things".

    《五十件危險的事物 》

  • And if the slide guy backstage can get my speaker notes up here,

    麻煩後台的幻燈片先生 幫我把演講稿拿過來

  • because there are a couple of numbers that I need to refer to later

    因為裡面有些數字 我等一下會提到

  • and I've already forgotten them.

    而我已經忘光了。

  • We wrote this book, and...

    我們寫了這本書,接著

  • A child psychologist in Australia said

    有位澳洲的兒童心理學家說

  • that the book was actively encouraging children

    這本書積極地鼓勵小孩

  • to participate in activities

    做些可能讓他們受傷、殘廢,甚至死亡的事。

  • that could scar, mame, and kill. (Laughter)

    (螢幕:在澳洲差點被禁止出版)

  • And this is without ever having seeing the book

    這是因為他們從來沒看過這本書

  • never read it

    從來沒讀過

  • he completely missed the point

    而且他完全搞錯了重點

  • that the book is actually about safety.

    這本書實際上是關於安全的。

  • So, (Laughter)

    所以,

  • let's look at topic number one

    讓我們來看看這本書裡

  • in this book of scar, maming, and killing.

    會讓你受傷、殘廢,甚至死亡的第一點。

  • Take something like: (Laughter)

    像是:「舔顆9伏特的電池」。(笑聲)

  • "Lick a 9V battery".

    來!曾舔過9伏特電池的人請舉手!

  • Now, raise your hand

    (笑聲)

  • if you have licked a 9V battery.

    OK,很棒的觀眾群!

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Okay, this is a good crowd.

    今天晚上會去舔電池的舉手。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Okay, raise your hands if you are going to lick one tonight.

    我們選這個做為書裡第一個主題

  • (Laughter)

    因為我們認為 大家都可能幹過這件事。

  • We chose this as the first topic in the book,

    錯了!

  • because we thought that everybody would have done it.

    結果是

  • Wrong!

    舔電池是危險的這觀念

  • It turns out

    包括像是:

  • that ideas about the risk of licking a 9V battery

    被電死(笑聲)

  • include things like:

    舌頭燒焦(笑聲)

  • death by electrocution, (Laughter)

    永久失去味覺。

  • burn your tongue off, (Laughter)

    而真正的危險是:

  • permanent loss of sense of taste.

    它完全沒有危險性。

  • And the actual risk:

    根據追蹤這類家庭意外的 疾病控制中心說,

  • it's harmless.

    他們連一件因為舔顆9伏特電池

  • According to the Centers for Disease Control,

    而受傷的案件記錄都沒有。

  • who track these kinds of household accidents,

    那麼這些虛構的

  • there has never been not one single recorded incident

    錯誤認知又是從哪裡來的?

  • of anyone being injured by licking a 9V battery.

    我想應該不難看出

  • So where did these kinds of

    現今它們是從哪裡來的...

  • mythic false perceptions come from?

    (笑聲)

  • And I think it's pretty easy

    我不用告訴你

  • to see where they come from these days.

    媒體有多喜歡報導這些

  • (Laughter)

    小孩處於危險中的故事。

  • I don't have to tell you

    在哈薩克斯坦的人們

  • how much the media loves the story

    在當地時間的凌晨三點 看著這些事故發生

  • about a child in peril.

    有沒有人想過

  • People in Kazakhstan

    現今社會中的孩子們 是否被過度保護著?

  • were watching this story unfold

    這種孩子們在威脅或危險中 的故事到處氾濫,

  • at 3AM their time.

    造成一種錯覺

  • Is it any wonder

    讓人誤以為孩子們真的是在危險中。

  • that children in our society are over-protected?

    而我們對危險的認知,

  • This kind of inundation of stories

    多是道聽途說

  • about children in peril and danger

    以及新聞媒體的虛構,真的!

  • creates the illusion

    而不是理性的分析。

  • that children are actually in danger.

    說到這個,

  • And our perceptions of risk

    這是給你的,Eryn,

  • are based more on hearsay

    我杜撰了一個新名詞:

  • a news media confabulation, really

    「危險主義」。

  • than any rational analysis.

    請記住這個名詞。

  • And to talk about this

    這是由「肉食主義」這個名詞延伸而來 出自於梅樂妮.喬伊的書-

  • and this is for you, Eryn

    《為什麼我們吃豬、騎馬、且養狗》

  • I've coined a new term.

    書名好像有點搞錯! 不好意思,梅樂妮

  • Dangerism.

    但事實上是

  • I want you to remember this term.

    我們的家族歷史、文化背景、

  • This is based on the word carnism, which was coined by Melanie Joy

    以及我們童年時的個人經驗等

  • in her book, "Why We Eat Pigs, Ride Horses and... Pet Dogs".

    比實際能測量的風險, 和我們對危險認知更有關係。

  • I've screwed that up. Sorry, Melanie.

    例如我們對食用哪些動物的恐懼與選擇,

  • But it turns out

    可能並沒有理性的根據基礎,

  • that our family histories and our cultural context,

    而這已經到了某種程度是

  • and our personal experiences in childhood and so forth

    我們的恐懼是如此地 遭到媒體曝光的渲染

  • have more to do with how we perceive danger

    以致於家長最擔心的 前五大項兒童安全憂慮

  • than the actual measurable risks involved.

    而且你們會發現忍者 根本也不在此列

  • And like our phobias and our choices

    (笑聲)

  • about which animals to eat,

    跟真正致死美國小孩的

  • there may be no rational basis for this,

    前五大項原因完全不同。

  • and this has gotten to the point

    很罪惡的是

  • where our fears are so tainted

    數千個小時我們花在 跟孩子們談這些異常危險,

  • by this exposure to the media,

    能更有意義地用在

  • that the top five things parents are worried about

    鼓勵他們走出戶外,

  • in regards to their children

    與家人互動、教他們游泳。

  • and you'll notice ninjas aren't on here

    這些都不是扣人心懸的頭條新聞。

  • (Laughter)

    因此,為了要對抗這些大量的杞人憂天

  • do not overlap at all

    並武裝你的孩子們更能應付

  • with the five things that children in America

    現實世界的真實風險。

  • are actually dying of.

    我呈現給各位

  • And what is so criminal about this

    「五件更危險且該讓孩子們做的事」。

  • is that the thousands of hours we spend talking to children

    我們可以打擊這些猖狂的恐懼散佈,

  • about stranger danger

    藉由刻意製造機會 讓孩子們去學習、認識、並減輕風險。

  • would be so much better spent

    列舉如下:

  • encouraging them to get outside,

    第一:走路上學。

  • doing family interventions,

    車禍 -

  • teaching them how to swim.

    是美國孩童的第一死因。

  • None of these things make for glamorous news stories.

    你只要減低在車上的時間, 便可大幅度地降低這風險。

  • So to combat this avalanche of unfounded fears

    現今這國家裡,家長們的頭號恐懼是綁架。

  • and equip children to better handle

    被非家族成員綁架

  • the real risks of the real world,

    甚至不在兒童傷害事件的前五千名之內,

  • I present for you:

    但是研究顯示走路上學的孩童

  • "Five More Dangerous Things you should let your children do."

    較能判斷他人的人格,

  • We can counter this rampant fear-mongering

    有較好的狀態認知能力,

  • by deliberately creating opportunities for children

    因此成為受害者的可能性較低。

  • to learn to recognize and mitigate risk.

    並且,走路上學的習慣 可以終身受益,

  • And here they come.

    增進記憶力、持續的運動習慣、

  • Number one: walk to school.

    獨立及長期的身心健康。

  • Car accidents

    第二:爬樹。

  • are the number one cause of death for children in the United States.

    當孩子們參與自然的遊戲架構,

  • And you can reduce that risk greatly

    他們表現出更多的認知性參與,

  • simply by reducing the amount of time spent in cars.

    這是一個德國做的經典研究,

  • The number one fear of parents in this country

    (他們)對活動付出較多的注意力。

  • is kidnapping.

    與叢林健身房不一樣的是

  • Kidnapping by a non family member

    爬樹迫使你及時想出如何走下一步,

  • doesn't even make the top five thousand things

    樹的每一處都不同

  • that harm children,

    且呈現出一系列獨特的挑戰。

  • but study showed that children who walk to school

    孩童也必須承擔、並展現 他們對自己的責任感

  • are better judges of character,

    在他們往上爬 並漸漸遠離父母時能有所展現。

  • have better situational awareness,

    還有,站在樹頂能 令你感受到一種特殊的自由。

  • and so are therefore less likely to be victimized.

    第三:利用放大鏡燒東西。

  • And the habit of walking pays dividents over a lifetime:

    (笑聲)

  • improved memory, consistent exercise habits,

    孩子們很早就知道太陽是 地球上絕大部份生物的能量來源

  • independence, and a long-lasting sense of well-being.

    我們初中就知道了。 但在有機會去利用或導引它前,

  • Number two: climb trees.

    他們很難理解陽光內 到底含有多少能量。

  • When children engage with natural play structures,

    而它也是個良好的自我學習法

  • they exhibit greater cognitive engagement

    讓他們探索和發現什麼可燃,什麼不可燃。

  • this is a classic study out of Germany

    如果,你擔心會引起火災,

  • more attention is paid to the activity.

    就給他們一瓶水吧!

  • And unlike a jungle gym,

    折射比反射更難被直接察覺,

  • the tree requires you to figure out

    而且玩玩透鏡,

  • how to climb each moment of it.

    能幫助孩子整合這些概念。

  • Each spot in a tree is unique

    第四:在袋子裡做個炸彈。

  • and presents a unique set of challenges.

    (笑聲)

  • The child must also take and demonstrate

    我們是由化學化合物組成的

  • responsibility for themselves

    被化學化合物包圍著

  • as they ascend up there,

    而且消耗著化學化合物

  • out of reach of their parents.

    但是我們不常有機會試試化學作用

  • And there's this unique sense of freedom

    就只是為了探索而做

  • that comes from being up in the top of a tree.

    一個可以讓我們實驗的簡易化學反應

  • Number three: burn things with a magnifying glass.

    能提供我們對天地間事物的本質 一個較深的概念基礎

  • (Laughter)

    家庭化學實驗包現已消失

  • Children learn early

    而且學校現在禁止做小蘇打醋火山實驗

  • that the sun is the source of power

    所以你必須為孩子在家裡製造這些機會。

  • for almost all life on Earth.

    做些小小的爆炸

  • We get that in grammar school.

    是個讓孩子們學習化學概念的好方法,

  • But until they have a chance to harness and direct it,

    而且攪亂比例 也是體驗科學原理的好方式。

  • it's really difficult to build an intuitive sense

    最後一點,但也很重要的

  • of just how much power there is in sunlight.

    第五:用強力膠黏住你的手指

  • It's also a great self-directed way

    (笑聲)

  • for them new explore

    一個暫時性的殘障

  • discover what burns and what doesn't —

    可以幫助我們更珍惜 我們的身體狀況

  • and if you're worried about fire,

    需求是發明之母

  • give them a water bottle.

    而必須想出如何 不用大拇指打開一瓶花生醬

  • Refraction is less intuitive than reflection,

    強迫我們必須發揮創意。

  • and playing with the lens

    做超過一小時,

  • helps children integrate that concept.

    你的大腦便能建立 一個新的肌能動覺圖

  • Number four: make a bomb in a bag.

    幫助你適應這種不便。

  • (Laughter)

    然後當強力膠掉了之後,

  • We are composed of chemical compounds,

    會有個瞬間

  • surrounded by chemical compounds,

    平凡的能力這時對孩子來說 似乎也變得不平凡了。

  • and consuming chemical compounds.

    保護兒童最有效的辦法就是

  • But we don't often have the chance to play with chemistry

    讓他們嚐一點危險的味道。

  • just for the sake of exploration.

    謝謝大家!

  • A simple chemical reaction

    (掌聲)

  • that we can experiment with

  • provides the conceptual foundation

  • for deeper understanding

  • of the elemental nature of our world.

  • Home chemistry sets have all but disappeared,

  • and schools right now are banning

  • the baking soda vinegar volcano,

  • so you have to create this opportunity for your children at home.

  • Making a small explosion

  • is a great way

  • for kids to get a handle on the concepts of chemistry,

  • and messing with the proportions is a great way

  • to experience the scientific method.

  • And last but not least,

  • number five: super-glue your fingers together.

  • (Laughter)

  • A temporary disability

  • can help us better appreciate

  • our physical condition.

  • Necessity is the mother of invention,

  • and having to figure out

  • how to open a jar of peanut butter

  • without your thumb (Laughter)

  • forces us to be creative.

  • Done for an hour or more,

  • your brain actually

  • builds a new kinesthetic map of your abilities

  • to accommodate this limitation.

  • And when the glue comes off,

  • there will be this moment

  • where their usual abilities seem unusual to the child.

  • The most effective way to keep children safe

  • is to give them a little taste of danger.

  • Thank you so much. (Applause)

  • (Applause)

I don't have a lot of time.

我沒有太多時間,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 危險 笑聲 化學 電池 孩子 孩子們

【TEDx】五件你必須讓你孩子做的危險事! 5 Dangerous Things You Should Let Your Children Do: Gever Tulley at TEDxMidwest (5 Dangerous Things You Should Let Your Children Do: Gever Tulley at TEDxMidwest)

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    Ashley Chen 發佈於 2014 年 09 月 18 日
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