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  • Every year, millions of people around the country spill into streets,


  • dressed as fairies, goblins, characters from their favorite movie franchise, and everything in between, partying and making mischief.


  • But outside of a good time, how many know why they do it?


  • Today, Halloween is a billion-dollar industry.

    萬聖夜在今日是個價值 10 億美元的產業。

  • But exactly how did it get there?


  • [Haunting History: Halloween]


  • While today Halloween is synonymous with commercialism, it wasn't always that way.


  • The word "Halloween" comes from the words "hallow", meaning holy person, and "een", deriving as a contraction of eve.

    Halloween 這個字源自於表示「聖潔之人」的 hallow 以及由 eve 縮略而來的 een。

  • And All Hallows' Eve finds its origins all the way back in the time of the ancient Celtic pagans with the holiday of Samhain, a three-day fire festival that essentially celebrated death and rebirth.


  • The Celts, who lived in what is now Ireland, Scotland, the UK, and parts of Northern Europe, based their calendar on the wheel of a year,


  • essentially divided into two halves: the light and the dark.


  • When one gave way to the other, this transition was marked by a fire festival.


  • The word "Samhain" translates into modern Irish to "summer's end".

    Samhain 這個詞翻譯成現代愛爾蘭語就是「夏天結束」。

  • Samhain celebrated the dead, and particularly, the celebratory feast paid homage to loved ones who had passed away recently.


  • Essentially as an invitation for their spirits to rejoin the living.


  • Many of Samhain's original rituals have been lost,


  • but what we do know of their holiday traditions from Celtic folklore and ancient Roman historians is that they were intended to connect them to spirits,


  • including costumesmost likely animal art first to help them hide from the unfriendly onesfeasting, and making lanterns from hollowed-out gourds,


  • seemingly the birth of the modern pumpkin Jack-o'-lantern.


  • Sacrifices generally of crops or animals were made during this time as an offering to the spirits.


  • It was popular for tricks or pranks to be played by humans and blamed on mischievous spirits.


  • As a result of the Roman invasion, with most of the Celtic land being conquered by Rome in 43 CE,

    羅馬人入侵後,隨著大部分凱爾特人土地在西元 43 年被佔據的結果,

  • the spread of Christianity and Catholicism would force pagan Celtic traditions to evolve or be completely repressed.


  • In part, many Celtic traditions and popular pagan practices were reframed to fit within a Christian narrative as a way of converting people with greater comfort and ease.


  • Samhain would evolve into All Saints Day, which is also referred to as All Hallows Day, and was intended to be a day to celebrate the Christian saints and martyrs.


  • Essentially, instead of honoring pagan gods and mischievous spirits, they now celebrated Christian figures.


  • While the sacrifices were replaced by food offerings to the poor, the tricks and pranks continued.


  • But instead, they were now attributed to the spirits of the saints.


  • Halloween evolved as a more secular version of All Hallows' Eve,


  • and eventually, it would become more popular and common practice than All Saints Day.


  • While Halloween has its origins in the British Isles, there's a great disparity in its popularity in former British colonies.


  • The Puritans who came to colonize America were Protestant and did not celebrate holidays of the Catholic church, as they were believed to lead to idolatry.


  • In the early days of the American colonies, celebrations of Halloweens were mostly forbidden as they were deemed "too pagan" or "too Catholic" by the Protestant colonizers.


  • Though elements of it began to incorporate into secular harvest-related events in the 1800s.

    不過其中的元素在 19 世紀時開始融入與世俗收穫有關的活動。

  • The mid 19th century saw a large influx of immigrants entering the country, especially Irish immigrants who were greatly impacted by the potato famine.

    19 世紀中期有大量移民湧入該國,尤其是嚴重受到馬鈴薯饑荒影響的愛爾蘭移民。

  • With these people came Halloween customs out of which one of America's favorite holidays was formed.


  • In keeping with the mischief, children would dress in costumes and be given money or fruit for artistic offerings like poetry, songs, or even jokes instead of prayers.


  • By the late 19th century, children were playing seemingly innocuous pranks on their small local communities.

    到了 19 世紀末,孩子們會在他們的小型地方社區做出一些看似無害的惡作劇。

  • Adults would soon find incentive to dissuade children from playing pranks.


  • Enter trick-or-treating.


  • The 20th century would finally see the commercialization of Halloween.

    20 世紀終將見證萬聖夜的商業化。

  • By the 1920s and '30s, Halloween merchandise evolved to pre-made costumes for both children and adults.

    到了 1920 和 30 年代,萬聖夜商品演變為兒童和成人的預製服裝。

  • After World War Two in the 1950s, the economic boom had candy manufacturers getting on the Halloween bandwagon.

    二次世界大戰後的 1950 年代,經濟繁榮使的糖果製造商加入萬聖夜的行列。

  • Movies and TV are also largely responsible for the proliferation of Halloween as a mass-market holiday.


  • Cinemas in the '50s offered scary movie festivals.

    50 年代的電影院提供可怕的電影節。

  • And in the '60s, the new television industry began running Halloween specials during Halloween season.

    而在 60 年代,新興電視產業開始在萬聖節期間播送萬聖節特別節目。

  • By 2015, the National Retail Federation predicted spending on Halloween could reach $6.9 billion.

    到了 2015 年,全國零售聯合會預測萬聖節的支出可能達到 69 億美元。

  • Whether you believe that we've lost the meaning or not, Halloween has since evolved far beyond the days of pagan fire festivals.


  • For more than a month out of the year, costume stores show up out of nowhere,


  • candy corn and Halloween-themed candies dominate whole aisles of grocery stores, and spooky shows and movies build out entire TV station schedules.


  • Whether you like it or not, whether you want to dress up as a gruesome goblin or a sexy cat, or ignore the holiday altogether,


  • Halloween has stood the test of time and proven itself as a holiday that's here to stay.


Every year, millions of people around the country spill into streets,


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