Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

由 AI 自動生成
  • (blade slides)

    (刀片式幻燈片)

  • (paper and plastic crinkle)

    (紙和塑膠的皺紋)

  • (upbeat music)

    (歡快的音樂)

  • - [Woman] So Matt, why do you have a piece

    - 那麼,馬特,你為什麼有一塊

  • of uranium ore in the studio?

    工作室裡的鈾礦石?

  • - Well, because it's cool.

    - 嗯,因為它很酷。

  • It's also a little freaky,

    這也是一個小怪胎。

  • and because it was left off of a very important list

    而且因為它被排除在一個非常重要的名單之外

  • that made the news.

    這成為了新聞。

  • - Today, I'm announcing we're banning all imports

    - 今天,我宣佈我們將禁止所有的進口產品

  • of Russian oil and gas and energy.

    俄羅斯的石油和天然氣及能源。

  • - It turns out the Russian Ukraine war is exposing a problem

    - 事實證明,俄羅斯的烏克蘭戰爭正暴露出一個問題

  • that doesn't get that much coverage,

    這並沒有得到那麼多的報道。

  • the nuclear fuel supply chain,

    核燃料供應鏈。

  • and that could have major impacts

    而這可能會產生重大影響

  • on the future of nuclear power in the United States.

    關於美國核電的未來。

  • (counter clicks)

    (計數器的點擊聲)

  • (upbeat music)

    (歡快的音樂)

  • In response to the invasion of Ukraine,

    作為對入侵烏克蘭的迴應。

  • the U.S. and other countries have placed sanctions on Russia

    美國和其他國家對俄羅斯進行了制裁

  • including energy resources like oil and gas,

    包括石油和天然氣等能源資源。

  • but not uranium.

    但不是鈾。

  • - Russia is a huge player on the global stage

    - 俄羅斯是全球舞臺上的一個巨大角色

  • when it comes to nuclear energy

    當涉及到核能的時候

  • and particularly when it comes to the uranium supply chain.

    特別是當涉及到鈾礦供應鏈時。

  • - Justine Calma is a science reporter at "The Verge"

    - 賈斯汀-卡爾馬是 "The Verge "的一名科學記者

  • who wrote a story about why it's so hard for the U.S.

    他寫了一篇關於美國為什麼這麼難的故事。

  • to quit Russian uranium.

    以退出俄羅斯的鈾礦。

  • - The U.S. can pretty easily turn its back

    - 美國可以很容易地轉身離開

  • on Russian oil and gas and has,

    對俄羅斯的石油和天然氣,並已。

  • and has not been able to pull the trigger on uranium,

    並一直未能扣動鈾的扳機。

  • because we rely on Russia for a significant chunk

    因為我們在很大程度上依賴俄羅斯。

  • of our uranium.

    我們的鈾的。

  • (soothing music)

    (舒緩的音樂)

  • - Uranium is a common nuclear fuel, because its isotope,

    - 鈾是一種常見的核燃料,因為其同位素。

  • U-235, is easily split during fission,

    鈾235,在裂變過程中容易分裂。

  • releasing tons of energy.

    釋放出成噸的能量。

  • Nuclear power is highly contested,

    核電是有很大爭議的。

  • but it still makes up about half

    但它仍然佔了大約一半

  • of our carbon-free electricity in the U.S.

    我們在美國的無碳電力。

  • Right now, the Biden administration is investing heavily

    眼下,拜登政府正在大力投資

  • in nuclear energy to meet the U.S.' climate goals,

    為實現美國的氣候目標,在核能源方面的投資。

  • which is why we're talking about uranium.

    這就是為什麼我們要討論鈾的問題。

  • So when we talk about nuclear power,

    是以,當我們談及核電時。

  • it all kind of starts with this, uranium ore,

    這一切都從這個開始,鈾礦石。

  • which is radioactive.

    這是有放射性的。

  • That's why we're wearing gloves.

    這就是為什麼我們要戴著手套。

  • We did speak to professionals about how to properly

    我們確實與專業人士討論瞭如何正確

  • handle this stuff, (counter clicks)

    處理這個東西,(反擊)。

  • so we're taking all the necessary precautions,

    所以我們正在採取所有必要的預防措施。

  • but you know, don't try this at home.

    但你知道,不要在家裡嘗試這個。

  • (upbeat music)

    (歡快的音樂)

  • Most uranium ore is like this sample.

    大多數鈾礦石就像這個樣本。

  • It's overwhelmingly not uranium.

    絕大多數情況下不是鈾。

  • Low grade uranium ore only has about 0.1% of uranium in it.

    低品位鈾礦石中只有約0.1%的鈾。

  • The rest of this ore is just regular rock

    這些礦石的其餘部分只是普通的岩石

  • plus some elements like lead, thorium, and bismuth

    加上一些元素,如鉛、釷和鉍

  • that the uranium is slowly decaying into.

    鈾正在慢慢衰變成。

  • It's actually those daughter products

    實際上是那些女兒的產品

  • that are tripping our Geiger counter.

    在我們的蓋革計數器上跳動的。

  • We need a much (counter clicks)

    我們需要一個多(反點擊率)

  • more sensitive device to sniff out the uranium.

    更敏感的設備來嗅出鈾。

  • Somewhere in this sample (dramatic music)

    在這個樣本的某個地方(戲劇性的音樂)。

  • is a very small amount of this,

    是一個非常小的數量。

  • a mineral that's rich in uranium called uraninite,

    一種富含鈾的礦物,叫做鈾礦。

  • which is for lack of a better expression

    這是在沒有更好的表達方式的情況下

  • just a lot of uranium packed in very tightly.

    只是大量的鈾被緊緊地擠在一起。

  • This stuff is one of many minerals that has uranium in them,

    這東西是許多含有鈾的礦物之一。

  • and even that small bit of uranium tucked inside

    甚至是藏在裡面的那一小點鈾。

  • tons of useless rock, most of that is the wrong isotope

    數噸的無用岩石,其中大部分是錯誤的同位素

  • for uranium fuel.

    為鈾燃料。

  • - Naturally occurring uranium,

    - 自然界中的鈾。

  • like the stuff that you dig out of the ground,

    像你從地下挖出來的東西。

  • has very low levels of U-235.

    鈾235的含量非常低。

  • - The point is we need a lot of uranium ore

    - 關鍵是我們需要大量的鈾礦石

  • to produce a relatively tiny amount of fuel,

    來生產相對少量的燃料。

  • and it takes a lot of work to make that happen.

    而要實現這一點需要大量的工作。

  • (soothing music)

    (舒緩的音樂)

  • To be useful as nuclear fuel, uranium has to go

    為了成為有用的核燃料,鈾必須去

  • through a conversion and enrichment process,

    通過轉換和充實過程。

  • which basically means taking a bunch of U-235

    這基本上意味著採取了大量的鈾235

  • and packing it in really tight.

    並把它包裝得非常緊。

  • - So uranium needs to be mined,

    - 所以鈾需要被開採。

  • it needs to be turned into yellow cake,

    它需要變成黃色的蛋糕。

  • that yellow cake needs to be converted into a gas,

    那塊黃餅需要被轉化為一種氣體。

  • that gas needs to be enriched,

    該氣體需要被富集。

  • so it has higher concentrations of U-235,

    所以它的鈾235的濃度更高。

  • and then that enriched uranium needs to be fabricated

    然後需要製造出濃縮鈾。

  • into a fuel rod.

    進入燃料棒。

  • Now that doesn't all happen in like one smooth go (laughs).

    現在這一切並不是一帆風順地發生的(笑)。

  • - This is an extremely laborious process,

    - 這是一個極其費力的過程。

  • and it's contracted out to different companies,

    而且它被承包給不同的公司。

  • and only a handful of countries are really up

    只有少數幾個國家真正做到了這一點。

  • to doing this like France, Russia, and China.

    像法國、俄羅斯和中國那樣做這件事。

  • - There are security concerns

    - 存在安全問題

  • along that entire supply chain,

    沿著整個供應鏈。

  • because when you enrich uranium,

    因為當你濃縮鈾的時候

  • it can be enriched for nuclear energy.

    它可以被濃縮為核能。

  • It can also be enriched (bomb explodes)

    它也可以被濃縮(炸彈爆炸)。

  • for nuclear weapons.

    為核武器。

  • It's been sort of a saturated market as well,

    這也已經是一個飽和的市場了。

  • but demand is starting to grow.

    但需求正在開始增長。

  • - Some governments are now reprioritizing nuclear power

    - 一些政府現在正在重新確定核電的優先次序

  • as an alternative to fossil fuel,

    作為化石燃料的替代品。

  • so the supply chain is back in the spotlight,

    是以,供應鏈重新成為關注的焦點。

  • which brings us back to Russia.

    這使我們回到了俄羅斯。

  • The Russia Ukraine War has amplified ongoing tensions

    俄羅斯烏克蘭戰爭放大了當前的緊張局勢

  • between the U.S. and Russia,

    美國和俄羅斯之間的關係。

  • and it's exposed the vulnerabilities

    並暴露出漏洞

  • of the nuclear supply chain.

    的核供應鏈。

  • One potential answer to that problem?

    這個問題的一個潛在答案?

  • A strategic uranium reserve.

    一個戰略鈾儲備。

  • (dramatic music)

    (戲劇性的音樂)

  • - This is basically a stockpile of uranium

    - 這基本上是一個鈾的儲存。

  • to fuel our power plants, you know, in case of emergency.

    為我們的發電廠提供燃料,你知道,在緊急情況下。

  • Say this war drags on, as it has dragged on,

    說這場戰爭拖下去了,因為它已經拖下去了。

  • maybe we can pull from our strategic uranium reserve.

    也許我們可以從我們的戰略鈾儲備中提取。

  • - The war also jeopardizes the build out

    - 這場戰爭還危及到了建設

  • of next generation nuclear reactors.

    的下一代核反應堆。

  • Most plants today run off of a fuel

    今天,大多數工廠都是以燃料為基礎運行的

  • that's enriched to 5% of U-235,

    濃縮到5%的鈾235。

  • but newer reactors in development need to bump that up

    但正在開發的新反應堆需要提高這一數值

  • to as much as 20%.

    到20%之多。

  • - Having that higher concentration of U-235 makes

    - 擁有較高濃度的鈾235使

  • for more efficient fuel basically,

    為更有效的燃料基本上。

  • and that allows for reactors that can be built

    並允許可以建造的反應堆

  • to be much smaller than today's ginormous nuclear reactors.

    要比今天巨大的核反應堆小得多。

  • And when you shrink the size, you also shrink the costs,

    而當你縮小規模時,你也會縮小成本。

  • and costs has been one of the biggest roadblocks

    和成本一直是最大的障礙之一。

  • for more nuclear energy.

    爭取更多的核能源。

  • - Right now, the only country that can commercially

    - 現在,唯一能夠在商業上

  • make this NextGen fuel is you guessed it, Russia.

    製造這種NextGen燃料的是你猜對了,是俄羅斯。

  • The U.S. is working on its own production facility

    美國正致力於建立自己的生產設施

  • to make NextGen fuel, but it's still gonna take years

    來製造下一代燃料,但仍需多年時間。

  • to really move the needle on American uranium independence.

    以真正推動美國鈾的獨立。

  • (soothing music)

    (舒緩的音樂)

  • So if we're going through all this trouble to stockpile

    是以,如果我們費盡心思去囤積

  • and enrich uranium, some argue that the U.S. might

    和濃縮鈾,一些人認為,美國可能會

  • as well start mining it again too,

    還不如重新開始採礦。

  • which doesn't have the best track record.

    這並沒有最好的記錄。

  • From the 1940s to the 1980s,

    從1940年代到1980年代。

  • mining companies dug up lots of uranium ore

    礦業公司挖出大量鈾礦石

  • in the Western U.S., and decades later,

    在美國西部,以及幾十年後。

  • the EPA is still trying to clean up the mess

    環保局仍在努力清理這個爛攤子

  • that was left behind.

    這是被留下的。

  • Many indigenous tribes object to the return of mining

    許多土著部落反對恢復採礦業

  • on or near their lands, which are still littered

    在他們的土地上或附近,仍然有很多人在那裡工作。

  • with toxic waste.

    與有毒廢物。

  • - If you turn to the Navajo Nation,

    - 如果你轉向納瓦霍民族。

  • hundreds of uranium mines left over on Navajo lands

    納瓦霍人土地上遺留的數百個鈾礦區

  • that have been linked to cancer

    已與癌症有關的

  • and other horrible health outcomes,

    和其他可怕的健康結果。

  • because of uranium contamination of water

    因為水受到鈾的汙染

  • and other problems with the legacy of those mines.

    以及這些礦區遺留的其他問題。

  • - Nuclear powers issues don't end at mining.

    - 核大國問題並沒有在採礦方面結束。

  • There's the issue of storing (upbeat music)

    有一個存儲的問題(歡快的音樂)。

  • radioactive waste and the threat of meltdowns,

    放射性廢物和熔燬的威脅。

  • so there's a lot at stake here.

    是以,這裡有很多利害關係。

  • The Biden administration recently set a goal

    拜登政府最近制定了一個目標

  • of reaching 100% carbon free energy by 2035,

    到2035年達到100%無碳能源的目標。

  • and Biden wants nuclear power to be part of that puzzle,

    而拜登希望核電能成為這一難題的一部分。

  • so the debate around it may only intensify.

    所以圍繞它的辯論可能只會加劇。

  • - There's no question that climate change really is a crisis

    - 毋庸置疑,氣候變化確實是一場危機

  • that the world has to face,

    世界必須面對的問題。

  • and some of the biggest fights now are gonna be

    而現在一些最大的戰鬥將是

  • how are we gonna meet that crisis?

    我們要如何應對這一危機?