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  • It was the last Friday of the school year, and I had been actually subbing for a teacher for 3 days.


  • It just seemed like a nice day.


  • On May 18th, 2018, a gunman entered a high school in Santa Fe, Texas and opened fire.

    在 2018 年 5 月 18 日,一名槍手進入德克薩斯州聖達菲的一所高中並開火。

  • I look down and I realize in my pants⏤I had bloody holes in my pants and I realized: I'm shot.


  • The gunman killed ten people.


  • Flo Rice was shot six times.

    Flo Rice 中了六槍。

  • And then, finally, Scot managed to, um, he managed to find me.

    接著,Scot 終於成功地找到了我。

  • For four years, Flo and Scot have told their story over and over to push for new laws that could prevent mass shootings.

    四年來,Flo 和 Scot 一遍又一遍地講述他們的故事,期望推動可以防止大規模槍擊事件的新法規。

  • It's made them part of a recurring conversation on guns in the US and a cycle the country has seemed stuck in for decades:


  • a mass shooting, a push for reform, and then, no action.


  • - ... the tragic school shooting in Santa Fe, Texas... - ...this time in El Paso...

    - ……德克薩斯州聖達菲的校園槍擊慘案…… - ……這次在埃爾帕索……

  • - ...nine people killed in Dayton... - many years do we have to go through this?

    - ……九個人在代頓被殺…… - ……我們還要重蹈覆徹多少年?

  • - ...Congress is paralyzed... - ...we collectively seem to ask the same question:

    - ……國會癱瘓了…… - ……我們似乎都在問同一個問題:

  • What does it take to pass some gun reform in this country?


  • But here's the thing, this cycle of inaction on gun laws isn't exactly accurate.


  • Over the past few decades, federal legislation on guns has been rare.


  • But in state legislatures, mass shootings have led to new gun laws.


  • Thousands of them.


  • And how those laws have emerged can tell us a lot about the future of guns in the US.


  • In 2020, a study tried to determine "the impact of mass shootings on gun policy".

    2020 年,一項研究試圖驗證 「大規模槍擊事件對槍枝政策的影響」。

  • They looked at 25 years of high-profile mass shootings.

    他們調查了 25 年來引起大眾關注的大規模槍擊事件。

  • Then, they looked at gun legislation passed during that timeover 3,000 laws across all 50 states.

    然後,他們查看了那段時間所通過的槍枝立法──50 個州有超過 3 千多條新法。

  • When they took a closer look at those laws, a pattern emerged:


  • That, at first seemed unsurprising, state legislatures controlled by Democrats were more likely to pass tighter gun laws.


  • Republican-controlled states typically loosened gun laws.


  • But they found a key difference.


  • Mass shootings didn't have any statistically significant effect on the number of laws passed by Democrats.


  • While for Republican legislatures, a mass shooting roughly doubles the number of laws enacted that loosen gun restrictions in the next year.


  • To arm more teachers, for example, or arm more school staff.


  • That's James Barragán, a politics reporter at the "Texas Tribune".

    這是《德州論壇報》的政治記者James Barragán。

  • There is more access to guns afterwards, and a state like Texas would go more towards, um, pro-gun policies in the aftermath of a gun shooting.

    在那之後有更多管道能取得槍枝,而像德克薩斯這樣的州在槍擊事件發生後會更傾向於支持槍枝政策 。

  • Texas has some of the loosest gun laws in the nation, and that matters for people all over the country.


  • People probably don't know about the importance of, uh, state gun laws and, really, state laws in general.


  • Our gun laws at the federal level had been frozen in time since basically the 1990s,  

    聯邦一級的槍支法律基本上從 90 年代起就一直沒有變,

  • which allowed the states to have a much bigger role and a much bigger influence in how gun culture played out in their jurisdictions.


  • Let's look at Texas.


  • In 1991, a gunman killed 23 people at a Luby's restaurant in Killeen, Texas.

    1991 年,一名槍手在德克薩斯州基林市的一家 Luby 餐館殺害了 23 人。

  • A woman there named Suzanna Hupp lost both her parents in the shooting.

    一位名叫 Suzanna Hupp 的婦女因而失去了她的雙親。

  • She believed she could have stopped the massacre and turned her experience into a crusade for loosening gun laws.


  • I'm mad at my legislators for legislating me out of the right to protect myself and my family.


  • It worked.


  • In 1994, Texas elected a new governor, George W. Bush, who made it legal to carry a concealed gun his first year in office and set off a trend in the state that's continued for decades.

    1994 年,德克薩斯州選出了一位新州長 George W. Bush,他在上任的第一年就將攜帶隱蔽槍支的行為合法化,並在該州掀起了一個持續了幾十年的趨勢。

  • For example, in 2012, after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting drew attention to gun laws across the country,

    例如,在 2012 年的桑迪胡克小學事件之後,學校的槍擊案便引起了人民對全國各地槍支法律的關注,

  • Texas responded a few months later by creating a program allowing some school employees to carry guns in school.


  • In 2017, a gunman killed 26 people at First Baptist Church in Sutherland Springs.

    2017 年,一名槍手在薩瑟蘭斯普林斯的第一浸信會教堂殺害了 26 人。

  • Within two years, Texas made it legal to carry weapons in places of worship.


  • But after the Santa Fe High School shooting, Governor Greg Abbott did something unusual.

    但在聖達菲高中槍擊案發生後,州長 Greg Abbott 做了一件有別於以往的事。

  • He asked lawmakers to consider a "red flag law", which would allow authorities to take firearms away from a person courts deem dangerous.

    他要求立法者考慮制定 「紅旗法」,這將允許當局取消法院認為的危險人物的槍枝使用權。

  • Uh, that is not something that Republicans in this state often do.


  • Flo and Scot were also pushing for legislation in response to Santa Fe,

    為回應聖達菲的事件,Flo 和 Scot 也在推動立法,

  • like laws that would hold parents accountable if their guns were used by their children to harm people.


  • They also pushed to make it harder to buy ammunition online.


  • Our shooter, he just checked the box and said, "Yes, I'm 18," and they delivered it to his doorstep.

    那位槍擊犯,他只是在方框內勾選:「是的,我已滿 18 歲」,槍就能被送到家門口。

  • You can't get alcohol delivered without, um, showing proof of ID or something, but he ordered ammunition.


  • Their hope for stricter laws was in line with Texas public opinion.


  • Polling showed only a small minority of Texans supported loosening gun laws, and just over half supported tightening them.


  • We thought it was common sense that this would be done.


  • They came to Flo's hospital room the week of the shooting.

    在槍擊案發生的那週,他們來到 Flo 的病房。

  • And we had the governor, lieutenant governor; we had congressmen, we had senators, their wives;


  • there's chief of staff, all in her room at one time, at least 20 people, and said,

    參謀長,至少有 20 個人同時在她的房間裡,然後說:

  • "We're gonna take care of you. We promise we'll be there for you. We'll fix this."

    「我們會照顧好你。我們承諾我們會為你服務。 我們會解決這個問題。」

  • But in the end, these proposals, along with Abbot's openness to red flag laws, went nowhere.


  • After gun rights supporters went after himthe gun culture is strong.


  • But the gun lobby itself also exerts a lot of pressure on Texas politicians.


  • There were bills that were put out there, but they never made it out of committee.


  • Later in 2019, two shootings in west Texas just weeks apart prompted Lieutenant Governor Dan Patrick to suggest another tighter gun policy, closing background check loopholes.

    2019 年下半年,在德州西部發生的兩起僅相隔數週的槍擊案促使副州長 Dan Patrick 提出另一項更嚴格的槍支政策──解決身份背景調查的漏洞。

  • That is a very strong comment from a lieutenant governor who is very pro-gun and who is very friendly with the NRA.


  • But Republican leaders were saying, "We may have problems here."


  • Democrats are pushing to take over the state house for the first time since 2003.

    自 2003 年以來,民主黨人第一次推動接管該州議會。

  • After elections were over, with Republicans still in control, in 2021, Texas passed "constitutional carry".

    選舉結束後,共和黨人仍然領導著大局,所以德州在 2021 年頒布了「合法公開持武」。

  • There would no longer be a requirement for Texans to have a license or receive any training to openly carry handguns.


  • For me, it's very scary because if I see someone in public with a gun, I will... I will panic.


  • Um... that's gonna send me into an anxiety attack.


  • That constitutional carry law that, uh, the state legislature passed in 2021 had been rejected by Republican leaders.

    合法公開持武法,嗯,州立法機構在 2021 年通過的法律已被共和黨領導人拒絕。

  • But as, uh, the Republican Party has gone further and further to the right on issues,


  • you get a fringe of the party that is much more vocal about, uh, all kinds of issues, including gun rights.

    他們走得越來越偏,他們對…… 嗯……各種問題,包括槍支權利更加直言不諱。

  • In recent years, a better organized gun control movement has seen more success with tightening laws in some states.


  • But the movement to expand gun access isn't stopping.


  • In 2002, fewer than half of the 50 states had 1 party in control of both the state legislature and the governor's office.

    2002 年,50 個州中只有不到一半的州是只由一個政黨控制州立法機構和州長辦公室的。

  • Today, three-quarters of the states do.


  • That means, in the places where Republicans or Democrats have full control, they can push through new gun laws with little chance of a veto.


  • So, what happens, um, and you see it in state house to state house,


  • is one state passes a law that is very successful for one side of the aisle, and then, another state house adopts a very, very similar law.


  • Remember that constitutional carry law in Texas?


  • Today, 24 states have similar laws on the books for that, too.

    今天,有 24 個州也制定了類似的法律。

  • And more than 400 local governments across 20 states have adopted variations on a "Second Amendment sanctuary law",

    而 20 個州超過 400 多個地方政府已經通過了「第二修正案保護法」的修法,

  • meaning a city, town, or county refuses to recognize any state or federal gun laws that they believe violate the Second Amendment.


  • These things get replicated; they get cloned, they go from state to state.


  • And they essentially make up this patchwork of laws throughout the country.


  • In June 2022, in the aftermath of the Uvalde shooting in Texas, President Biden signed the most significant federal gun bill in 30 years.

    2022 年 6 月,在德克薩斯州的烏瓦爾德槍擊案發生後,拜登總統簽署了 30 年來最重要的聯邦槍支法案。

  • One thing it does is incentivize states to pass red flag laws.


  • But it can't make them do it.


  • That power still belongs to the states.


  • I have survivor's guilt because I'm alive, and, so, I feel like it...


  • I have to keep speaking out; I have to do what I can.


  • There's times when I just think I'm gonna stop.


  • I... I'm no⏤I cannot do this for my own mental health.


  • But we just keep... we keep going.


It was the last Friday of the school year, and I had been actually subbing for a teacher for 3 days.


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