字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 In July 1956, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser announced the nationalisation of the 1956年7月，埃及總統加瑪勒·阿卜杜勒（Gamal Abdel） 納賽爾宣布將其國有化 Suez Canal Company. 蘇伊士運河公司。 Egyptians would take charge of this vital strategic waterway, connecting Europe to Asia, 埃及人將負責這一至關重要的工作 戰略水路，連接歐洲與亞洲， with immediate effect. 立即生效。 Britain and France relied on the Canal route for their vital supplies of Middle East oil, 英國和法國依賴運河路線 為中東石油的重要供應， which fuelled their economies. 助長了他們的經濟。 In their eyes, Nasser was a threat – a dictator intent on uniting the Arab world against them, 在他們眼中，納賽爾是一個威脅–獨裁者 打算團結阿拉伯世界反對他們， destroying their influence in the Middle East and North Africa, and using control of the 破壞他們在中東的影響力 和北非，並利用對 canal as a weapon against them. 運河作為對付他們的武器。 Secretly, Britain and France agreed to force regime change on Egypt – a joint military 秘密地，英國和法國同意強迫 埃及政權更迭-聯合軍事 intervention to depose Nasser, and reassert their standing as global powers. 干預以廢除納賽爾，然後再斷言 他們作為全球大國的地位。 But it was not Britain or France that struck first against Nasser... it was Israel. 但不是英國或法國來襲 首先針對納賽爾...是以色列。 On 29th October, Israeli paratroopers landed in the Egyptian Sinai, seizing the strategic 10月29日，以色列傘兵降落 在埃及西奈半島，搶占戰略 Mitla Pass, and paving the way for an invasion by ground forces. 米特拉通行證，為入侵鋪平道路 由地面部隊。 At the UN, Israel insisted it was acting in self-defence, against raids by Palestinian 在聯合國，以色列堅稱它正在採取行動 自衛，反對巴勒斯坦人的突襲 fighters known as fedayeen, operating from bases in Gaza and Sinai. 戰鬥機稱為fedayeen， 基地在加沙和西奈。 But there were no fedayeen bases in Sinai. 但是西奈沒有女兵基地。 Britain and France, claiming to be acting on behalf of the international community, 英國和法國聲稱自演 代表國際社會， issued an ultimatum to both sides: stop fighting within 12 hours, and withdraw all forces 10 向雙方發出最後通:：停止戰鬥 在12小時內撤出所有部隊10 miles from the Suez Canal – or they would intervene to enforce compliance. 距蘇伊士運河僅數英里之遙，否則他們會 干預以強制合規。 Egypt was effectively been told to abandon the Sinai and the Canal. 有人有效地告知埃及放棄 西奈半島和運河。以色列接受了 Israel accepted the terms; Nasser refused. 條款納賽爾拒絕了。 So on 31st October, British and French aircraft, taking off from carriers in the Mediterranean, 因此，在10月31日，英法飛機 從地中海的航空母艦起飛， and bases in Cyprus and Malta, began bombing Egyptian airfields, air defences and infrastructure. 和塞浦路斯和馬耳他的基地開始轟炸 埃及的飛機場，防空系統和基礎設施。 But not all was as it seemed. 但是，並非所有的事情都是如此。 Israeli Prime Minister David Ben Gurion had been considering an attack on Egypt for many 以色列總理本古里安（David Ben Gurion） 一直在考慮許多襲擊埃及 months. 個月。 He was encouraged by Moshe Dayan, the hawkish commander of Israel's armed forces. 他受到鷹派Moshe Dayan的鼓勵 以色列武裝部隊司令。 Nasser, like all leaders of Arab states, did not view the new Jewish state as legitimate: 納賽爾和阿拉伯國家的所有領導人一樣，做了 不認為新的猶太國家是合法的： now receiving modern weapons from Czechoslovakia, he was seen as a potential threat to Israel's 現在從捷克斯洛伐克獲得現代武器， 他被視為對以色列的潛在威脅 survival. 生存。 They were also determined to end Egypt's blockade of the Straits of Tiran, which prevented Israeli 他們還決心結束埃及的封鎖 的海峽，阻止了以色列 access to the Red Sea, and limited opportunities for trade. 進入紅海，機會有限 貿易。 France wanted to ally with the Israelis to get rid of Nasser. 法國想與以色列同盟 擺脫納賽爾。但是英國首相 But British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden was anxious about being seen as the aggressor. 安東尼·伊甸園爵士渴望被人看到 作為侵略者。所以法國人想出了 So the French came up with an idea... 一個主意... At Sèvres, near Paris, representatives of Britain, France and Israel met in secret to 在巴黎附近的塞夫爾， 英國，法國和以色列秘密會面， plan a war: 計劃戰爭： Israel would invade Egypt – allowing Britain and France, posing as peacemakers, to issue 以色列將入侵埃及-允許英國 和法國，冒充和平力量，發布 an ultimatum they knew only Israel would accept. 他們知道只有以色列會接受的最後通atum。 然後，聲稱自己是為了維護 Then, claiming to be acting to safeguard the canal, they would invade Egypt and overthrow 運河，他們將入侵埃及並推翻 納賽爾-儘管他們沒有真正的計劃 Nasser - though they had no real plan for what to do once he was gone. 他走後該怎麼辦。 It would take years for the full details of this conspiracy to emerge. 完整的細節可能需要幾年的時間 這種陰謀浮現。 On 5th November, after a week of bombing, and with Israeli troops winning the battle 11月5日，經過一周的轟炸， 以色列軍隊贏得了這場戰鬥 in Sinai, British and French paratroopers were dropped onto targets around Port Said 在西奈，英國和法國的傘兵 被放到塞得港附近的目標上 and Port Fuad, at the mouth of the Suez Canal. 和蘇伊士運河口的富阿德港。 Once on the ground, they quickly seized Egyptian airfields and key infrastructure. 到達地面後，他們迅速佔領了埃及 機場和關鍵基礎設施。 The next morning, under cover of air strikes and naval bombardment, British and French 第二天早上，在空襲的掩護下 和海軍轟炸，英法兩國 landings began. 登陸開始了。 Fierce street-fighting raged throughout the day. 激烈的街頭戰斗在整個 天。 But the Egyptians were massively outgunned, and it proved a one-sided contest. 但是埃及人遭到了強大的打擊 事實證明，這是一場單方面的比賽。 Around 600 Egyptian soldiers and police were killed – British and French deaths totalled 大約有600名埃及士兵和警察 被殺–英國和法國共計死亡 just 26. 才26 Egyptian civilians suffered most – up to one thousand lost their lives, with many more 埃及平民受害最多-直至 一千人喪生，還有更多人喪生 left homeless by air raids and shelling. 空襲和砲擊使他們無家可歸。 By the end of the day, the British and French were in control. 到最後，英國和法國 處於控制之中。 But they couldn't prevent the Egyptians sabotaging the Suez Canal itself. 但是他們無法阻止埃及人破壞 蘇伊士運河本身。他們沉沒了船 They sank ships in its narrow channel, blocking the canal, and putting it out of action for 它狹窄的通道，堵塞了運河，以及 將其停用幾個月。 several months. 不難看出英國，法國 和以色列人正在共同努力- It wasn't hard to see that the British, French and Israelis were working together - and at 聯合國，世界輿論迅速 反對他們。 the United Nations, world opinion quickly turned against them. 美國和蘇聯一次團結起來 受到譴責-一個典型的動畫蘇聯 For once, the US and Soviet Union were united in condemnation - a typically animated Soviet 總理尼基塔·赫魯曉夫甚至揚言 在巴黎和倫敦發射火箭。 Premier Nikita Khrushchev even threatened to fire rockets at Paris and London. 艾森豪威爾總統認為入侵 沒有道德或法律依據。和他 President Eisenhower thought the invasion had no moral or legal justification. 對他的英國盟友感到憤怒 在他的背後。 And he was furious with his British ally for going behind his back. “英法兩國政府交付 現在向以色列和埃及發出12小時的最後通atum "The British and French Governments delivered a 12 hour ultimatum to Israel and Egypt now 隨後是對埃及的武裝襲擊。 沒有與美國進行任何協商 followed up by armed attacks against Egypt. 這些行動的任何階段都沒有 我們提前通知了他們，因為 The United States was not consulted in any way about any phase of these actions nor were 體現任何這些國家的權利 做出這樣的決定和行動 we informed of them in advance, as it is the manifest right of any of these nations to 如果我們的判斷如此指示我們的權利，因為 我們不接受以武力為明智 take such decisions and actions it is likewise our right if our judgement so dictates, for 或解決該問題的適當工具 國際爭端。” we do not accept the use of force as a wise or proper instrument for the settlement of 艾森豪威爾希望引起國際關注 集中在蘇軍所在的匈牙利 international disputes." 在那一刻，殘酷地粉碎了一個受歡迎的 起義。 Eisenhower wanted international attention focused on Hungary, where Soviet troops were, 相反，英國和法國的魯intervention干預 有可能將阿拉伯國家推向世界 at that moment, brutally crushing a popular uprising. 前蘇聯。 Instead, Britain and France's reckless intervention was likely to push Arab states closer to the 在聯合國安理會，英國和法國 利用否決權阻止了 Soviet Union. 批評以色列對埃及或他們的襲擊 自己干預。 In the UN Security Council, Britain and France used their veto to block resolutions that 但是，這兩個世界超級大國都在譴責 他們的進攻，他們現在在 criticised Israel's attack on Egypt, or their own intervention. 大會，以及聯合國製裁的威脅。 But with both world superpowers condemning their attack, they now faced a vote in the 英國的經濟過去一直脆弱 危機開始了。現在，市場擔憂引起 General Assembly, and the threat of UN sanctions. 英鎊崩潰，威脅 經濟災難。 Britain's economy had been fragile before the crisis began. 只有國際的一筆巨額貸款 貨幣基金可以拯救英國，但艾森豪威爾 Now, market fears caused the British currency to crash, threatening economic disaster. 在英國同意之前阻止了IMF的任何援助 聯合國支持的埃及停火。 Only a massive loan from the International Monetary Fund could save Britain, but Eisenhower 伊甸園，在國外面臨越來越多的反對 在家中和他自己的政府內部 blocked any IMF aid until Britain agreed to a UN-backed ceasefire in Egypt. 很少的選擇。 Eden, facing growing opposition abroad, at home and from within his own government, had 英軍降落僅兩天后 在埃及，他們宣布停火…… few options. 被盟友拋棄的法國人別無選擇 但要效仿。 Just two days after British troops landed in Egypt, they announced a ceasefire... 數天之內，聯合國首次重大維和行動 隨著丹麥聯合國部隊的行動開始 The French, abandoned by their ally, had no choice but to follow suit. 到達埃及從英國人手中接管 和法語。 Within days, the UN's first major peacekeeping operation got underway, as Danish UN troops 當他們收拾行裝，重新登上他們的 登陸艦返回家園-這是正式的 arrived in Egypt to takeover from the British and French. “工作做得很好” –但實際上，蘇伊士有 成為一個丟臉的慘敗。 As they packed up, and re-embarked on their landing ships to return home - it was officially 政治領導是魯re的， 軍事目標感到困惑-並且 'job well done' – but in truth, Suez had been a humiliating fiasco. 一旦國際壓力加劇 起來，英國人別無選擇，只能放棄 The political leadership had been reckless, the military objectives confused – and as 整個任務。 soon as international pressure had mounted up, the British had had no option but to abort 那個冬天，在美國的巨大壓力下， 以色列部隊也從西奈撤出。 the entire mission. 蘇伊士危機迫使英國和法國 接受他們現在是第二大國。 That winter, under intense American pressure, Israeli forces also withdrew from Sinai. 他們不再能按自己的意願行事 世界舞台，無需先考慮 The Suez Crisis forced Britain and France to accept that they were now second-rank powers. 美國的看法。 No longer could they act as they wished on the world stage, without first considering 英國人的教訓從來沒有 再次危及他們所謂的“特殊 the view of the United States. 與美國的關係。 The lesson taken by the British was never again to jeopardise their so-called 'special 對於法國來說，教訓是英國和 美國是不可靠的盟友， relationship' with America. 緊密的聯繫可以更好地滿足利益 在歐洲。 For France, the lesson was that Britain and America were unreliable allies, and their 以色列實現了一些目標-包括 蒂蘭海峽向以色列開放 interests were better served by closer ties within Europe. 運輸-但在納賽爾仍在掌權的情況下， 與埃及及其另一阿拉伯人的未來衝突 Israel achieved some objectives – including the opening of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli 鄰居幾乎可以肯定：西奈戰爭 被證明是更具決定性的先驅 shipping – but with Nasser still in power, future conflict with Egypt and its other Arab 十年後爆發了“六日戰爭”。 neighbours was almost certain: the Sinai War proved to be a precursor to the far more decisive 英國首相安東尼·伊登爵士 職業和健康都被毀了。他辭職了 'Six Day War' fought a decade later. 但是在向國會撒謊之前 了解與以色列的秘密交易。 British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden's career, and health, were ruined. “ ...我希望我的繼任者一切順利。 上帝向你們所有人加速。再見。” He resigned, but not before lying to Parliament about his knowledge of the secret deal with 納賽爾總統，被譽為 阿拉伯世界挺身歐洲 Israel. 帝國主義者，實際上是由 美國和聯合國的干預。但是他的現代化 “...I wish my successor all good fortune. 改革，擁護阿拉伯事業，以及 反對外國干預，意味著他的 God speed to you all. 整個阿拉伯人仍然崇尚記憶 中東。 Goodbye.” 的 蘇伊士危機對美國的影響也許是 President Nasser, feted as the hero of the Arab world for having stood up to European 最深遠的。 imperialists, had in reality been saved by US and UN intervention. 英法威望的瓦解 在阿拉伯國家中意味著美國現在 But his modernising reforms, championing of the Arab cause, and opposition to foreign 率先反抗蘇聯擴張 在中東，並確保西方的 intervention, mean his memory is still revered by Arabs across the Middle East. 石油供應。 The impact of the Suez Crisis on America was perhaps 蘇伊士危機將加速美國的介入 在這個動蕩的地區...後果 the most far-reaching. 可以一直延續到21世紀 The collapse of British and French prestige amongst Arab nations meant the US would now 加入我們傑出的Patreon支持者的行列 這樣，並獲得包括早期在內的福利 take the lead in countering Soviet expansion in the Middle East, and securing the West's 訪問新視頻，獨家更新和 對下一步的工作進行投票。 oil supplies. 任何貢獻都是巨大的幫助， 確保Epic History TV可以繼續創造歷史 The Suez Crisis would accelerate US involvement in this volatile region... 視頻。 The consequences would stretch well into the 21st century. 謝謝收看 Join the ranks of our brilliant Patreon supporters like these, and get perks including early access to new videos, exclusive updates and a vote on what we do next. 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