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  • In July 1956, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser announced the nationalisation of the

    1956年7月,埃及總統加瑪勒·阿卜杜勒(Gamal Abdel) 納賽爾宣布將其國有化

  • Suez Canal Company.

    蘇伊士運河公司。

  • Egyptians would take charge of this vital strategic waterway, connecting Europe to Asia,

    埃及人將負責這一至關重要的工作 戰略水路,連接歐洲與亞洲,

  • with immediate effect.

    立即生效。

  • Britain and France relied on the Canal route for their vital supplies of Middle East oil,

    英國和法國依賴運河路線 為中東石油的重要供應,

  • which fuelled their economies.

    助長了他們的經濟。

  • In their eyes, Nasser was a threat – a dictator intent on uniting the Arab world against them,

    在他們眼中,納賽爾是一個威脅–獨裁者 打算團結阿拉伯世界反對他們,

  • destroying their influence in the Middle East and North Africa, and using control of the

    破壞他們在中東的影響力 和北非,並利用對

  • canal as a weapon against them.

    運河作為對付他們的武器。

  • Secretly, Britain and France agreed to force regime change on Egypt – a joint military

    秘密地,英國和法國同意強迫 埃及政權更迭-聯合軍事

  • intervention to depose Nasser, and reassert their standing as global powers.

    干預以廢除納賽爾,然後再斷言 他們作為全球大國的地位。

  • But it was not Britain or France that struck first against Nasser... it was Israel.

    但不是英國或法國來襲 首先針對納賽爾...是以色列。

  • On 29th October, Israeli paratroopers landed in the Egyptian Sinai, seizing the strategic

    10月29日,以色列傘兵降落 在埃及西奈半島,搶占戰略

  • Mitla Pass, and paving the way for an invasion by ground forces.

    米特拉通行證,為入侵鋪平道路 由地面部隊。

  • At the UN, Israel insisted it was acting in self-defence, against raids by Palestinian

    在聯合國,以色列堅稱它正在採取行動 自衛,反對巴勒斯坦人的突襲

  • fighters known as fedayeen, operating from bases in Gaza and Sinai.

    戰鬥機稱為fedayeen, 基地在加沙和西奈。

  • But there were no fedayeen bases in Sinai.

    但是西奈沒有女兵基地。

  • Britain and France, claiming to be acting on behalf of the international community,

    英國和法國聲稱自演 代表國際社會,

  • issued an ultimatum to both sides: stop fighting within 12 hours, and withdraw all forces 10

    向雙方發出最後通::停止戰鬥 在12小時內撤出所有部隊10

  • miles from the Suez Canalor they would intervene to enforce compliance.

    距蘇伊士運河僅數英里之遙,否則他們會 干預以強制合規。

  • Egypt was effectively been told to abandon the Sinai and the Canal.

    有人有效地告知埃及放棄 西奈半島和運河。以色列接受了

  • Israel accepted the terms; Nasser refused.

    條款納賽爾拒絕了。

  • So on 31st October, British and French aircraft, taking off from carriers in the Mediterranean,

    因此,在10月31日,英法飛機 從地中海的航空母艦起飛,

  • and bases in Cyprus and Malta, began bombing Egyptian airfields, air defences and infrastructure.

    和塞浦路斯和馬耳他的基地開始轟炸 埃及的飛機場,防空系統和基礎設施。

  • But not all was as it seemed.

    但是,並非所有的事情都是如此。

  • Israeli Prime Minister David Ben Gurion had been considering an attack on Egypt for many

    以色列總理本古里安(David Ben Gurion) 一直在考慮許多襲擊埃及

  • months.

    個月。

  • He was encouraged by Moshe Dayan, the hawkish commander of Israel's armed forces.

    他受到鷹派Moshe Dayan的鼓勵 以色列武裝部隊司令。

  • Nasser, like all leaders of Arab states, did not view the new Jewish state as legitimate:

    納賽爾和阿拉伯國家的所有領導人一樣,做了 不認為新的猶太國家是合法的:

  • now receiving modern weapons from Czechoslovakia, he was seen as a potential threat to Israel's

    現在從捷克斯洛伐克獲得現代武器, 他被視為對以色列的潛在威脅

  • survival.

    生存。

  • They were also determined to end Egypt's blockade of the Straits of Tiran, which prevented Israeli

    他們還決心結束埃及的封鎖 的海峽,阻止了以色列

  • access to the Red Sea, and limited opportunities for trade.

    進入紅海,機會有限 貿易。

  • France wanted to ally with the Israelis to get rid of Nasser.

    法國想與以色列同盟 擺脫納賽爾。但是英國首相

  • But British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden was anxious about being seen as the aggressor.

    安東尼·伊甸園爵士渴望被人看到 作為侵略者。所以法國人想出了

  • So the French came up with an idea...

    一個主意...

  • Atvres, near Paris, representatives of Britain, France and Israel met in secret to

    在巴黎附近的塞夫爾, 英國,法國和以色列秘密會面,

  • plan a war:

    計劃戰爭:

  • Israel would invade Egyptallowing Britain and France, posing as peacemakers, to issue

    以色列將入侵埃及-允許英國 和法國,冒充和平力量,發布

  • an ultimatum they knew only Israel would accept.

    他們知道只有以色列會接受的最後通atum。 然後,聲稱自己是為了維護

  • Then, claiming to be acting to safeguard the canal, they would invade Egypt and overthrow

    運河,他們將入侵埃及並推翻 納賽爾-儘管他們沒有真正的計劃

  • Nasser - though they had no real plan for what to do once he was gone.

    他走後該怎麼辦。

  • It would take years for the full details of this conspiracy to emerge.

    完整的細節可能需要幾年的時間 這種陰謀浮現。

  • On 5th November, after a week of bombing, and with Israeli troops winning the battle

    11月5日,經過一周的轟炸, 以色列軍隊贏得了這場戰鬥

  • in Sinai, British and French paratroopers were dropped onto targets around Port Said

    在西奈,英國和法國的傘兵 被放到塞得港附近的目標上

  • and Port Fuad, at the mouth of the Suez Canal.

    和蘇伊士運河口的富阿德港。

  • Once on the ground, they quickly seized Egyptian airfields and key infrastructure.

    到達地面後,他們迅速佔領了埃及 機場和關鍵基礎設施。

  • The next morning, under cover of air strikes and naval bombardment, British and French

    第二天早上,在空襲的掩護下 和海軍轟炸,英法兩國

  • landings began.

    登陸開始了。

  • Fierce street-fighting raged throughout the day.

    激烈的街頭戰斗在整個 天。

  • But the Egyptians were massively outgunned, and it proved a one-sided contest.

    但是埃及人遭到了強大的打擊 事實證明,這是一場單方面的比賽。

  • Around 600 Egyptian soldiers and police were killedBritish and French deaths totalled

    大約有600名埃及士兵和警察 被殺–英國和法國共計死亡

  • just 26.

    才26

  • Egyptian civilians suffered mostup to one thousand lost their lives, with many more

    埃及平民受害最多-直至 一千人喪生,還有更多人喪生

  • left homeless by air raids and shelling.

    空襲和砲擊使他們無家可歸。

  • By the end of the day, the British and French were in control.

    到最後,英國和法國 處於控制之中。

  • But they couldn't prevent the Egyptians sabotaging the Suez Canal itself.

    但是他們無法阻止埃及人破壞 蘇伊士運河本身。他們沉沒了船

  • They sank ships in its narrow channel, blocking the canal, and putting it out of action for

    它狹窄的通道,堵塞了運河,以及 將其停用幾個月。

  • several months.

    不難看出英國,法國 和以色列人正在共同努力-

  • It wasn't hard to see that the British, French and Israelis were working together - and at

    聯合國,世界輿論迅速 反對他們。

  • the United Nations, world opinion quickly turned against them.

    美國和蘇聯一次團結起來 受到譴責-一個典型的動畫蘇聯

  • For once, the US and Soviet Union were united in condemnation - a typically animated Soviet

    總理尼基塔·赫魯曉夫甚至揚言 在巴黎和倫敦發射火箭。

  • Premier Nikita Khrushchev even threatened to fire rockets at Paris and London.

    艾森豪威爾總統認為入侵 沒有道德或法律依據。和他

  • President Eisenhower thought the invasion had no moral or legal justification.

    對他的英國盟友感到憤怒 在他的背後。

  • And he was furious with his British ally for going behind his back.

    “英法兩國政府交付 現在向以色列和埃及發出12小時的最後通atum

  • "The British and French Governments delivered a 12 hour ultimatum to Israel and Egypt now

    隨後是對埃及的武裝襲擊。 沒有與美國進行任何協商

  • followed up by armed attacks against Egypt.

    這些行動的任何階段都沒有 我們提前通知了他們,因為

  • The United States was not consulted in any way about any phase of these actions nor were

    體現任何這些國家的權利 做出這樣的決定和行動

  • we informed of them in advance, as it is the manifest right of any of these nations to

    如果我們的判斷如此指示我們的權利,因為 我們不接受以武力為明智

  • take such decisions and actions it is likewise our right if our judgement so dictates, for

    或解決該問題的適當工具 國際爭端。”

  • we do not accept the use of force as a wise or proper instrument for the settlement of

    艾森豪威爾希望引起國際關注 集中在蘇軍所在的匈牙利

  • international disputes."

    在那一刻,殘酷地粉碎了一個受歡迎的 起義。

  • Eisenhower wanted international attention focused on Hungary, where Soviet troops were,

    相反,英國和法國的魯intervention干預 有可能將阿拉伯國家推向世界

  • at that moment, brutally crushing a popular uprising.

    前蘇聯。

  • Instead, Britain and France's reckless intervention was likely to push Arab states closer to the

    在聯合國安理會,英國和法國 利用否決權阻止了

  • Soviet Union.

    批評以色列對埃及或他們的襲擊 自己干預。

  • In the UN Security Council, Britain and France used their veto to block resolutions that

    但是,這兩個世界超級大國都在譴責 他們的進攻,他們現在在

  • criticised Israel's attack on Egypt, or their own intervention.

    大會,以及聯合國製裁的威脅。

  • But with both world superpowers condemning their attack, they now faced a vote in the

    英國的經濟過去一直脆弱 危機開始了。現在,市場擔憂引起

  • General Assembly, and the threat of UN sanctions.

    英鎊崩潰,威脅 經濟災難。

  • Britain's economy had been fragile before the crisis began.

    只有國際的一筆巨額貸款 貨幣基金可以拯救英國,但艾森豪威爾

  • Now, market fears caused the British currency to crash, threatening economic disaster.

    在英國同意之前阻止了IMF的任何援助 聯合國支持的埃及停火。

  • Only a massive loan from the International Monetary Fund could save Britain, but Eisenhower

    伊甸園,在國外面臨越來越多的反對 在家中和他自己的政府內部

  • blocked any IMF aid until Britain agreed to a UN-backed ceasefire in Egypt.

    很少的選擇。

  • Eden, facing growing opposition abroad, at home and from within his own government, had

    英軍降落僅兩天后 在埃及,他們宣布停火……

  • few options.

    被盟友拋棄的法國人別無選擇 但要效仿。

  • Just two days after British troops landed in Egypt, they announced a ceasefire...

    數天之內,聯合國首次重大維和行動 隨著丹麥聯合國部隊的行動開始

  • The French, abandoned by their ally, had no choice but to follow suit.

    到達埃及從英國人手中接管 和法語。

  • Within days, the UN's first major peacekeeping operation got underway, as Danish UN troops

    當他們收拾行裝,重新登上他們的 登陸艦返回家園-這是正式的

  • arrived in Egypt to takeover from the British and French.

    “工作做得很好” –但實際上,蘇伊士有 成為一個丟臉的慘敗。

  • As they packed up, and re-embarked on their landing ships to return home - it was officially

    政治領導是魯re的, 軍事目標感到困惑-並且

  • 'job well done' – but in truth, Suez had been a humiliating fiasco.

    一旦國際壓力加劇 起來,英國人別無選擇,只能放棄

  • The political leadership had been reckless, the military objectives confusedand as

    整個任務。

  • soon as international pressure had mounted up, the British had had no option but to abort

    那個冬天,在美國的巨大壓力下, 以色列部隊也從西奈撤出。

  • the entire mission.

    蘇伊士危機迫使英國和法國 接受他們現在是第二大國。

  • That winter, under intense American pressure, Israeli forces also withdrew from Sinai.

    他們不再能按自己的意願行事 世界舞台,無需先考慮

  • The Suez Crisis forced Britain and France to accept that they were now second-rank powers.

    美國的看法。

  • No longer could they act as they wished on the world stage, without first considering

    英國人的教訓從來沒有 再次危及他們所謂的“特殊

  • the view of the United States.

    與美國的關係。

  • The lesson taken by the British was never again to jeopardise their so-called 'special

    對於法國來說,教訓是英國和 美國是不可靠的盟友,

  • relationship' with America.

    緊密的聯繫可以更好地滿足利益 在歐洲。

  • For France, the lesson was that Britain and America were unreliable allies, and their

    以色列實現了一些目標-包括 蒂蘭海峽向以色列開放

  • interests were better served by closer ties within Europe.

    運輸-但在納賽爾仍在掌權的情況下, 與埃及及其另一阿拉伯人的未來衝突

  • Israel achieved some objectivesincluding the opening of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli

    鄰居幾乎可以肯定:西奈戰爭 被證明是更具決定性的先驅

  • shippingbut with Nasser still in power, future conflict with Egypt and its other Arab

    十年後爆發了“六日戰爭”。

  • neighbours was almost certain: the Sinai War proved to be a precursor to the far more decisive

    英國首相安東尼·伊登爵士 職業和健康都被毀了。他辭職了

  • 'Six Day War' fought a decade later.

    但是在向國會撒謊之前 了解與以色列的秘密交易。

  • British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden's career, and health, were ruined.

    “ ...我希望我的繼任者一切順利。 上帝向你們所有人加速。再見。”

  • He resigned, but not before lying to Parliament about his knowledge of the secret deal with

    納賽爾總統,被譽為 阿拉伯世界挺身歐洲

  • Israel.

    帝國主義者,實際上是由 美國和聯合國的干預。但是他的現代化

  • “...I wish my successor all good fortune.

    改革,擁護阿拉伯事業,以及 反對外國干預,意味著他的

  • God speed to you all.

    整個阿拉伯人仍然崇尚記憶 中東。

  • Goodbye.”

    的 蘇伊士危機對美國的影響也許是

  • President Nasser, feted as the hero of the Arab world for having stood up to European

    最深遠的。

  • imperialists, had in reality been saved by US and UN intervention.

    英法威望的瓦解 在阿拉伯國家中意味著美國現在

  • But his modernising reforms, championing of the Arab cause, and opposition to foreign

    率先反抗蘇聯擴張 在中東,並確保西方的

  • intervention, mean his memory is still revered by Arabs across the Middle East.

    石油供應。

  • The impact of the Suez Crisis on America was perhaps

    蘇伊士危機將加速美國的介入 在這個動蕩的地區...後果

  • the most far-reaching.

    可以一直延續到21世紀

  • The collapse of British and French prestige amongst Arab nations meant the US would now

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  • take the lead in countering Soviet expansion in the Middle East, and securing the West's

    訪問新視頻,獨家更新和 對下一步的工作進行投票。

  • oil supplies.

    任何貢獻都是巨大的幫助, 確保Epic History TV可以繼續創造歷史

  • The Suez Crisis would accelerate US involvement in this volatile region...

    視頻。

  • The consequences would stretch well into the 21st century.

    謝謝收看

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In July 1956, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser announced the nationalisation of the

1956年7月,埃及總統加瑪勒·阿卜杜勒(Gamal Abdel) 納賽爾宣布將其國有化

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 以色列 埃及 英國 法國 運河 聯合國

Suez Crisis Part 2 of 2(Suez Crisis Part 2 of 2)

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    香蕉先生 發佈於 2022 年 07 月 04 日
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