Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • In 1956, a dispute over the Suez Canal in Egypt led to international crisis... and war.

    1956年,關於蘇伊士運河的爭議 埃及導致了國際危機……和戰爭。

  • Two fading colonial powers, Britain and France, expected an easy victory over Egypt... but

    兩個衰落的殖民大國,英國和法國, 期望輕鬆擊敗埃及...但是

  • were forced into a humiliating withdrawal, as the world's new superpowers flexed their

    被迫丟臉 隨著世界上新的超級大國的努力

  • muscles.


  • It was a stark sign that the age of European imperialism was over, and that a new international

    這是歐洲時代的鮮明標誌 帝國主義結束了,新的國際

  • order had taken its place.


  • Little remembered today, the events of 1956 had huge consequences for Britain and France,

    今天很少記得1956年的事件 對英國和法國造成了巨大的影響,

  • the Arab world, Israel, and the United States of America.

    阿拉伯世界,以色列和美國 美國。

  • This is the story of the Suez crisis, whose fallout shaped world affairs for decades to

    這就是蘇伊士危機的故事, 輻射影響了數十年來的世界事務

  • come.


  • In 1869, world navigation was transformed by the opening of the Suez Canal.

    1869年,世界導航發生了變化 蘇伊士運河的開放。這100

  • This 100 mile, man-made waterway through the Egyptian desert cut 5,000 miles off the voyage

    英里,穿越埃及的人造水路 沙漠從航程削減了5,000英里

  • from Europe to Asia, as ships no longer had to sail around Africa.

    歐洲到亞洲,因為船隻不再需要 在非洲航行。

  • Its construction, overseen by French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps, had taken 10 years,

    法國外交官監督其建設 費迪南德·德·萊瑟普(Ferdinand de Lesseps)花了10年,

  • and cost the lives of many thousands of Egyptian labourers.

    並犧牲了成千上萬埃及人的生命 勞工。

  • The Suez Canal Company, which owned and ran the canal, was a private company owned by

    蘇伊士運河公司,擁有並經營 運河是一家私人公司,由

  • its shareholders, including French, Austrian and Russian investors, as well as the ruler

    其股東,包括法國人,奧地利人 俄羅斯投資者,以及統治者

  • (or Khedive) of Egypt, Ismail Pasha.

    (或Khedive)的埃及人Ismail Pasha。

  • In 1875, to pay off his mountainous debts, the Khedive sold his 44% share in the Canal

    在1875年,為了償還多山的債務, Khedive賣掉了他在運河中44%的股份

  • Company to the British government.


  • As the world's greatest imperial and naval power, Britain had initially opposed the canal,

    作為世界上最偉大的帝國和海軍 力量,英國最初反對運河,

  • seeing it as a potential threat, but soon proved to be its greatest beneficiary: 80%

    將其視為潛在威脅,但很快 被證明是其最大的受益者:80%

  • of the ships that used the canal were British, and it became a vital link to the British

    使用運河的船隻是英國人, 它成為了與英國人的重要紐帶

  • Empire's eastern colonies, and 'the jewel in the crown'...

    帝國的東部殖民地和“寶石” 在皇冠上...印度。

  • India.

    因此,對運河的控制以及安全性 埃及,成為英國至關重要的戰略

  • And so control of the canal, and the security of Egypt, became a vital British strategic


  • concern.

    1882年,埃及人對歐洲的干涉感到憤怒 在他們的國家爆炸成民族主義者

  • In 1882, when Egyptian anger at European interference in their country exploded into a nationalist

    起義,由英國艾哈邁德·奧拉比上校領導 派出軍隊進行干預。

  • revolt, led by Colonel Ahmad Ourabi, the British sent a military force to intervene.

    埃及軍隊被趕到一邊,埃及 有效地成為英國的保護國

  • The Egyptian army was swept aside, and Egypt effectively became a British protectorate


  • for the next 60 years.

    英國對蘇伊士運河的控制是一個主要問題 兩次世界大戰中的戰略優勢。

  • British control of the Suez Canal was a major strategic advantage in both world wars.

    但是隨著第二次世界大戰的勝利, 大英帝國撤退了。印度,

  • But in the wake of victory in World War Two, the British Empire was in retreat.

    巴基斯坦和緬甸獲得獨立。 有反抗英國統治的起義

  • India, Pakistan and Burma gained their independence.


  • There were revolts against British rule in Malaya, Kenya and Cyprus.

    埃及在 1922年。但英國繼續派兵

  • Egypt had received formal independence in 1922.


  • But Britain continued to station troops there, and govern much of the country's affairs.

    直到1947年,英軍才撤出 所謂的“運河區”

  • Only in 1947 did British troops withdraw to the so-called 'Canal Zone', under an earlier

    與埃及國王法魯克打交道, 可以將基地一直保留到1956年。

  • deal with Egypt's King Farouk, that the British could keep bases there until 1956.

    但是埃及人反對法魯克。 他們責怪他未能防止

  • But Egyptians were turning against Farouk.

    建立以色列的以色列國,以及 埃及在阿以戰爭中的失敗

  • They blamed him for failing to prevent the creation of the Jewish state of Israel, and


  • for Egypt's defeat in the Arab-Israeli War that had followed.

    他們還指責法魯克國王允許 英軍留在埃及。在裡面

  • They also blamed King Farouk for allowing British troops to remain in Egypt.

    運河區,英國士兵和平民 受到日益敵對的攻擊

  • In the Canal Zone, British soldiers and civilians came under attack from the increasingly hostile

    當地居民...發生騷亂,縱火和 槍戰-導致英國強加

  • local population...


  • with riots, arson and gun battlesleading the British to impose martial law.

    到1952年,一群民族主義的埃及軍隊 軍官,稱為自由軍運動

  • By 1952, a group of nationalist Egyptian army officers, known as the Free Officers Movement,

    受夠了。他們奪取了軍隊的權力 政變。法魯克國王被迫退位,

  • had had enough.

    去住一個豪華的流放地 意大利。

  • They seized power in a military coup.


  • King Farouk was forced to abdicate, and went to live out a luxurious exile in Italy.

    賈馬爾·阿卜杜勒·納賽爾上校出身 埃及新領導人和總統–堅定不移

  • The following year, Egypt was declared a republic.

    和有魅力的阿拉伯民族主義者,決心 使埃及擺脫外國影響。

  • Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser emerged as the new leader and president of Egypt – a committed

    1950年代,美國和西方訂婚 在與蘇聯的對峙中眾所周知

  • and charismatic Arab nationalist, determined to free Egypt from foreign influence.

    如冷戰。所謂的“鐵幕” 在東歐共產主義之間劃分歐洲

  • In the 1950s, America and the West were engaged in a stand-off with the Soviet Union known


  • as the Cold War.

    在世界各地,雙方都試圖贏得朋友 並限制對方的影響力。

  • A so-called 'Iron Curtain' divided Europe, between communist east, and capitalist west..

    埃及,最大,最強大的阿拉伯人 狀態,對於任何一個

  • Around the world, each side tried to win friends and limit the other's influence.

    側。但是納賽爾總統會採取哪種方式 轉?

  • Egypt, the largest and most powerful Arab state, would be a valuable prize for either

    美國總統艾森豪威爾(Dwight D. 戰勝納賽爾-但不能授予他

  • side.

    要求達成重大武器交易–他們大多數 可能被用來對付以色列,以色列有很多

  • But which way would President Nasser turn?


  • US President Dwight D. Eisenhower wanted to win over Nasserbut couldn't grant his

    相反,美國和英國提出資助 阿斯旺大壩的建設–核心

  • request for a major arms dealthey'd most likely be used against Israel, which had many

    納賽爾對埃及進行現代化改造的計劃 經濟。

  • supporters in the US.

    英國還同意從 1956年6月在蘇伊士運河區。

  • The US and Britain instead offered to fund construction of the Aswan Damthe centrepiece

    但隨後,以色列與 她的鄰居沸騰了,因為以色列

  • of Nasser's plan to modernise the Egyptian economy.

    軍隊襲擊了埃及控制的加沙,殺死 38名埃及士兵。

  • Britain also agreed to remove its troops from the Suez Canal Zone by June 1956.

    加沙突襲使納賽爾決心迅速 加強和現代化埃及軍隊。以來

  • But then, border tension between Israel and her neighbours boiled over, as the Israeli

    美國無濟於事,納賽爾轉向 蘇聯集團,並簽署了一項重大購買協議

  • army attacked Egyptian-controlled Gaza, killing 38 Egyptian soldiers.

    共產主義捷克斯洛伐克的現代坦克和飛機。 這項交易被認為是巨大的勝利

  • The Gaza Raid made Nasser determined to rapidly strengthen and modernise Egypt's army.


  • Since the US wouldn't help, Nasser turned to the Soviet bloc, and signed a major deal

    納賽爾通過建立 與中國共產黨建交。

  • to purchase modern tanks and aircraft from communist Czechoslovakia.

    對於艾森豪威爾,追逐與納賽爾的聯盟 被證明是頭疼的事,而美國和

  • The deal was seen as a huge triumph across the Arab world.


  • Nasser further antagonised America by establishing diplomatic relations with Communist China.

    此舉將證明是認真的, 全球影響...這兩個英國

  • For Eisenhower, chasing an alliance with Nasser was proving a major headache, and the US and


  • British offer to fund the Aswan Dam was withdrawn.

    1956年7月26日,納賽爾震驚了世界 通過宣布立即生效,

  • It was a move that would prove to have serious, global repercussions... that neither Britain


  • nor America ever saw coming.

    ``我們用生命,頭骨挖出運河, 他宣稱,我們的骨頭,我們的血液。 '錢

  • On 26th July 1956, Nasser stunned the world by announcing that, with immediate effect,

    是我們的,蘇伊士運河屬於我們。 我們將以自己的方式建造[阿斯旺]水壩。

  • Egypt would nationalise the Suez Canal Company.

    如果英國和美國不資助 大壩,納賽爾打算自己資助

  • 'We dug the Canal with our lives, our skulls, our bones, our blood' he declared.


  • 'The money is ours and the Suez Canal belongs to us.

    他的演講得到了來自狂熱的回應 埃及人民。

  • We shall build the [Aswan] Dam our own way.'

    納賽爾的舉動完全合法-該公司的 股東將以公平的價格被收購

  • If Britain and America would not fund the dam, Nasser intended to fund it himself with

    –然而,他的決定將引發國際 危機...戰爭...以及平衡的新時代

  • profits from the Suez Canal Company.


  • His speech received an ecstatic response from the people of Egypt.

    在英國,總理安東尼·伊甸園爵士 對他所認為的專業感到憤怒

  • Nasser's move was entirely legalthe Company's shareholders would be bought out at fair prices


  • yet his decision would trigger an international crisis... war... and a new era in the balance

    蘇伊士每年有15,000艘船 運河。從中東,他們帶來了

  • of world power.

    英國經濟的重要資源 沒有...就無法生存

  • In Britain, Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden responded with fury to what he saw as a major

    “ ...今天通過它旅行的大約一半 沒有這個行業的石油

  • attack on British national interests.

    國家,西歐,斯堪的那維亞和許多 其他國家也不能繼續前進。

  • 15,000 ships a year came through the Suez Canal.


  • And from the Middle East, they brought a vital resource that the British economy couldn't

    就像伊甸園所說的,納賽爾 我們的氣管。

  • survive without...

    在1930年代擔任英國外交大臣 和第二次世界大戰,伊甸園贏得了聲譽

  • “...through it travels today about half the oil without which the industry of this

    通過反對“ app靖”政策 試圖通過屈服於維持和平

  • country, Western Europe, Scandinavia and many other countries too, couldn't keep going.


  • This is a matter of life and death to us all.”

    但是現在,由於身體不好,神經緊張 他的判斷蒙上陰影,他說服了自己

  • Nasser, as Eden put it, had 'his thumb on our windpipe.'

    納賽爾是另一個希特勒或墨索里尼 –英國必鬚麵對的阿拉伯獨裁者

  • As Britain's Foreign Secretary in the 1930s and World War Two, Eden had made his reputation


  • by opposing 'appeasement' - the policy of trying to maintain peace by giving in to the

    他決定,埃及總統會 必須去。

  • demands of dictators.

    法國總理蓋爾·莫列特同意 伊甸園的評估。

  • But now, with poor health and frayed nerves clouding his judgement, he convinced himself

    他還有其他理由想要納賽爾 走了–法國正在進行一場艱苦的戰爭

  • that Nasser was another Hitler or Mussolinian Arab dictator that Britain had to face

    在它的阿爾及利亞非洲殖民地反對民族主義者 叛軍...由納賽爾提供培訓。

  • down.

    英國和法國現在秘密開始計劃 軍事行動奪取了對

  • The Egyptian president, he decided, would have to go.

    蘇伊士運河,將納賽爾停電,並 重申其作為全球主要大國的地位。

  • French Prime Minister Guy Mollet agreed with Eden's assessment.

    那年夏天,在美國人的壓力下, 伊甸園同意舉辦一次國際會議,

  • He had an additional reason to want Nasser goneFrance was fighting a bitter war

    在最後的努力中尋求和平解決方案 危機。

  • in its African colony of Algeria against nationalist rebels... trained and supplied by Nasser.

    “倫敦蘭開斯特故居自然吸引了 蘇伊士開放日的人群很多

  • Britain and France now secretly began planning a military operation to seize control of the

    會議。有22個國家參加。只要 埃及和希臘這兩個國家拒絕了

  • Suez Canal, remove Nasser from power, and reaffirm their status as major global powers.


  • That summer, under pressure from the Americans, Eden agreed to host an international conference,

    22個國家中有18個支持英國, 法國的立場,即蘇伊士運河

  • in a last effort to find a peaceful solution to the crisis.

    恢復國際所有權-提案 被納賽爾總統拒絕。

  • Lancaster House, London naturally attracted quite a crowd on the opening day of the Suez

    美國國務卿約翰·福斯特·杜勒斯告訴 英國人-儘管如此-美國

  • Conference.


  • 22 nations were represented.

    杜勒斯堅信軍事行動 反對納賽爾將推動整個阿拉伯

  • Only two countries, Egypt and Greece, had declined the invitation to the fateful meeting...”

    世界進入了蘇聯的懷抱。除了, 艾森豪威爾總統競選連任,

  • 18 of the 22 nations supported Britain and France's position, that the Suez Canal be


  • returned to international ownership - a proposal turned down flat by President Nasser.


  • US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles told the British thatnevertheless - America

    英國和法國已經選擇了 戰爭之路...

  • would not support an attack on Egypt...

    加入我們傑出的Patreon支持者的行列 這樣...並獲得包括早期在內的福利

  • Dulles strongly believed that military action against Nasser would push the entire Arab

    訪問新視頻,獨家更新和 對下一步的工作進行投票。

  • world into the arms of the Soviets.

    任何貢獻都是巨大的幫助, 確保Epic History TV可以繼續創造歷史

  • Besides, President Eisenhower was running for re-election, and would not welcome the


  • distraction.


  • It was a warning that Eden fatefully ignored.

  • Britain and France had already chosen the path to war...

  • Join the ranks of our brilliant Patreon supporters like these... and get perks including early

  • access to new videos, exclusive updates and a vote on what we do next.

  • Any contribution is a huge help, and makes sure Epic History TV can continue making history

  • videos.

  • Thank you for watching.

In 1956, a dispute over the Suez Canal in Egypt led to international crisis... and war.

1956年,關於蘇伊士運河的爭議 埃及導致了國際危機……和戰爭。


單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋