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  • In 1480, somewhere in the north of PortugalFerdinand Magellan is born.

  • Around this time, Portugal begins maritime explorations along the African coast in search of new trade routes.

  • One of the country's dreams is to open a new sea route to the Indies,

  • from where come spices, which are luxury products in Europe.

  • Soon, the Spanish monarchies also organize explorations, but towards the West, thus reaching America,

  • which was heretofore unknown in Europe.

  • To avoid conflicts over the newly discovered territories, the two  powers agree, in 1494,

  • to divide the world between them.

  • Spain can claim the new lands located west of the Tordesillas meridian, while Portugal can claim those to the east.

  • In 1513, in America, the Spanish conquistador Vasco Nuñez de Balboa

  • is the first European to discover a sea on the other side of the American lands, which he names the South Sea.

  • Ferdinand Magellan, who had sailed for many years on behalf of Portugal,

  • notably in the Indian Ocean, hears about this discovery,

  • and begins to dream of finding a new maritime route to the Spice Islands that will bypass America by heading west.

  • But the Portuguese king opposes the project, as the Portuguese already control the route to the Indies via Africa.

  • In 1517 Magellan tries his luck with the young Spanish king Charles V, who is more interested.

  • Indeed, if Magellan's plan works, it will open a maritime route to the Indies without passing through Portuguese territories,

  • in accordance with the Treaty of Tordesillas.

  • Spain could thus import spices directly and compete with Portugal,

  • which is getting richer very quickly as it controls trade in the Indian Ocean.

  • The project is therefore accepted.

  • Learning of this, the Portuguese king, to protect his interests, wants to prevent the expedition at all costs.

  • On September 20th 1519, Ferdinand Magellan leaves Sanlucar with five ships and 239 men.

  • After a stopover in Tenerife, the expedition heads for the land of Brazil.

  • Then, after passing the Rio de la Plata, it ventures into the unknown,

  • following the coast in search of a passage to the South Sea.

  • At the end of March, as the climate cools in the southern hemisphere,

  • the expedition chooses to spend the winter in a place Magellan names Puerto San Julian.

  • As soon as they settle in, a mutiny is organized against Magellan by the captains of the other ships.

  • They consider the expedition a failure, with some of them wanting to return to Spain.

  • Magellan violently takes control, killing and quartering some of the rebels.

  • At this location, the expedition meets tall locals that they nicknamePatagones”,

  • which later  will give the name Patagonia to the region.

  • In May, one of the ships is sent to explore to the south, but it sinks.

  • After 5 months of waiting, with the return of good weather, the four remaining ships set out again.

  • After resupplying in another bay, they reach, on October 21st, a strait that Magellan namesof All Saints”,  

  • which will carry later his name.

  • As they enter the strait, the expedition sees many fires lit by natives on the mainland.

  • Magellan then names the regionTierra del Fuego”, meaningland of fire”.

  • A little further on, the expedition comes uponbifurcation,

  • whereupon they separate to explore the two different parts.

  • After nightfall, Captain Estevao Gomes seizes the opportunity to turn back and return to Spain.

  • There, he will accuse Magellan of treason.

  • Gomes will be jailed, and the family of Magellan will be placed under strict surveillance until his return.

  • On November 28th, 1520, the three remaining ships finally leave the strait and enter a large sea.

  • They quickly venture deep into it, beginninglong crossing during which water and food run out.

  • The expedition only comes across two uninhabited and inhospitable islets.

  • Starving, the crew eat rats, sawdust, and even the ox hides covering the masts.

  • Further, the lack of fresh food causes a vitamin C deficiency, with the crew suffering from scurvy.

  • The crossing is made in mild weather, without coming across any storms.

  • Magellan then names this oceanPacific”, meaningpeaceful”.

  • On March 6th, after 99 days navigating these watersan island is finally spotted, which they head for.

  • As the crew is about to trade with the locals, the latter start to steal objects from the Spaniards,

  • including a small boat.

  • Magellan is forced to quickly leave the island, which he nicknames theIsland of Thieves”.

  • The expedition then reaches an archipelago that will later be called the Philippines.

  • Here, contact with the local population proceeds in a better fashion,

  • allowing the Spaniards to trade European objects for fresh food.

  • To impress the locals, Magellan regularly fires cannons.

  • When he arrives in Cebu, he forms an alliance with the most powerful ruler in the region, the Rajah Humabon.

  • The local population is converted to Catholicism.

  • But on the nearby island of Mactan a local chief called Lapu-Lapu refuses to recognize Spanish sovereignty.

  • Magellan leaves with 60 men to fight him.

  • But as soon as they disembark, they face about 1500 locals, and Ferdinand Magellan is killed.

  • A few days later, about twenty Spaniards go to a banquet organized by the Rajah Humabon,

  • but it is an ambush, and they are massacred.

  • Only 108 men manage to flee the island.

  • They separate into two of the remaining three ships, and burn the third.

  • On November 7th, 1521, the expedition finally reaches the spice islands, which are called the Moluccas.

  • They fill up their ships with cloves and provisions.

  • The objective has been reached, but the challenge for the new commander, Juan Sebastian Elcano,

  • is now to reach Spanish lands without being captured by the Portuguese, who are sailing the seas in search of them.

  • Another problem, the ship “Trinidadis taking on water.

  • Elcano then decides to leave the ship in place for the time it will take to make repairs.

  • The Trinidad will then head East, with the goal of reaching the Spanish lands in America.

  • Elcano leaves with the other ship, “Victoria”, heading to the West.

  • On February 12th, 1522, he enters the Indian Ocean,

  • which he crosses far to the south to avoid being spotted by the  Portuguese.

  • To the East, after having suffered through storms, “Trinidadis forced to return to the Moluccas,

  • where, exhausted, the 17 remaining crew members surrender to a Portuguese ship.

  • For its part, “Victoriarounds the Cape of Good Hope far from the coast, then sails back to Europe.

  • But short of food and drinking water, a large part of the crew is dying of scurvy.

  • Elcano is forced to stop at the Portuguese islands of Cape Verde.

  • Knowing that they are wanted, Elcano and the crew hide their identity and pretend to be returning from America.

  • Duringconversation, they discover that it is a Thursday, while the expedition's logbook says that it's a Wednesday.

  • Not understanding this discrepancy, they think they have made a mistake.

  • Thirteen sailors get off the ship and go to buy food.

  • But they are unmasked, probably because one of them had uses cloves as payment, and cloves only grow in the Moluccas.

  • The Portuguese, realizing they are dealing with crew members from Magellan's expedition,

  • immediately arrest the disembarked  sailors.

  • Elcano and the rest of his crew barely manage to flee further west in order to reach the Spanish route back from America.

  • On September 6th, 1522, after an expedition of almost 3 years,

  • Elcano arrives in Sanlucar with 17 survivors.

  • The numerous spices brought back in the holds largely pay back the costs for the expedition.

  • They are thus the first people to have  sailed around the world

  • nless, that is, it could possibly be Henrique de Malacca.

  • Henrique is a slave of uncertain origins, bought 11 years earlier in Malacca by Magellan,

  • who was then traveling on behalf of Portugal.

  • Henrique had followed his master to the Iberian Peninsula,

  • from where he took part in the xpedition to the Spice Islands.

  • In Cebu, he spoke Malay with  the local population.

  • But after Magellan's death, he wasn't released, as the captains wanted to keep him on as an interpreter.

  • He was the lone survivor of the banquet ambush, and was most-likely probably in on it.

  • It isn't known what happened to him afterwards,

  • but if he did manage to return to his native land before Elcano arrived in Spain,

  • he would be the first man to have circumnavigated  the globe,

  • taking 11 years to do so.

In 1480, somewhere in the north of PortugalFerdinand Magellan is born.

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The First Circumnavigation of the Earth by Magellan & Elcano - Summary on a Map(The First Circumnavigation of the Earth by Magellan & Elcano - Summary on a Map)

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    香蕉先生 發佈於 2022 年 07 月 01 日
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