字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 With the advancement in military technology, the wars became more and more global. Often a skirmish in one seemingly unimportant area would have long term strategic consequences. 30 years after the Russo-Japanese War, the USSR and Japan were struggling over the borders in Mongolia and that led to the Battles of Khalkhin Gol in 1937. This minor conflict proved to be among the most crucial fought in the pre-war period. If you are interested in the history of this era, don't forget to check out our second channel – The Cold War – the link is in the top right corner. The sponsor of this video MagellanTV is the new type of documentary streaming membership which has the richest and most varied History content available anywhere: ancient, modern, current, early modern, war, biography. MagellanTV strives to give you insight and knowledge on the topics you are passionate about and always succeeds in doing that! 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In the 19th century, the Russian Empire was expanding its influence in the Far East, but the victory in the Russo-Japanese War, allowed Imperial Japan to check that and eventually it gained control over Korea, Manchuria and South Sakhalin. The Soviet Union tried to recover its control over the region, successfully aiding Revolutions in Mongolia and China. The 1930s saw Japan's increasing interest in Mongolia and the region more generally as they invaded Manchuria, establishing the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932 and advancing into Inner Mongolia one year later. The Japanese had suddenly and violently acquired a three-thousand-mile border with the USSR and Mongolia, and this border was very ambiguous and subject to dispute. Soon the Japanese Army stepped up its presence in the region, creating a quasi-independent military force and government known as the Kwantung Army. At the same time, the Soviet Union began bolstering its defenses and signed a mutual assistance pact with their Mongolian satellite state in 1936. In 1937 Stalin purged the army, wiping off eighty percent of the staff in the Far East and Japan saw this debilitation of their rival and decided to exercise some pressure on the Manchurian frontier. In the Amur River, the Japanese managed to occupy Kanchatzu Island as a result of one of the many border skirmishes. On July 7 the Marco Polo Bridge Incident ignited a full-scale Sino-Japanese War that would weaken Japan in their possible war against the USSR. Soviet aid to China and the Japanese divisions being tied down in Manchuria helped prevent a swift Japanese victory, which emboldened the Soviets to take a tougher stance m. In 1938, this culminated in the Battle of Lake Khasan, called Changkufeng Incident in Japan, where Japanese forces occupied the disputed area but withdrew after heavy fighting. Although they managed to repel their foes thanks to the actions of Commander Grigori Shtern, the Soviets suffered more losses than the Japanese because of the incompetence of Marshal Vasily Blyukher. However, this battle shows the shift in the balance of power in the region, as the Soviet Union had now more forces stationed in the Manchurian frontier than the Japanese. In mid-1938, the Japanese 23rd Division was created within the Kwantung Armyassigned to Hailar, responsible for frontier security in Northwestern Manchukuo. Subordinated to the infantry division was the 8th Border Garrison Unit, composed of some 7000 Manchukuoan troops. The 23rd Division was composed of three inexperienced and ill-equipped infantry regiments and was commanded by the inexperienced General Komatsubara Michitaro. The Soviet High Command countered by relocating the 57th Special Rifle Corps, consisting of the 36th Motorized Rifle Division, 11th Tank Brigade and 7th, 8th and 9th Armored Car brigades to Mongolia to defend its border with Manchuria. The Corps was led by Commander Nikolai Feklenko and the Mongolian forces were commanded by Marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan. Shtern replaced Blyukher and was given command of the Far Eastern front. Since 1935 border conflicts happened around the Mongolian-Manchurian frontiers across the Halha River, known as the Khalkhin Gol to the Mongolians. The Soviets claimed that the border shouldn't be across the river, but some ten to twenty miles east and through the tiny hamlet of Nomonhan. To establish that on May 11, 1939, a twenty-man Mongolian border patrol crossed the Halha River moving eastward to Nomonhan. The patrol was discovered by the Japanese and a Manchukuoan cavalry force of about forty men was sent to drive back the Mongolians across the river. Some casualties were sustained by both sides, but the Manchukuoans had drawn first blood. The next day, a bigger border force, commanded by Major Chogdan, pushed the Manchukuoan cavalry out of the disputed area. This spurred both sides to appeal to their protectors. General Komatsubara dispatched Colonel Azuma Yaozo on 14 May to lead the reconnaissance into the disputed territory and expel the intruders. This force consisted of an armored car reconnaissance company, two infantry companies and some cavalry. Azuma discovered that the Mongolians had retreated, leaving small elements on the banks of the River. An airstrike was ordered on these forces by Komatsubara. The Soviets were furious at this strike and decided to support the Mongolians. Feklenko was away from headquarters at the time, so he hurried back to the Mongol capital of Ulaanbaatar to dispatch a mixed force of infantry and motorized artillery, commanded by Major Bykov, to support the Mongolian 6th Cavalry Division in securing the border. Bykov had around 1,000 infantry and 1,250 Mongolian cavalry. Several skirmishes happened in the disputed area and gradually grew in intensity, while the Soviets started building a bridge near the junction between the Halha and Holsten rivers. On May 20, Japanese reconnaissance discovered Bykov's forces and Komatsubara decided to send a strike force under Colonel Takemitsu, composed of the 64th Infantry Regiment and Azuma's reconnaissance force. Having around 2,000 men, Yamagata was ordered to destroy all enemy forces east of the Halha River. The attack was set to be launched on May 28 with Yamagata planning to trap the enemy forces in the eastern bank of the river as Azuma's force went south directly towards the bridge, cutting off the enemy's escape route. Bykov had placed his infantry regiments in the flanks and the Mongolian cavalry in the center, with one infantry regiment and his artillery in reserve near the bridge, while Yamagata concentrated his forces at the town of Kanchuerhmiao, north of Nomonhan. In the morning, the battle began with Yamagata's infantry attacking Bykov's force near Nomonhan. The lightly armed Mongolian cavalry was routed and driven back, forcing the Soviet infantry to retreat as well towards the river. Moving closer to the river, the Soviet artillery and armored cars came into action slowing the Japanese offensive. Bykov was able to regroup his forces near the bridge and started counterattacks, forcing Yamagata's men to dig in. Meanwhile, Azuma went south and soon found himself encircled by the Soviet reserves in the bridge and the forces under Bykov. Refusing to and under heavy artillery fire, Azuma's forces were annihilated on May 29 and Azuma himself died, while Yamagata was unable to regroup his forces and come to his rescue. Later that day, Yamagata retreated back to Kanchuerhmiao. The first battle of Khalkhin Gol ended with almost 500 Japanese casualties and the Soviets occupying the disputed territory with less than 100 casualties. In the aftermath, the Kwantung Army misinformed the Japanese General Staff, assuring that everything was in order, while the Soviet 57th Corps headquartered in Tamsag Bulak, an airbase in Mongolia. On 5th June, Soviet High Command decided to replace Feklenko with a young-but-capable commander named Georgy Zhukov. Reinforcements were allocated to strengthen Zhukov's new command and an aviation unit under Commander Yakov Smushkevich was assigned to Tamsag Bulak. The Soviets now had around 12,500 men, 109 artillery, 186 tanks, 266 armored cars and more than 100 aircraft in the region, with more tanks arriving daily, bolstering the number to 500. On June 19, two Soviet airstrikes near Kanchuerhmiao caused the Kwantung Army's Major Masanobu Tsuji to draw up plans for a large-scale attack across the Halha River and to reinforce the 23rd Division with additional forces, including the 2nd Air Group under the command of General Gigi Tetsuji and the excellent 26th Infantry Regiment with an armored tank detachment under General Yasuoka Masaomi. The Japanese now had 15,000 men, 120 artillery, 70 tanks, and 180 aircraft. Tsuji's plan was to approach the Halha River and seize a group of hills called the Fui Heights, some eleven miles of the Soviet bridge. They would secretly build their bridge nearby and, after crossing the river, they would strike southwards to the Soviet bridge while Yasuoka's detachment would push south from the Fui Heights in a pincer movement, leaving the Soviet forces trapped near their own bridge. To secure Japanese air superiority, needed for the success of the plan, on May 28 Tsuji sent the 2nd Air Group in an airstrike against Tamsag Bulak. The raid was highly successful and around 100 Soviet planes destroyed, but the strike was against General Staff orders and this soured relations between them and the Kwantung Army. In the Far East, General Shtern had organized trucks with supplies and reinforcements eastwards to Zhukov's position. The Japanese misinterpreted this as a Soviet retreat, and decided to rush the offensive's preparations to the start of July. Sensing a forthcoming attack, Zhukov moved his 11th Tank Brigade, 7th Mechanized Brigade and 24th Mechanized Infantry Regiment to the west of the Halha River. The offensive started on July 1 at 4:00 a.m. with the Japanese forces marching undetected 20 miles towards the Fui Heights. The following night, a battalion of the 71st Infantry Regiment silently crossed the Halha River and built a pontoon bridge between the two banks of the river. When the bridge was completed, the main body of Komatsubara's 23rd Division, along with the 26th Regiment, began a slow and arduous crossing. They had to proceed without tank support but could carry their old artillery and antitank guns. The Japanese achieved a complete tactical surprise and found the Soviet forces in a vulnerable position. The battle began on July 3 when General Yasuoka's tanks attacked the 149th Mechanized Infantry Regiment in the eastern bank of the river, while Komatsubara occupied the Bain Tsagan hill on the western bank and continued southward. Unaware of Komatsubara's position, Zhukov ordered his 11th Tank Brigade, 7th Mechanized Brigade, 24th Mechanized Infantry Regiment and the Mongolian 6th Cavalry Division to advance northeastward to Bain Tsagan.