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  • [male narrator] Human history is equal parts

    人類歷史充滿了

  • heroism, tragedy, and misunderstanding.

    英勇,悲劇以及誤解

  • Very rarely have we displayed all three to such a degree

    但在第一次世界大戰以前

  • as in the First World War.

    我們鮮少將這三項表現得如此淋漓盡致

  • This war is called the seminal catastrophe of the 20th century

    這場戰爭被稱為二十世紀災難的導火線

  • because without it, there is no Stalin and no Hitler;

    因為沒有他,就不會有史達林,也不會有希特勒

  • no fascism or World War II.

    不會有法西斯主義或是第二次世界大戰

  • Without it, we don't have a Cold War that leads us to the very brink of annihilation.

    沒有他我們不會有將我們帶到毀滅邊緣的冷戰

  • Nor do we see the Middle East carved up by old men still bitter from four years

    我們也不會看見中東地區被一群因為那四年毫無意義

  • of meaningless, self-inflicted catastrophe.

    的自我毀滅而懷恨在心的老人瓜分

  • Without this war, we probably don't have 9/11

    沒有這場戰爭,我們很有可能不會有9/11

  • or the turmoil in the Middle East today.

    或是現今中東的紛紛擾擾

  • This war ushered in the modern age.

    這場戰爭將我們帶入了現代社會

  • Born in a crucible of gunpowder and toxic smoke

    在火藥及毒氣

  • and the blood of ten million men.

    還有上千萬人的鮮血中鑄造

  • Blood spilled in war from the fields of France to the waters off America.

    那些鮮血濺灑於法國的土地,遠至美國的外海

  • From the Russian frontier to the sands of the Middle East.

    從俄羅斯的前線到中東的黃沙

  • From the Chinese mainland to the deepest parts of the sea.

    從中國的土地到遠洋的最深處

  • This war broke empires.

    這場戰爭摧毀了帝國

  • It shattered the past and forced us to give up our last ties to our medieval understanding.

    他擊碎了過去並強迫我們放棄那中世紀的守舊思想

  • When the smoke cleared and a stunned world climbed out of its trenches,

    當煙消霧散後飽受震懾的世界從戰壕中爬出

  • we lived in a new age with new powers, new ideas, and new terrors.

    我們已進入了新的世紀,有著新的力量,新的想法以及新的恐懼

  • It is the defining event of the 20th century.

    他是20世紀最具代表性的事件

  • It is the Great War.

    他是世紀之戰

  • But it's not the war itself that we're here to talk about today.

    但我們今天不是要談論戰爭本身

  • Hopefully, over the course of this show,

    或許隨著時間過去,我們會

  • a bit at a time, we'll slowly, story by story,

    一次一點的,一個故事一個故事慢慢

  • cover the sprawling events of this turning point in history.

    討論這歷史轉捩點

  • But today?

    今天呢?

  • Today we are focused on the events that led to this war.

    今天我們要討論的是導向這場戰爭的事件

  • For if the war itself is the seminal catastrophe of the 20th century,

    因為如果戰爭本身是20世紀災難的導火線

  • then the weeks before the war are its seminal tragedy.

    那戰前的幾週便是他悲劇的導火線

  • In these next few episodes, we'll focus on the very human, very personal stories

    之後數集,我們會著重於那些非常私人非常切身的故事

  • that led Europe to consume itself,

    那些帶領歐洲自我吞噬

  • to ignite itself in one suicidal blaze from which it still hasn't recovered,

    並將其陷入一個自毀的烈焰,甚至至今仍未復原

  • because it is a tragedy of the highest order.

    那最高等級的悲劇

  • It's like a play, a Greek epic,

    他就像一場戲劇,希臘史詩

  • a story so grand we would think it must be fiction

    一場壯闊華麗到必然是虛構的故事

  • if the scars of the war couldn't still be seen on the fields of France.

    但戰爭的傷疤仍然存在於法國的田野

  • It's Shakespeare living out before us.

    這是莎士比亞重生

  • It begins with the death of a prince and his lady

    他始於一個王子與他太太的死

  • and ends in mass slaughter the likes of which the world has never seen.

    終於前所未見的屠殺

  • So let's set the stage.

    所以讓我們來擺好舞台

  • For a hundred years, Europe has been at peace.

    一世紀來,歐洲國家一直和平共處

  • There have been wars, sure, but they were minor wars, wars on the periphery,

    是有幾場戰爭沒錯,但僅是小衝突,遙遠邊境的戰爭

  • wars without many of the Great Powers involved.

    並沒有需多強權涉入

  • Not since Napoleon did the great states of Europe vie in bloody battle.

    自從拿破崙時代以後歐洲列強不再在沙場上血戰

  • For after the ravages of the Napoleonic Wars,

    在拿破崙戰爭的摧殘之後

  • the statesmen of Europe had come together

    歐洲的政治家團結起來

  • to try to stop such a catastrophe from ever happening again.

    試圖確保這樣的災難永遠不再重演

  • They created a system called the Concert of Europe

    他們建議了一個名為歐洲協調的系統

  • so that whenever war seemed perilously close,

    當衝突的陰雲籠罩時

  • the nations of Europe would come together in a congress, a conference,

    歐洲各國便會召開會議

  • and instead come to a settlement that all parties would abide by.

    並達成一項各方都會遵守的協議

  • But Europe has changed since those weary of the Napoleonic conflicts

    但歐洲已經不再是拿破崙時代那些厭惡戰爭的人

  • first came together to create the Great Concert.

    團結起來召開第一場歐洲協調的政治氛圍了

  • The first and most major change was the formation of Germany.

    首要的改變是德意志帝國的興起

  • At the time our story begins,

    在故事開始時

  • it's important to remember Germany as a nation was only forty years old.

    德意志帝國是個建國不過40年的國家

  • It's a young nation, a strong one,

    他是個年輕強盛個國家

  • a nation looking to claim its own.

    試著在國際尋找自己的地位

  • But to say that Germany was a strong nation is to undersell the magnitude of its creation.

    但僅說他強盛不足以形容他的興起的重要性

  • I mean to say that the birth of Germany

    我要屌達的是德意志帝國的誕生

  • was something perhaps unique in the history of the world.

    或許是史無前例的

  • For overnight, with the signing of a few papers,

    一夜之間,在簽屬幾份文件之後

  • the middle of Europe was transformed from a thousand tiny squabbling states

    歐洲的中心瞬間從無數個爭執不休的城邦

  • to the greatest land power the world had ever known.

    轉化為史上最大的陸上強權

  • In one night, suddenly the most powerful nations of Europe,

    一夜之間,歐洲最強大的幾個國家

  • Russia, France, Austria-Hungary, and England

    俄國,法國,奧匈帝國,以及英國

  • were not the most powerful nations in Europe any longer.

    不再是歐洲最強大的國家

  • Overnight in the very heart of Europe had been created a nation

    在一夜之間,歐洲的中心出現了

  • with more manpower, natural resources, and economic strength

    一個除了大不列顛帝國以外,擁有更多人力,自然資源以及經濟後盾

  • than any other nation in the world, except perhaps for Great Britain.

    的大國,遠遠凌駕於他國之上

  • Moreover, this creation was cemented in the defeat of France,

    況且,德國的誕生始於法國的戰敗

  • which at the time was considered the strongest land power in Europe,

    而法國是當時歐洲最強大的陸權國家

  • and at the time of our story, that defeat and its memory still run deep.

    在這件故事開始時,那場慘敗依然深深烙印在腦海裡

  • And now look at the world from the perspective of that powerful new German nation.

    現在請站在德國的角度看看世界舞台

  • Here they are, arguably the most powerful country in the world,

    在此,他們或許是世界上最強大的國家

  • and yet they see themselves being denied all the rights of a great world power.

    但他們卻被拒絕許多世界強權應擁有的權益

  • Britain and France held territories across the globe.

    英國和法國的殖民地遍布全球

  • Even the Netherlands, a nation which the might of the new Germany

    甚至是荷蘭,一個德國

  • can wipe off the face of the earth in a week,

    能在一周內踏平的國家

  • had colonies from Asia all the way to Africa.

    從亞洲一路到非洲都有殖民地

  • But Germany, for all their strength,

    但德國,縱使強大

  • had been denied those possessions simply because their nation was young.

    依然被拒絕這些,僅僅因為他們的國家過於年輕

  • Imagine what this does to the balance of power.

    想像一下這對權力平衡的影響

  • Imagine what this does to the geopolitical scene.

    想像一下當時地緣政治的型態

  • Think what would happen today if, say,

    想像一下如果今日

  • the entire EU declared themselves a single nation

    整個歐盟宣布成為一個國家

  • with a single economy, a single military, and a single foreign policy.

    有著單一的經濟,軍事,外交系統

  • Imagine if they said that they want greater access to Middle Eastern oil.

    想像一下,當他們想要在中東的石油產業發展

  • And Russia and the United States said,

    但美國及俄國告訴他們

  • No, we were here first.”

    不,我們先來的

  • Imagine now if representatives from Russia and the United States smiled

    現在想像美國及俄國的代表微笑

  • and told this young nation that they'd be happy

    並告訴這個年輕的國家

  • to continue to sell them oil at an inflated price, though.

    不過呢,我們願意用高價賣石油給你喔!

  • This was the position Germany found itself in.

    這就是當時德國所面臨的狀況

  • How was the Concert of Europe,

    在這種情況下,歐洲協調

  • a system built around a balance of power and compromise,

    一個建立於權力平衡和退讓的系統

  • to last in these circumstances?

    如何在這樣的環境下維持?

  • And yet, for forty years, it did.

    但是他真的成功地維持了四十年

  • And this brings us to the second major change since the Napoleonic Wars:

    而這就帶我們到了拿破崙戰爭之後第二個重大的改變

  • The men.

    人物

  • The seventy years after those wars was a time of giants,

    戰後的七十年之間是巨人的時代

  • men who towered over the world stage.

    這些人在世界舞台上佇立

  • Time and again here, Europe rolled well on the dice of history

    這段時間歐洲在歷史的牌局上手氣很好

  • and came up with leaders who were capable of navigating an increasingly complex

    不斷的出現能夠在風雨中領航的人物

  • and increasingly modern geopolitical world.

    他們的能力足以駕馭這複雜繁瑣的政治生態

  • In the 1800s, Russians saw men like Alexander II,

    在十九世紀,俄國出現了亞歷山大二世

  • who understood that Russia needed to modernize to survive.

    他了解俄羅斯必須邁向現代化才能生存

  • He began dismantling serfdom, reformed the judicial practices,

    他取消了農奴制度,改良了司法

  • encouraged universities and pursued peace,

    鼓勵大學的建置以及推廣和平

  • understanding that Russia was in no position to fight the major European powers.

    因為他了解俄國不足以挑戰歐洲各個強權

  • Like all the men here, this guy was not all chuckles and sunshine.

    像所有的領袖一樣,他也不是個軟弱的人

  • Alexander II brutally suppressed revolutionaries and separatists

    亞歷山大二世凶狠的鎮壓境內的

  • in the territories Russia controlled.

    革命軍及分離主義者

  • Still, he was effective without question.

    不過毫無疑問地,他非常有效率

  • By 1900, we have in Russia Nicholas II,

    到二十世紀,我們有了尼古拉二世

  • a deeply reactionary, deeply conservative man,

    一個極為被動,極為保守的人

  • who history records as being of middling intellect

    在歷史上他被記載為資質平庸

  • with neither the training nor the inclination to properly rule.

    既沒有治理的意願亦沒有獲得應有的訓練

  • His reign is a catalog of embarrassing mismanagement.

    他在位期間充滿了難堪的管理不當

  • This is the man who fell under the sway of the mystic Rasputin.

    這是一位被秘術師拉斯普丁洗腦的人

  • This is a man who couldn't even coordinate his own coronation,

    這是一位連自己的登基典禮都無法處理好的人

  • a man who let 1300 people die in a human stampede on the day he was crowned

    一位讓一千三百人在他即位當天慘遭踐踏而死

  • because, I kid you not, there was not enough beer and pretzels.

    因為,這不是開玩笑的,他準備不夠的啤酒以及椒鹽卷餅

  • And this is the man who held a ball that day anyway because,

    這是一位依然堅持當天舞會照常舉行的男人

  • hey, while let a few hundred deaths spoil your day.

    因為為甚麼要讓數百人的死傷破壞你的奢華慶祝呢

  • And this is the man who will, in the end,

    而這位男人,到最後

  • hold the fate of the world in his hands.

    會握有世界的命運在自己手中

  • And by this point in Austria, we have as emperor an 84-year-old man,

    在這個時候的奧地利,我們有位84歲的老皇帝

  • two years away from his death and battered by the weight of the life he's led.

    距離死期僅剩兩年,背負著一輩子累積的沉重負擔

  • His foreign minister, Berthold, is neither a bad man nor a stupid man,

    他的外交部長,貝西托爾德,既不是個壞人也不是個愚笨的人

  • but he is a weak and vacillating man

    但他是個軟弱且優柔寡斷的人

  • at a time when European politics are all about strength.

    試著生存於力量大於一切的歐洲政治氛圍

  • And Germany?

    那德國呢?

  • Germany during the twenty years following its creation had unquestionably

    德國在建國後的二十年中擁有

  • one of the greatest diplomats the world has ever seen:

    無庸置疑,世界上最偉大的外交官

  • Otto von Bismarck.

    奧托 馮 俾斯麥

  • This is a man of great ability and great appetite;

    這位男人有強大的能力以及龐大的野心

  • a man known to smoke three cigars at once

    他以一次抽三根雪茄聞名

  • and down a bottle of champagne at breakfast;

    並在早餐時一次喝下整瓶的香檳

  • a man who probably deserves an entire episode just to himself,

    他值得自己的一系列影片

  • but for our purposes, he is the man who held the Concert of Europe together

    但在這裡,他就是那位維持歐洲協調

  • under the incredible strain of the creation of the new German state.

    在全新的德意志帝國的龐大壓力下蓬勃發展的人

  • His life's work was to ensure that France and Russia never allied

    他畢生的工作就是確保法國與俄國絕不聯盟

  • so that Germany would never be surrounded.

    以保證德國不被包圍

  • This was his nightmare, his greatest fear,

    那是他的惡夢

  • and in this, like in many things, he turned out to be right.

    而在這裡,就像所有的事情一樣,他之後被證明是正確的

  • He famously said that the great European conflagration

    他曾經說過吞噬歐洲的戰火

  • would come from some damn fool thing in the Balkans,

    將來自巴爾幹半島的某項蠢事

  • and he warned Kaiser Wilhelm II that within 20 years

    並警告威廉二世,在二十年內

  • his bellicose policies would destroy the Kaiser Reich,

    他那鷹派的政策將摧毀德意志帝國

  • and he was correct, almost to the day.

    而他被證明是正確的,甚至幾乎分秒不差

  • But he was fired by Kaiser Wilhelm II,

    但他被威廉二世開除了

  • who has too much historical baggage to get an accurate view of.

    因為他背負了太多的歷史包袱而無法看清俾斯麥的建言

  • Suffice it to say that the Kaiser often ends up with a reputation for feeling inadequate,

    威廉皇帝經常被認為與前輩有所落差

  • having been born with a withered arm

    他出生時有一隻手萎縮

  • and growing up hounded by his mother,

    且被母親溺愛

  • he came to believe that he had to prove he was masculine,

    因此他總是認為必須證明自己的男子氣概

  • and so set out to break with Bismarck's policies

    因此與俾斯麥的外交政策切割

  • and show that he was his own man

    已宣告自己無法被人指使

  • by abandoning the German alliance with Russia

    且擅自與俄國斷交

  • and moving Germany toward a much more expansionist stance.

    朝向武力擴張的方向發展