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  • A woman enters an enemy army camp.

    Translator: Vivianna Cheong Reviewer: Thomas Tam

  • When the watchmen stop her,

    女人剛走入敵人軍營

  • she says she's willing to tell her people's secrets to the ranking general.

    當守衛想要阻止佢嗰陣

  • But she isn't actually a traitor.

    佢話佢要把自己嘅國民秘密 話畀將軍聽

  • On her fourth day under the general's protection,

    講實,佢並唔係叛徒

  • she waits for him to get drunk and beheads him,

    喺將軍保護之下嘅第四日

  • saving her people from his tyranny.

    女人想趁將軍喝醉咗 將佢個頭斬下來

  • This is the biblical story of how the heroine Judith

    使國民擺脫將軍嘅暴政

  • slays the brutal Holofernes.

    呢個係天主教聖經 《友弟德傳》嘅故事

  • It features in countless works of art, including the Sistine Chapel.

    Judith 將殘暴嘅 Holofernes 斬殺

  • But the most iconic depiction of all was painted by an artist

    個故仔係好多藝術品嘅題材 包括西斯汀禮拜堂嘅壁畫

  • who tackled this ambitious scene when she was just 19 years old.

    但當中最具代表性嘅係

  • Her name was Artemisia Gentileschi,

    出自一位僅 19 歲 女畫家嘅手筆

  • though many scholars refer to her simply as Artemisia, like other Italian masters.

    佢就係 Artemisia Gentileschi

  • So who was Artemisia, and what sets her depiction apart from the rest?

    好多學者只係稱佢為 Artemisia 好似其他意大利嘅大師噉

  • Artemisia received her artistic training from her father Orazio Gentileschi.

    噉樣,邊個係 Artemisia? 到底係也嘢使佢嘅作品獨當一面呢?

  • He tutored her in the dramatic new style of painting pioneered

    Artemisia 跟隨父親 Orazio Gentileschi 學習繪畫

  • by the artist Caravaggio.

    父親輔導佢開創了戲劇性的新畫風

  • This style, called the Baroque, built upon earlier Renaissance traditions.

    係由大師 Caravaggio 所創

  • While Renaissance artists had focused on imitating the classical Greeks,

    文藝復興早期傳統嘅畫風 巴洛克風格

  • depicting moments of calmness or poise amidst intensity,

    文藝復興嘅藝術家 側重喺模仿古希臘畫家

  • Baroque artists emphasized the climactic moment of a story with dynamic action.

    如何喺富張力嘅場景中 捕捉靜止嘅姿態

  • Baroque works also dial up the drama through composition

    巴洛克藝術家用動態嘅動作 強調故事高潮嗰一刻

  • and extreme contrasts of light and dark, called chiaroscuro or tenebrism.

    巴洛克畫風突顯戲劇張力 往往透過構圖

  • Taken together, the effect is a more direct emotional appeal to viewers.

    及極端光暗對比,亦稱為 明暗對照法或暗色調主義

  • Though Artemisia drew from Caravaggio's style,

    綜合來睇,效果是對觀眾 更直接的情感訴説 。

  • by many accounts,

    雖然 Artemisia 效法 Caravaggio 嘅畫風

  • her rendering outmatched the older master's depiction of the same story.

    但好多講法

  • Like Artemisia, Caravaggio focused on the moment of the beheading,

    都讚譽她的描繪更勝一籌

  • dramatically contrasting light and dark and emphasizing the gore.

    Caravaggio、Artemisia 同樣專注喺斬首嗰刻

  • But his painting lacks the visceral impact of Artemisia's.

    並利用強烈嘅明暗對比 凸顯場景嘅血腥

  • Where Caravaggio's heroine keeps her distance from the bloody act,

    但佢缺乏咗 Artemisia 所呈現本能嘅爆發力

  • Artemisia's Judith pushed up her sleeves and wedged her knee on the bed

    Caravaggio 畫筆下嘅女主角 與血腥行為保持距離

  • to counter Holofernes' resistance.

    但 Artemisia 嘅友弟德 卻掀起衫袖把膝頭跪在床上

  • Her body has a heft that makes the action believable,

    使 Holoferne 動彈不得

  • and the viscous streams of blood soaking the sheets are highly naturalistic.

    女主角身體嘅沉重 使整個斬殺動作更可信

  • The blood spraying from the severed artery in Caravaggio's

    黐立立嘅血滲透咗床單 極具自然主義色彩

  • looks stilted and artificial by comparison.

    Caravaggio 描繪 切斷動脈噴出嘅鮮血

  • And yet this isn't even her most celebrated painting of the scene.

    相比之下顯得做作

  • She finished this painting in 1613,

    但呢幅油畫並唔係 Artemisia 最得意嘅作品

  • shortly after marrying and moving to Florence,

    佢喺 1613 年完成作品

  • where she found professional success

    佢嗰時已結婚 搬到佛羅倫斯居住

  • following a very difficult period in her life.

    佢嘅繪晝喺當地得到認同

  • In 1611, a colleague of her father's, Agostino Tassi,

    喺之前佢經歷咗 一段痛苦嘅日子

  • nicknamedlo Smargiasso,” orthe bully,” raped her.

    1611 年,佢遭到父親嘅拍檔 Agostino Tassi 強姦

  • When Artemisia told her father,

    此人亦被稱為「曬命」 或「霸凌者」

  • he filed charges for the crime offorcible violation of a virgin”—

    當佢講畀父親聽被強姦

  • a designation that meant Tassi had damaged Orazio's property.

    父親 Orazio 控告 Tassi 「強行侵犯處女」罪——

  • Rape laws centered almost entirely on young women's bodies

    表示佢破壞咗自己嘅財產

  • as commodities owned by their fathers.

    當時嘅強暴法視年輕婦女嘅身體

  • Tassi's trial lasted for seven months,

    係佢哋父親嘅擁有物品

  • during which Artemisia was subjected to interrogation

    Tassi 嘅強暴案審咗七個月

  • and torture with thumbscrews as she testified against him.

    期間,Artemisia 須接受審問

  • Tassi was ultimately found guilty,

    她作證時要受指旋螺絲酷刑折磨

  • but his powerful patrons managed to have his sentence revoked.

    最後,Tassi 被判有罪

  • Some scholars have suggested that Artemisia started the painting

    但佢強大嘅讚助人 設法撤銷咗佢嘅判決

  • while the trial was still underway.

    有喲學者推斷 Artemisia 喺官司期間

  • Many have debated whether the rape influenced her work.

    開始創作呢幅作品

  • Artemisia revisited the subject of Judith repeatedly.

    好多學者都爭論佢遭到施暴 有否對創作帶來影響

  • One painting shows Judith and her maidservant

    Artemisia 反覆探索 友弟德嘅故事

  • trying to leave the enemy encampment.

    佢嘅一幅作品 描繪友弟德同婢女

  • Here, Artemisia added a tiny ornament in Judith's hair,

    試圖逃離敵人營地嘅一幕

  • possibly referencing David, the protector of Florence,

    Artemisia 在友弟德嘅髮上 添加了一個細小嘅裝飾物

  • with a nod to Michelangelo.

    有可能係暗示佛羅倫斯 守護嘅人 David

  • On the sword's hilt there's a screaming Gorgon or Medusa

    亦向 Michelangelo 致敬

  • both female archetypes evoking rage and power

    劍柄上刻有蛇髮女妖 Gorgon 或 Medusa 尖叫嘅臉容

  • which link the work to Caravaggio.

    兩個女性原型 都喚起咗憤怒同力量

  • Artemisia painted her most famous portrayal of Judith between 1618 and 1620.

    跟 Caravaggio 嘅作品 連結埋一齊

  • The composition is similar to that of her first painting from 1613,

    喺 1618 至 1620 年間 Artemisia 繪畫咗最世界聞名嘅友弟德

  • but has meaningful details for those who look closely.

    這部作品的構圖 與佢 1613 年嘅作品相似

  • The sword more directly resembles a crucifix,

    但仔細啲睇卻找到 當中意味深長嘅細節

  • heightening the sense that Judith's vengeance was a holy act ordained by God.

    劍嘅外形更似係個十字架

  • Artemisia also added a bracelet featuring the goddess of the hunt

    強調友弟德喺復仇 係上帝安排嘅聖潔舉動

  • her namesake, Artemis.

    Artemisia 亦添加咗一隻 描繪狩獵女神 Artemis 嘅手鈪

  • This signature is one of the many ways her art holds true to a sentiment

    女神跟畫家同名

  • that she expressed near the end of her life:

    呢種簽名喺佢生命將要結束時 眾多藝術表達方式之一

  • The works will speak for themselves.”

    表現佢忠誠嘅情感:

A woman enters an enemy army camp.

Translator: Vivianna Cheong Reviewer: Thomas Tam

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Artemisia Gentileschi: The woman behind the paintings - Allison Leigh

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2022 年 03 月 12 日
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