Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

由 AI 自動生成
  • On April 8th 2022, the European Union

    2022年4月8日,歐盟

  • issued a fifth round of sanctions against Russia.

    發佈了對俄羅斯的第五輪制裁。

  • "And, ladies and gentlemen, I think that measures

    "而且,女士們,先生們,我認為,措施

  • on oil, and even gas,

    關於石油,甚至天然氣。

  • will also be needed sooner or later."

    遲早也會被需要。"

  • Did you get that?

    你明白了嗎?

  • Even gas will also be needed sooner or later

    "即使是天然氣也遲早會被需要"

  • In other words, not now.

    換句話說,不是現在。

  • Since the war in Ukraine began,

    自從烏克蘭的戰爭開始以來。

  • the EU has imposed sanctions that restrict the flow

    歐盟已經實施制裁,限制了中國的資金流動。

  • of Russian money, and goods...

    俄羅斯的金錢和貨物...

  • they've targeted banks, companies, individuals...

    他們的目標是銀行、公司、個人...。

  • But natural gas remains untouched.

    但天然氣仍未被觸及。

  • The EU gets nearly a quarter of its energy from gas.

    歐盟有近四分之一的能源來自天然氣。

  • And nearly half of it comes from Russia: the world's largest gas exporter.

    而其中近一半來自俄羅斯:世界最大的天然氣出口國。

  • Russia delivers the vast majority of its gas to Europe through this network of pipelines.

    俄羅斯通過這個管道網絡向歐洲輸送絕大部分的天然氣。

  • And as the EU's largest economy, nobody buys more of it than Germany.

    而作為歐盟最大的經濟體,沒有人比德國買得更多。

  • Since the invasion of Ukraine began,

    自從對烏克蘭的入侵開始。

  • Germany has paid Russia about 220 million euros a day for gas.

    德國每天向俄羅斯支付約2.2億歐元的天然氣。

  • Germany uses gas to heat more than 20 million homes.

    德國使用天然氣為2000多萬戶家庭供暖。

  • And to power a lot of the country's industry.

    併為該國的許多工業提供動力。

  • And Germany's government has spoken out against sanctions

    而德國政府已表示反對制裁

  • that would limit the flow of it.

    這將限制它的流動。

  • "It's not possible...to cut the gas supplies."

    "不可能......切斷天然氣供應。"

  • But with every payment Germany makes to Russia's state-owned natural gas company...

    但隨著德國向俄羅斯國有天然氣公司的每一筆付款...

  • it's also paying for Russia's war.

    它也在為俄羅斯的戰爭買單。

  • So, how did Germany become so dependent on Russia for something

    那麼,德國是如何在某些方面變得如此依賴俄羅斯的呢?

  • as vital as their energy supply?

    像他們的能源供應一樣重要?

  • And why can't they quit?

    而他們為什麼不能退出呢?

  • Germany was at the literal center of the Cold War.

    德國處於冷戰的字面中心。

  • After World War II, a fortified border separated independent West Germany

    二戰後,一條堅固的邊界將獨立的西德分隔開來。

  • from East Germany and other Soviet satellite states.

    來自東德和其他蘇聯衛星國。

  • WWII had left Germany in ruins.

    二戰使德國成為一片廢墟。

  • But by the 1950s West Germany was experiencing a remarkable economic recovery.

    但到了20世紀50年代,西德正經歷著顯著的經濟復甦。

  • German industries like steel prospered.

    德國的鋼鐵等產業蓬勃發展。

  • But they needed more energy to power their growing economy.

    但他們需要更多的能源為其不斷增長的經濟提供動力。

  • Meanwhile, over here in western Siberia

    與此同時,在西伯利亞西部的這裡

  • the Soviet Union had just discovered huge natural gas reserves.

    蘇聯剛剛發現了巨大的天然氣儲備。

  • They had a network of pipelines to supply major Soviet cities,

    他們有一個管道網絡來供應蘇聯的主要城市。

  • but extending their pipelines to potential customers in Europe

    但將他們的管道延伸至歐洲的潛在客戶

  • would be a huge infrastructure project.

    這將是一個巨大的基礎設施項目。

  • Then, in 1969, West Germany elected a chancellor with

    然後,在1969年,西德選出了一位有能力的總理。

  • a new foreign policy called Ostpolitik,

    一項新的外交政策,稱為 "東方政策"。

  • focused on bringing the two sides closer together through dialogue and deals.

    重點是通過對話和交易拉近雙方的距離。

  • Energy provided a great opportunity.

    能源提供了一個很好的機會。

  • And West Germany and the Soviet Union struck a deal.

    而西德和蘇聯達成了一項協議。

  • The Soviet Union would supply West Germany with natural gas.

    蘇聯將向西德提供天然氣。

  • And in return, West Germany would provide high quality steel pipes

    而作為回報,西德將提供高質量的鋼管

  • to extend the pipelines.

    以延長管道。

  • It was a major 20-year deal.

    這是一項為期20年的重大交易。

  • To get how this deal locked Germany in,

    要了解這筆交易是如何鎖定德國的。

  • it's important to understand what makes piped natural gas different

    瞭解管道天然氣的不同之處是很重要的

  • from other energy sources.

    從其他能源中獲取。

  • Natural gas, with coal and oil, is one of the three

    天然氣與煤炭和石油一樣,是三個重要的能源來源之一。

  • main fossil fuels used around the world.

    世界各地使用的主要化石燃料。

  • But unlike coal and oil, which can be shipped or rerouted worldwide,

    但與煤炭和石油不同,它們可以在全世界範圍內運輸或改道。

  • piped natural gas is a regional product that depends on proximity.

    管道天然氣是一種區域性產品,取決於距離的遠近。

  • To transport it, gas producers spend millions of dollars

    為了運輸它,天然氣生產商花費了數百萬美元

  • to build pipelines that connect producers and buyers.

    建立連接生產商和買家的管道。

  • Because these pipelines are such big and permanent commitments,

    因為這些管道是如此巨大和永久的承諾。

  • gas deals can link a buyer's energy infrastructure to the sellers for decades.

    天然氣交易可以將買方的能源基礎設施與賣方聯繫在一起幾十年。

  • By the 80s, the Soviet Union built this pipeline network to Europe.

    到80年代,蘇聯建立了這個通往歐洲的管道網絡。

  • And by the 90s, it was supplying Germany with 40% of its gas.

    而到了90年代,它為德國提供了40%的天然氣。

  • Then, the Soviet Union collapsed.

    然後,蘇聯解體了。

  • Russia's state-owned corporation, Gazprom, took over the old Soviet gas pipelines.

    俄羅斯的國有公司Gazprom接管了舊的蘇聯天然氣管道。

  • But, the map had been redrawn.

    但是,地圖已經被重新繪製。

  • Russia's main pipelines now ran through a newly independent Ukraine,

    俄羅斯的主要管道現在通過一個新獨立的烏克蘭。

  • putting a key part of their gas infrastructure on land they no longer controlled.

    將其天然氣基礎設施的一個關鍵部分放在他們不再控制的土地上。

  • So, in order to diversify the routes to Germany, Russia began building new ones.

    是以,為了使通往德國的路線多樣化,俄羅斯開始建造新的路線。

  • In 1999, they finished this pipeline that ran through Belarus.

    1999年,他們完成了這條貫穿白俄羅斯的管道。

  • And in 2005 they began building the Nord Stream pipeline

    而在2005年,他們開始建造北溪管道。

  • along the Baltic Sea to reach Germany directly.

    沿著波羅的海,直接到達德國。

  • They also built pipelines inside Germany.

    他們還在德國境內建造管道。

  • And opened a subsidiary there to operate gas storage facilities.

    並在那裡開設了一家子公司,經營天然氣儲存設施。

  • Including this one here, one of the largest in Western Europe.

    包括這裡的這個,是西歐最大的一個。

  • Russia now had three routes reaching Germany,

    俄羅斯現在有三條路線到達德國。

  • as well as pipelines and storage facilities inside Germany.

    以及德國境內的管道和儲存設施。

  • The gas trade was strong.

    天然氣交易很強勁。

  • But it had also changed Russia's relationship with Europe.

    但它也改變了俄羅斯與歐洲的關係。

  • At the end of 2008, gas price negotiations between Russia and Ukraine fell apart.

    2008年底,俄羅斯和烏克蘭之間的天然氣價格談判破裂。

  • A few days later, Russia cut off gas to Ukraine for 20 days.

    幾天後,俄羅斯切斷了對烏克蘭的天然氣,為期20天。

  • The thing is, because Ukraine was a major transit country,

    問題是,因為烏克蘭是一個主要的過境國。

  • when Russia cut off their gas, they cut off a lot of European gas too.

    當俄羅斯切斷他們的天然氣時,他們也切斷了很多歐洲的天然氣。

  • As a result, all these countries saw a drop in their supply,

    是以,所有這些國家的供應都出現了下降。

  • and tens of thousands lost heat.

    和數以萬計的人失去了熱量。

  • In Poland, at least eleven people froze to death.

    在波蘭,至少有11人被凍死。

  • All this put Europe on alert.

    所有這些都使歐洲處於警戒狀態。

  • It was now clear that through gas flows, Russia held immense power over Europe.

    現在很明顯,通過天然氣的流動,俄羅斯對歐洲擁有巨大的權力。

  • But, up here, another link to Russia was in the works: Nord Stream 2.

    但是,在這裡,另一條與俄羅斯的聯繫正在進行中。北溪2號。

  • A new 11 billion dollar pipeline to run alongside the first Nord Stream

    一條價值110億美元的新管道將與第一條北溪管道並列運行

  • and double the capacity to Germany.

    並對德國的產能進行翻倍。

  • Then, in 2014, Russia annexed Crimea and invaded Eastern Ukraine.

    然後,在2014年,俄羅斯吞併了克里米亞併入侵了烏克蘭東部。

  • In response, the EU issued a series of sanctions.

    作為迴應,歐盟發佈了一系列的制裁措施。

  • Some countries began to wean themselves off Russia's gas.

    一些國家開始斷絕與俄羅斯的天然氣往來。

  • But Russian gas kept flowing to Germany.

    但俄羅斯的天然氣一直流向德國。

  • In fact, Germany imported more gas than ever before.

    事實上,德國進口的天然氣比以往任何時候都多。

  • Today, as Russia's atrocities in Ukraine continue to shock the world,

    今天,隨著俄羅斯在烏克蘭的暴行繼續震驚世界。

  • pressure on Germany is mounting.

    對德國的壓力正在增加。

  • But replacing Russia's gas isn't easy.

    但取代俄羅斯的天然氣並不容易。

  • Because it's been piped to homes and businesses for decades,

    因為它已經通過管道輸送到家庭和企業幾十年了。

  • without a major infrastructure overhaul, Russian natural gas

    如果不對基礎設施進行重大改造,俄羅斯的天然氣

  • can only be replaced with other natural gas.

    只能用其他天然氣替代。

  • And Germany's options for that are limited.

    而德國在這方面的選擇是有限的。

  • The largest European natural gas reserve, here in the Netherlands, is closing this year.

    歐洲最大的天然氣儲備,在荷蘭這裡,今年將關閉。

  • Gas from Algeria and Libya is increasingly used in those countries.

    來自阿爾及利亞和利比亞的天然氣在這些國家的使用越來越多。

  • Most of what is pumped to Europe goes to Italy and Spain.

    輸送到歐洲的大部分東西都進入了意大利和西班牙。

  • And a southern gas corridor connecting Azerbaijan to Europe

    還有一條連接阿塞拜疆和歐洲的南部天然氣走廊

  • is not transporting as much as expected.

    沒有像預期的那樣進行運輸。

  • The other option is Liquified Natural Gas or LNG.

    另一個選擇是液化天然氣或LNG。

  • That's gas that's been cooled until it becomes liquid

    那是被冷卻到變成液體的氣體。

  • and can be transported in these massive ships

    並可通過這些巨大的船隻進行運輸

  • from anywhere in the world.

    從世界的任何地方。

  • But It's a time-consuming and expensive alternative

    但這是一個耗時和昂貴的選擇

  • that requires a lot of new infrastructure.

    這需要大量的新的基礎設施。

  • In the last two decades, European countries have built

    在過去的二十年裡,歐洲國家建立了

  • LNG terminals along their coasts.

    沿海的液化天然氣終端。

  • Germany plans to open 3 in the next 5 years.

    德國計劃在未來5年內開設3家。

  • But as of today, doesn't have any.

    但到今天為止,還沒有任何消息。

  • Replacing natural gas and all fossil fuels with renewables is Germany's ultimate goal,

    用可再生能源取代天然氣和所有化石燃料是德國的最終目標。

  • but that requires a massive and expensive transition

    但這需要一個大規模和昂貴的過渡

  • that won't be complete until 2035.

    這要到2035年才會完成。

  • Meanwhile, at home, Germans are demanding action.

    同時,在國內,德國人正在要求採取行動。

  • According to this poll, the majority of Germans support a boycott of Russian gas.

    根據這項調查,大多數德國人支持抵制俄羅斯天然氣。

  • But economists predict that cutting gas imports could cause an economic recession

    但經濟學家預測,削減天然氣進口可能導致經濟衰退

  • that could cost hundreds of thousands of jobs.

    這可能會損失數十萬個工作崗位。

  • But they have taken some steps.

    但他們已經採取了一些措施。

  • The Nord Stream 2 pipeline was canceled.

    北溪2號管道被取消了。

  • They have also reduced dependence on Russia's gas by 15%.

    他們還將對俄羅斯天然氣的依賴程度降低了15%。

  • And have taken over the Gazprom subsidiary that runs gas operations in Germany.

    並已接管了在德國經營天然氣業務的俄羅斯天然氣工業股份公司的子公司。

  • But the government and business leaders

    但政府和企業領導人

  • continue to push back against sanctioning gas entirely.

    繼續推動反對完全制裁天然氣。

  • Germany is stuck.

    德國被卡住了。

  • And the stakes are now higher than ever.

    而現在的賭注比以往任何時候都高。

On April 8th 2022, the European Union

2022年4月8日,歐盟

字幕與單字
由 AI 自動生成

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋

B1 中級 中文 Vox 天然氣 俄羅斯 德國 管道 烏克蘭

德國為何迷戀俄羅斯的天然氣 (Why Germany is hooked on Russian gas)

  • 1 1
    林宜悉 發佈於 2022 年 05 月 19 日
影片單字