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  • this video was sponsored by kenhub more on them at  the end of the video hello and welcome my name is  

  • patrick and in this video i'll teach you some  of my tips and tricks for remembering all the  

  • skeletal muscles of the upper limb that you would  see in an anatomy class and to make this lesson  

  • more manageable for beginners i'll present  the list in smaller chunks of 4 to 8 muscles  

  • you can find a list of the sections and the time  stamps in the description below and with that  

  • out of the way let's get into the muscles a few of  the muscles that control movement of the arm start  

  • all the way back on the spine so for our first  chunk we'll talk about the muscles that people  

  • usually refer to when they say it's back day the  trapezius is this big muscle that inserts on the  

  • scapula and clavicle but originates all the way  from the base of the skull to the lowest thoracic  

  • vertebrae sometimes you'll see this described  especially in the fitness world as the upper  

  • middle and lower trap muscles but it's important  to remember that they all make up a single muscle  

  • different sections of it just have different  angles of fibers so this one muscle can move the  

  • shoulder in multiple ways but it's still a single  muscle the easiest way to remember this one is by  

  • looking at both sides of the muscle together  it looks like a trapezoid which gives it its  

  • name trapezius the other big superficial muscle is  the latissimus dorsi often just referred to as the  

  • lats it's the widest muscle in the body spanning  from shoulder to shoulder and from the thoracic  

  • vertebrae down to the bottom of the sacrum and all  of those fibers meet up to insert on the humerus  

  • if the lat's name doesn't stick for you then  you can use the latin naming conventions of this  

  • muscle latissimus refers to how lateral these  muscles are and dorsi refers to its location  

  • on the back just like the dorsal fin of a dolphin  if we cut away the superficial trapezius muscles  

  • we'd see three more muscles that originate  on the spine and move the shoulder blade the  

  • rhomboid major and rhomboid minor both originate  on the spine and insert on the scapula helping  

  • us retract our shoulder blades and maintain good  posture the rhomboid major is rhomboid shaped as  

  • the name implies but the rhomboid minor is really  more cylindrical in real life my tip for this  

  • one is to identify rhomboid major first then look  right above it for its little buddy rhomboid minor  

  • also people tend to mix up the rhomboid major  and the serratus posterior superior muscle yeah  

  • they're in similar spots but the rhomboid is more  superficial while the sps is deep the other big  

  • cue is the shape the rhomboid has those straight  geometric edges while the serratus has serrated or  

  • jagged attachment finally a muscle we talked about  in the neck unit the levator scapulae which does  

  • exactly what you think it elevates the scapula but  be careful there are lots of neck muscles in this  

  • area that run superior to inferior the levator  scapulae will be the only one that attaches  

  • vertebrae way high in the neck to the top of the  scapula the next chunk includes the muscles of the  

  • chest and you probably know the root for this one  already pectoralis the big familiar one on top is  

  • the pectoralis major literally meaning big chest  muscle but underneath that is the pectoralis minor  

  • it follows a similar path to the pec major but  doesn't extend all the way to the sternum and  

  • is clearly much smaller hence pec minor as we  move inferiorly we see this cool looking muscle  

  • called the serratus anterior named so because  its jagged pattern makes it look serrated or  

  • sawtooth like a bread knife for those who like to  find these muscles with touch you can feel both  

  • your pec major and your serratus interior contract  when you punch forward with a straight arm  

  • your pec is easy to feel but you may have to press  a little harder near your armpits to feel your sa  

  • finally the intercostal muscles are between  each rib costal is the latin root for rib so  

  • intercostal literally translates to between the  ribs see this video if you want a little more  

  • info on those the next big chunk is the shoulder  joint most of the muscles that move the joint  

  • made of the glenoid fossa and the head of the  humerus the glenohumeral joint the biggest and  

  • most superficial is the deltoid named because it  looks like the greek letter delta a triangle once  

  • you peel away the deltoid you'll find the four  muscles of the rotator cuff what i learned as the  

  • sits muscles the first three the s-i and t can be  easily found on the posterior side of the scapula  

  • and use the big bony landmarks to find their  name the supraspinatus is superior to the spine  

  • of the scapula while the infraspinatus  is inferior to the spine of the scapula  

  • meanwhile the teres minor makes an angle with each  humerus that looks kind of like an m for teres  

  • minor finally the subscapularis the s in the sitz  groups literally means under the scapula if you  

  • think of the scapula like a rock you could pick it  up turn it over and if you looked under the rock  

  • that's where this muscle would be the last muscle  of the shoulder chunk is the teres major which  

  • takes a similar path to the teres minor but as  the name implies something about it is bigger  

  • and actually i don't bother looking at its size  i look at its position it originates further down  

  • the scapula and further down the humerus which  means that this thing has some leverage that  

  • the teres minor doesn't have in fact the teres  major is more like the powerful latissimus dorsi  

  • your pull-up muscle than it is like a rotator cuff  muscle so the teres major is a major mover of the  

  • arm the muscles of the upper arm are a crash  course in latin names and as long as you know  

  • the regional term brachii for upper arm everything  else is intuitive you probably already know the  

  • biceps brachii the two-headed muscle of the upper  arm and the triceps brachii the three-headed  

  • muscle we got brachii to denote the upper arm  and the by and try to denote the number of heads  

  • or seps the coracobrachialis straight up tells you  what it does it attaches the coracoid process of  

  • the shoulder blade to the upper arm likewise the  brachioradialis connects the humerus the upper  

  • arm bone to the radius there's also the brachialis  the stubbiest of elbow flexors honestly i just use  

  • the process of elimination to remember this one  the biceps and brachioradialis had more intuitive  

  • names so the last upper arm muscle has to be the  brachialis finally there's a small muscle on the  

  • back side of the arm that extends the elbowlittle bit it's called the anconeus it's not  

  • as powerful as the tricep so it's a wee accessory  muscle at this point i remember this one because  

  • if you make a cone out of your arm the very tip  is the anconeus i hope you enjoyed the simplicity  

  • in this chunk because the next two are uh more  involved you could say like look at this forearm  

  • all of our human hand dexterity comes at the price  of having a lot of tiny muscles and anatomists  

  • didn't want to give them all fun whimsical names  they get names like the flexor carpi radialis  

  • what's it do it flexes the carpi or hand and it's  on the side nearest your radius the flexor carpi  

  • ulnaris it does the same thing but on your ulnar  side anatomists gave them intuitive names but that  

  • concentrates a lot of multi-syllable muscle names  into the forearm take the palmaris longus a small  

  • muscle with a long tendon that inserts at the  base of the palm for that palmaris part fun fact  

  • quite a few people don't have this muscle on one  of their two hands and some people don't have it  

  • at all i made a video all about that which you can  check out here the pronator teres has a long but  

  • straightforward action name it pronates the arm  pivoting your hand down you can actually palpate  

  • it easily if you put your finger in front of your  medial epicondyle and pronate your hand the other  

  • pronator is a square-shaped muscle all the way  down at your wrist its action pronation and  

  • square shape quadratus give us the name pronator  quadratus these other muscles also use action  

  • plus anatomical region like the flexor digitorum  superficialis it flexes the digitorum or fingers  

  • primarily at the proximal interphalangeal joint  this knuckle closest to your wrist here you have  

  • plenty of other muscles to flex and extend the  small interphalangeal joints but we'll get to  

  • those later now as the name implies if there's a  superficial then there's a deep or what anatomists  

  • call profundus when we're talking about hand  muscles so the flexor digitorum profundus is also  

  • a finger flexor but it's deep to the superficial  version finally there's a special latin root for  

  • thumb it's called pollux so the flexor pollicis  longus is a long muscle that bends the thumb  

  • considering how important it is to be able to bend  your thumb to grip anything it makes sense that  

  • this muscle would have such a big muscle belly  now just like the anterior forearm the posterior  

  • side has superficial and deep sections luckily  they follow the same predictable naming patterns  

  • we'll start from the outside in the anterior arm  had all the flexors so the posterior side has all  

  • the extensors most of the time that leaves us with  mirror opposites like the extensor carpi ulnaris  

  • which follows the same convention it extends  the wrist joint and inserts on the ulnar side  

  • or the extensor carpi radialis longus same thing  it extends the wrist and inserts on the radial  

  • side and while this one is a longus there's also  an extensor carpe radialis brevis that follows  

  • the same rules it's just shorter this muscle is  the extensor digitorum which extends the fingers  

  • it's got a big muscle belly on the forearm  and inserts on the dorsal side of the hand  

  • likewise the extensor digiti minimi extends  a finger but adorably only the tiniest most  

  • minimal finger the pinky and you can feel all of  these too if you put your arm down on the table  

  • you'll feel the different muscles pop up for the  whole hand or just the fingers or just the pinky  

  • it's a great technique to come back to if you're  ever lost on a test when we go a little deeper we  

  • see more action-specific names and the pinky isn't  the only finger with its own dedicated muscle the  

  • extensor indices starts on the ulnar side of the  forearm and is solely responsible for extending  

  • the index finger or forefinger then there's the  thumb again if you spread out your fingers you'll  

  • notice a bunch of tendons around the thumb which  are sometimes called the anatomical snuff box  

  • because you could put some cocaine there and  snuff it a lot clive owen's character in the  

  • nick but there's an anatomic significance  too this snuff box is made of the tendons  

  • that extend and abduct the thumb and these long  tendonous muscles originate on the forearm itself  

  • those muscles are the abductor pollicus longus  extensor polycast longus and extensor polycus  

  • brevis and you'll notice that these muscles insert  at different points on the thumb which helps us  

  • identify them the abductor inserts on the thumb's  metacarpal and has this almost diagonal pull to it  

  • whereas the extensors both longus and brevis cross  over the top of the carpe metacarpal joint at the  

  • base of the thumb the abductor pulls sideways  the extensors pull up from there the difference  

  • between extensor policus longus and brevis is  just the size finally we already saw the pronator  

  • muscles on the anterior forearm so the muscle  that performs the opposite motion must be on  

  • the posterior forearm and it is the supinator  muscle is found all the way up at the elbow  

  • sprawling across the ulna radius and a bit of  the humerus too here's how i remember this one  

  • all of the other muscles of the forearm control  the hand and you can tell because they have long  

  • tendons that insert at the hand but the supinator  only really interacts with the two forearm bones  

  • so supination is the only thing that it can do  the next chunk is the thenar mass a group of  

  • four short muscles that make up the fleshy mass  of your palm collectively they're special muscles  

  • that move the thumb and their names reflect that  because the muscles are named after their actions  

  • my biggest advice is to know your movement terms  and look at the angle of pull the flexor policus  

  • brevis originates at some of the carpal bones and  inserts on the first phalanx and thumb flexion  

  • looks similar to thumb opposition bringing  the thumb and pinky together because of that  

  • relationship the muscle responsible for opposition  is called the opponent's pollicis and is directly  

  • underneath the flexor in reality both of these  muscles work together when curling the thumb like  

  • during writing so it's hard to say that like this  muscle just does this action the next muscle gets  

  • another movement name the adductor pollicis for  this one you just need to know that thumb flexion  

  • is more of a bending while thumb adduction is like  bringing your thumb parallel to the other fingers  

  • from there you can see how the adductor pollicis  just brings the thumb towards the midline finally  

  • the abductor pollicis brevis is the odd one out it  abducts the thumb bringing it away from the palm  

  • so it runs from the medial carpels to the dorsal  side of the thumb and has this giant muscle belly  

  • just slopped along the metacarpal look at it  there's no way that muscle is bringing the thumb  

  • toward the midline it must be an abductor also pro  tip you can palpate the abductor relax your thumb  

  • put your finger on the thenar mass abduct your  thumb and it'll pop up so at this point we've  

  • covered a lot of those hand and finger muscles but  there are still a handful left we had athenar mass  

  • of muscles that control the thumb but we also have  the hypothenar mass made of muscles that move the  

  • pinky remember how we said that opposition is  touching the thumb to the pinky well it takes  

  • two muscles to tingle to finger tango what i'm  trying to say is that the opponent's digitized  

  • minimi is responsible for opposing the pinky thus  completing the motion of opposition it's easy to  

  • see given its diagonal path especially when you  contrast that to the flexor digitized minimize  

  • brevis which pulls directly parallel to the pinky  which curls or flexes it and it's a short guy so  

  • brevis the last in the hypothenar mass is  the abductor digiti minimi this hearty slab  

  • of muscle on the medial side of the hand which  abducts the pinky no surprises there now there's  

  • another misfit muscle near the hypothenar group  called the palmaris brevis it hooks up to a band  

  • of connective tissue called the palmer aponeuresis  and despite its location it doesn't have anything  

  • to do with moving the pinky it actually pulls on  the connecting tissue which lets our hand maintain  

  • a strong grip it's a short muscle connected to  the palm hence palmaris brevis finally there are  

  • a few muscles found directly between the fingers  that let us spread or bring our fingers together  

  • the lumbricals are tiny muscles that originate on  tendons on the palmer side of your hand and insert  

  • on structures at the phalanges called the extensor  expansions and the fact that they cross multiple  

  • joints and twist around from palm to dorsum gives  them a unique action they flex the carpometacarpal  

  • joints and extend the interphalangeal joint giving  us a hand that looks like an l luckily that helps  

  • us remember the name its action gives you an l for  lumbrical the last two are the interossei muscles  

  • literally translating to between bones in  this case they're between the metacarpals  

  • the palmar interossei adduct the fingers or bring  them together while the dorsal interossei abduct  

  • the fingers or spread them apart unfortunately  they look super similar so i use the mnemonic  

  • pad dab to remember them polymer causes  adduction while dorsal causes abduction  

  • fun fact the only reason that spock can do the  vulcan greeting is because of these muscles it  

  • involves both finger adduction and abduction now  these are just the tricks that i personally use  

  • to remember these muscles but if you want another  great resource for learning anatomy then you need  

  • to check out kenhub i use them all the time when  researching and writing these videos and for this  

  • series in particular their written articles and  atlas of muscles have been extremely helpful in  

  • refreshing my knowledge of some of those deeper  smaller muscles they've also got an enormous  

  • library of in-depth videos about muscles histology  vasculature nerves and everything else you'd need  

  • to know in anatomy class all those beautiful  illustrations that you saw in this video came  

  • from them and in addition to their library  of content i also love kenhub's quiz feature  

  • they allow you to build custom quizzes with  different difficulties and they give you feedback  

  • so you can figure out where your weaknesses are  you can use most of kenhub's features for free but  

  • if you want full access to all of their learning  content and quizzes then go to khub dot me slash  

  • corporis to get 10 off your subscription they've  also got a no questions asked seven day money back  

  • guarantee so you can try out the premium version  for seven days and if you don't like it get your  

  • money back if you want to see the next video in  the muscle memorization series then check out this  

  • playlist here otherwise subscribe leave a like  on the video have fun be good thanks for watching

this video was sponsored by kenhub more on them at  the end of the video hello and welcome my name is  

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B2 中高級 美國腔

如何記住上肢和手腕的所有肌肉(How To Remember Every Muscle in the Upper Limb and Arm | Corporis)

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    紅紅 發佈於 2022 年 05 月 19 日
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