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  • Leaving earth to find new homes in space is an old dream of humanity and will sooner or

    在太空中尋找個新家並離開地球不但是個人類久遠的夢想, 也遲早會成為人類生存的必要條件

  • later be necessary for our survival. The planet that gets the most attention is Mars, a small,


  • toxic and energy poor planet that just about seems good enough for a colony of depressed

    且是能源貧乏的星球, 對於一群擠在地下城市中的沮喪的人類來說

  • humans huddled in underground cities.


  • But what if we think bigger? What if we take Venus, one of the most hostile and deadly

    但要是我們想得更遠大呢? 如果我們選擇金星--太陽系中極度不友善且致命的地方

  • places in the solar system and turn IT into a colony? Not by building lofty cloud cities,

    然後將之作為我們的殖民地? 並不是要建立一個又一個的空中都市

  • but by creating a proper second earth? It might be easier than you think.


  • Venus is by far the hottest planet in the solar system with a surface temperature of


  • 460°C, hot enough to melt lead. This heat is due to the most extreme greenhouse effect

    高達460°C, 熱到足以熔化鉛。 而這樣的炙熱是來自太陽系中極端的溫室氣體影響

  • in the solar system. CO2 is great at trapping heateven a rise from 0.03% to 0.04% in

    二氧化碳(CO2)十分擅長捕捉熱, 就算地球大氣中的CO2濃度只從0.03%升到0.04%

  • Earth's atmosphere is heating up our planet right now. Venus's atmosphere is 97% CO2.


  • Also, Venus's atmosphere is 93 times denser than earth's. Standing on Venus' surface

    另外, 金星的大氣更比地球還要稠密93倍 站在金星表面就像是潛入

  • would feel like taking a dive about 900 meters deep into the ocean. The pressure would kill


  • you instantly.


  • It's a truly horrible place! So why should we even bother?


  • First and foremost, Venus is almost as big as Earth and has 90% of its surface gravity.

    首先, 同時也是最重要的, 金星幾乎跟地球差不多大 並且擁有90%的表面重力

  • Surface gravity is a big problem when colonizing the solar system because it is very likely


  • that long stays in low gravity places will have negative health effects.


  • Venus' size means it could be the second largest habitat in the solar system. A new


  • home for billions of humans and trillions of animals. With oceans, lush forests and

    是數十億人類及數兆動物們的新家 擁有海洋、蓊鬱的森林還有美麗的天空

  • a beautiful blue sky. A properly terraformed Venus may be the most pleasant place to live


  • outside of Earth.


  • While we can't exactly terraform Venus today, a slightly more ambitious future version of

    雖然我們並不能真的將金星地球化 但在未來或許一個稍微更具野心的我們能夠接手這項工程

  • us COULD take this project on. It will take a few generations to complete and be a huge


  • challengelike building the great pyramids was for our ancestors. But then it's not


  • like humans have never started projects that took more than a lifetime to complete.


  • Ok! Let's do it!

    Ok! 我們開始吧!

  • Before anything else, we need to cool Venus down and remove the gas that makes up the

    在最一開始, 我們必須把金星冷卻下來 並移除那些覆蓋在金星上極度沈重的大氣

  • extremely heavy atmosphere. As mentioned, there is a lot of it. Around 465 million billion

    就像先前所提到的, 這些氣體數量非常龐大,

  • tons.


  • How do we do that? There are a few options. We could create giant solar collectors powering

    該怎麼做? 我們有一些選擇 我們可以建造一個巨型太陽能集熱器來驅動一大群雷射光束

  • a huge array of laser beams, that heat up the atmosphere so much that it is blasted


  • into space. Although we would need thousands of times the entire power generating capacity


  • of humanity and it would still take thousands of years to remove the atmosphere.


  • Another way is to sequester the atmosphere. Binding the CO2 in different compounds through

    另一個方式是把大氣"隔離"起來 透過化學反應將CO2轉變為不同的化合物

  • chemical reactions. We could mine elements like Calcium or Magnesium on Mercury and shoot


  • them at Venus via mass driver systemsElectric rails that make rockets unnecessary on smaller


  • planets. The metals would combine to bind the CO2 into different carbonates basically


  • forever. But the scale makes the whole thing impractical. We would need several hundred


  • billion tons of material to sequester the CO2 this way. Seems like a waste of material


  • and might take too long.


  • An equally ridiculous idea that could actually work is to put Venus in the shade. Literally.

    另一個一樣瘋狂的想法是, 我們可以用影子把金星遮住, 名副其實地

  • By constructing a huge mirror to blot out the sun to just freeze the atmosphere. The

    我們可以用一個巨型鏡子來遮天蔽日, 以此來冷卻大氣

  • mirror does not need to be complex or massive, just a very thin foil with a little structural

    鏡子不需要非常複雜或非常沈重 只需要一個非常薄的箔片,帶有一點結構支撐

  • support. Building such a large flat surface so close to the sun will turn it effectively

    建造那麼大的一個平面又如此接近太陽 實際上會使它變成一個太陽帆

  • into a solar sail and push it out of position, so instead of one giant circular object, our

    然後推離它的位置 所以與其使用一個巨大圓形物體

  • mirror will consist of many different pieces.


  • Annular slats of angled mirrors can reflect sunlight from one set of mirrors to the next.


  • Mirrors would be angled, reflecting light from one to another until the light is redirected


  • to the back - balancing the force on the front and holding them in position.


  • After a few years of getting the infrastructure in place, things start slowly and then escalate.


  • For the first few decades, the atmosphere slowly cools down but stays dense and deadly.

    在剛開始的幾十年, 大氣緩慢的冷卻但依然稠密又致命

  • Until, after some 60 years it reaches the critical temperature of 31° Celsius. Suddenly,

    直到差不多60年後, 溫度到達關鍵的31°C

  • the Great Flood begins on Venus, as CO2 turns to liquid at this pressure and begins to rain

    突然間大洪水在金星上降臨了 二氧化碳在這個壓力下變成液體並開始下雨

  • down- a constant global rainstorm of unbelievable proportions lasting 30 years. The pressure

    一場規模令人難以置信的全球暴雨將會持續下 30 年

  • and temperature suddenly begin to drop in unison. For almost a century, puddles turn


  • into lakes and oceans.


  • The surface temperature is now -56° Celsius and the pressure has dropped to only seven

    此時表面的溫度已經是 -56°C 而大氣壓力也變成了只有地球的7倍

  • times the pressure on earth. Finally, at a really unpleasant -81°, the CO2 oceans begin

    最後, 在很不舒適的 -81°C, CO2海洋開始結凍

  • to freeze and the rain turns into snow. This leaves us with a frozen Venus covered in oceans

    然後降雨也變成了降雪 留下了一個冰凍的金星,覆蓋在堅硬如岩石的海洋

  • as hard as rock and gigantic CO2 glaciers. What remains of the atmosphere is mostly nitrogen,

    和巨大的二氧化碳冰川中 在差不多三倍地球氣壓時 大氣中幾乎就只剩下氮氣了

  • at about 3 times earth's surface pressure. If you don't mind freezing and suffocating,


  • you can now take a stroll over Venus' surface.


  • But the frozen CO2 remains a bit of a problem. At some point we want to warm up the planet,

    但結凍的CO2還是有一些問題 在某些時候我們會想要將星球暖化

  • but if we do, the CO2 ice will melt and fill up the atmosphere again.

    但如果這麼做, 結冰的CO2將會融化然後再次釋放到大氣中

  • So we need some way to keep it from doing that.

    that. 所以我們需要一些方法來防止這樣的事情

  • One is to simply cover it all with cheap plastic insulation and cover it up with ground-up

    一種是簡單地用廉價的塑膠絕緣材料將其全部罩著 然後用磨碎的金星岩石或海洋覆蓋它

  • venus rock or water oceans. Although some planetary scientists will be very stressed


  • out about us building a new planet containing a potential timebomb like that. A few unfortunately


  • timed volcanoes could melt a lot of CO2 at once and ruin everything.


  • Another obvious solution is to shoot it all out into space and collect it into a small

    另一個明顯的方式是將他們都射到太空中 再把它們搜集到小型衛星來儲存供未來使用

  • moon for storage and future use. We can make this more efficient by using mass drivers


  • instead of rockets, but moving all that mass will still be a pretty intense challenge that


  • will take some time to solve.


  • Whatever we end up doing with the atmosphere, to move forward we need water, which we could

    無論怎麼解決了空氣的問題, 我們接下來需要水, 取自於個冰凍的衛星

  • get from Ice-Moons. Europa, a moon of Jupiter, has twice as much water as Earth's oceans.

    木衛二, 木星的衛星, 擁有2倍地球海洋的含水量

  • Now catching a moon and transporting it through the solar system is not exactly easy.


  • So instead it might be easier to cut chunks of ice off Europa with an army of construction

    所以取而代之的是, 使用大量無人機在木衛二上切割冰塊

  • drones and shoot them at Venus using more of those mass drivers. Space tethers could


  • save us a lot of effort and energy herewe made a whole video explaining how they work,

    太空繫繩可以幫我們省下許多功夫和能源 ──我們做了整個影片來解釋它們是怎麼運作的

  • but in a nutshell, they are slings that can take a payload on both ends.

    總而言之, 它們是可以在兩端承受有效負重的吊索。

  • On Europa, they do most of the work needed to catapult our ice to Venus. The ice hits

    在木衛二上, 他們會負責大部分的工作來彈射冰到金星上

  • the Venus tethers, which gently drop it into the atmosphere, where it falls down as snow.

    冰會碰到金星的繫繩, 然後輕輕如雪一般掉落在大氣中

  • In exchange, the Venus tethers get to catch CO2 ice shot up from below and accelerate

    作為交換,金星繫繩可以捕獲從下方噴出的二氧化碳冰 並將其加速進入軌道。

  • it into orbit. We can remove excess nitrogen using this same


  • method to further lower our atmospheric pressure.


  • After a few decades or centuries, Venus would be covered by a nice, shallow frozen ocean


  • a few hundred meters deep. It would look extremely different from today. A few continents and


  • countless islands have formed. This is beginning to look a bit like our planet!

    幾個大陸和無數島嶼已經形成。 這開始看起來有點像我們的星球了!

  • Now the last and most magnificent phase of terraforming begins: Making the atmosphere


  • breathable and adding life.

    使空氣變得可供呼吸, 還有加入生命

  • First we need light though and we need to heat the planet up again. A Venus day is 2802


  • hours long. More than 116 Earth days. So if we just remove our giant mirror, we would

    一個金星日有2802小時, 比116個地球日還長 所以如果我們就只是移掉我們的巨大鏡子

  • grill half of our planet. Even without the massive atmosphere, temperatures would reach

    會烤熟星球的一半 就算沒有了厚重的空氣, 溫度一樣會上升到無法忍受的等級

  • unbearable levels. The simplest way to create a day/night cycle and let some energy in again,


  • is with another set of mirrors to illuminate our continents and melt our water oceans.


  • Which would let us completely control how much energy we get and where it goes.


  • The atmosphere is now mostly made up of nitrogen and basically devoid of oxygen. So the first


  • inhabitants will likely be trillions and trillions of Cyanobacteria, which can get photosynthesising

    最初的居民可能是數以萬億計的藍綠藻 它們可以進行光合作用並釋放氧氣。

  • and release oxygen. We know that they can quickly turn around the atmosphere of a planet


  • because billions of years ago, they were probably responsible for turning the toxic atmosphere

    因為數十億年前, 它們可能將我們年輕地球的有毒大氣

  • of our young Earth into an atmosphere with enough oxygen for more complex animal life.


  • But not only thatCyanobacteria can fix Nitrogen from the atmosphere and turn it into

    但不只是這樣, 藍綠藻能行固氮作用, 從大氣中獲取氮氣

  • nutrients that can be used by living beings. This way they will essentially fertilize our

    轉變為營養素後來供生命使用 通過這種方式,它們將從本質上地滋養我們死去的海水

  • dead ocean water and prepare it for more complex organisms.


  • On land, our colonists need to grind down some of the former venusian surface to make

    在地面上, 我們的殖民地居民需要磨碎一些以前的金星表面

  • soil for nitrogen fixing plants to grow on. Eventually billions of trees would spread

    為固氮植物生長提供土壤。 最後最終,數十億棵樹會蔓延開來

  • creating large forests, covering massive parts of the continents. Venus would turn green.


  • First the oceans, then the land. To speed things up, CO2 would be strategically released

    一開始是海洋, 接著則是陸地. 為了加速這個過程, CO2會被 有策略性的進行釋放

  • to supply the plants and cyanobacteria. Areas already covered with plants could get extra

    來提供給植物還有藍綠藻. 已經被植物覆蓋的區域可以從我們的軌道鏡中獲得額外的光線

  • daylight from our orbital mirrors, so the plants would be active for most of each day.


  • Maybe, we won't have to do this with the same plants and animals we know today. As


  • genetic engineering matures and our understanding of genetics and the machinery of life expands,


  • we might just engineer life as we need it.


  • All in all, it would take several thousand years to make the atmosphere breathable by


  • humans. In the meantime, you could stroll around with nothing more than regular clothes

    同時, 你只需要著日常衣物跟佩戴氧氣罩就可以隨意漫步

  • and an oxygen mask. Settlers would enjoy a vast new planet, filled with resources and

    定居者會很享受這個寬廣的新星球, 充滿了資源並沐浴在陽光下

  • bathed in sunlight. They might think of new ways to use the vast amounts of carbon dioxide


  • ice and nitrogen orbiting in space above. Industrial processes, rocket fuel or even

    大量的CO2冰和氮氣. 工業的進程、火箭燃料、

  • boosting the terraforming of another planet, like tiny Mars

    甚至促進對其他星球進行地球化的改造, 像是小火星

  • Venus is fully terraformed. Animals roam through vast ecosystems. Cities are being constructed.

    金星已經完全地球化了 動物在廣闊的生態系統中漫遊。城市正在大興土木。

  • Billions of settlers and their descendants make this world their home. They will see


  • images of the past. How Venus was once the most hostile planet around. How it took hundreds


  • of years to freeze hell and to ship in the oceans and another few thousand years to make

    是怎麼花費數百年的時間去結凍這個地獄然後航行在大海上 又是怎麼花費數千年的時間

  • it possible to breathe freely. They will barely be able to believe it.

    讓人們可以自由自在地呼吸。 他們會非常不可置信。

  • Ok. Maybe it is not that easy to terraform Venus and a lot of things must go right for

    Ok. 也許把金星地球化並沒有那麼容易, 也有很多事情在未來

  • this future to become reality. But it is possible and with technology that is within the reach

    必須做對才能使其成為現實 但這是有可能的,而技術是在一個

  • of a motivated and slightly more advanced humanity that wants to venture into space.


  • The only thing that is stopping it is our imagination. And that at least is a problem


  • that's easy to overcome.


  • If you think about it, your imagination is the only thing stopping you from doing all

    如果你想想看, 想像力是唯一阻擋你做所有事情的障礙

  • kinds of things. All you need is a little nudgeand we might just have the right


  • thing to get you started.


  • We are big fans of Skillshare, an online learning community that offers thousands of classes

    我們非常喜歡 Skillshare, 一個提供上千課程的線上學習社群

  • for all skill levels in tons of creative discipines like Illustration, Animation, or Film and

    有各種技能的等級在非常多有創意的專業中 像是像插圖、動畫或電影和影片

  • Video. Or you could try a class on Home Decoration, Growing Houseplants or Playing the Guitar


  • there is something for everyone really.


  • The first 1,000 kurzgesagt viewers to click the link in the description will get a 1 month

    點擊說明中的連結的前 1,000 名 kurzgesagt 觀眾將獲得 1 個月的 Skillshare 免費試用期。

  • free trial of Skillshare. Since we started working with Skillshare,


  • you, our viewers, have taken over 100,000 hours of classesincluding our own three

    你, 也就是我們的觀眾, 就已經拿到超過10萬小時的課程

  • Skillshare classes on how we make our animations! If you want to learn more about motion graphics,

    包含我們的三堂關於我們如何做動畫的課! 如果你想學更多有關動畫的事

  • give them a try.


  • And if you need an extra little push to get you going, maybe get started with some advice


  • on motivation and inspiration. We liked the Scientific Method for Artistis: Find Inspiration,

    我們喜歡Kendyll Hillegas的

  • Get Motivated and Grow your Creative Skills by Kendyll Hillegas. In this class, Kendyll

    Scientific Method for Artistis: Find Inspiration, Get Motivated and Grow your Creative Skills 在這門課裡面,

  • explains her four-phase process for exploring and figuring out your direction as an artist.


  • For us, it was a great way to get into the flow of creating something.


  • But anything that makes you feel excited and sparks new ideas is a great first step.


  • If you want to get creative with new skills and support kurzgesagt, give it a go.


Leaving earth to find new homes in space is an old dream of humanity and will sooner or

在太空中尋找個新家並離開地球不但是個人類久遠的夢想, 也遲早會成為人類生存的必要條件


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