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  • "Peanuts are the most common food allergy."

    "花生是最常見的食物過敏"。

  • In kids, it's actually cow's milk.

    在孩子們看來,這其實是牛乳。

  • "You can cure food allergies."

    "你可以治癒食物過敏。"

  • You cannot cure food allergies right now.

    你現在無法治癒食物過敏。

  • "The best way to find out if you have a food allergy

    "發現你是否有食物過敏的最好方法是

  • is to get tested."

    是要接受測試。"

  • Myth.

    神話。

  • Hi, my name is Dr. Wei Wei Li.

    大家好,我是李偉偉醫生。

  • I am a board-certified adult and pediatric

    我是一名經委員會認證的成人和兒科醫生。

  • allergy immunology specialist.

    過敏免疫學專家。

  • I have been in practice in New Jersey for the past 10 years.

    過去10年中,我一直在新澤西州執業。

  • Hi, everyone. My name is Dr. Payel Gupta,

    大家好。我的名字是Payel Gupta博士。

  • and I am the cofounder and chief medical officer at Cleared,

    我是Cleared公司的聯合創始人和首席醫療官。

  • and I've been practicing in New York City

    而且我一直在紐約市執業。

  • for over 12 years.

    超過12年的時間。

  • Today, we'll be debunking myths about food allergies.

    今天,我們將揭穿關於食物過敏的神話。

  • "Peanuts are the most common food allergy."

    "花生是最常見的食物過敏"。

  • So, even though peanuts is a common food allergy,

    是以,儘管花生是一種常見的食物過敏。

  • it is not the most common.

    它不是最常見的。

  • In adults, it's actually a cross

    在成年人中,它實際上是一個交叉

  • between peanuts and shellfish.

    花生和貝類之間。

  • In kids, it's actually cow's milk.

    在孩子們看來,這其實是牛乳。

  • So, the nine most common food allergens

    那麼,九種最常見的食物過敏原

  • are cow's milk, eggs,

    是牛乳、雞蛋。

  • peanuts, tree nuts,

    花生、樹堅果。

  • shellfish, fish, wheat, soy, and sesame.

    貝類、魚類、小麥、大豆和芝麻。

  • Peanut allergies grab more headline

    花生過敏症搶佔更多頭條

  • because they tend to cause more severe reactions,

    因為它們往往會引起更嚴重的反應。

  • especially in kids.

    特別是在孩子身上。

  • Gupta: Other foods like cow's milk and eggs,

    古普塔。其他食物,如牛奶和雞蛋。

  • when you have those allergies in infancy,

    當你在嬰兒期有這些過敏的時候。

  • you'll grow out of them.

    你會成長起來的。

  • But for peanuts,

    但為了花生。

  • that allergy you're not going to grow out of.

    你不可能從這種過敏中長大。

  • And so I think that for those reasons,

    所以我認為,由於這些原因。

  • it just kind of caught on a little bit more

    它只是在某種程度上抓住了更多的機會

  • than some of the other food allergens.

    比其他一些食物過敏原更重要。

  • "You can use Benadryl to treat an allergic reaction."

    "你可以用苯海拉明來治療過敏反應。"

  • You should not use Benadryl

    你不應該使用苯海拉明

  • as the only means of treating an allergic reaction,

    作為治療過敏反應的唯一手段。

  • for food allergies in particular.

    特別是針對食物過敏。

  • Li: Benadryl is an oral antihistamine.

    李:苯海拉明是一種口服抗組胺藥。

  • It can help with mild symptoms such as itchiness or hive,

    它可以幫助解決輕微的症狀,如瘙癢或蜂巢。

  • but if you have more than just itchiness or hive,

    但如果你不僅僅是有瘙癢或蜂巢。

  • like symptoms of anaphylaxis, such as trouble breathing,

    像過敏性休克的症狀,如呼吸困難。

  • difficulty swallowing, tongue swelling,

    吞嚥困難,舌頭腫脹。

  • or feeling dizzy because of blood pressure dropping,

    或因血壓下降而感到頭暈。

  • you really should go to your epinephrine auto-injector.

    你真的應該去找你的腎上腺素自動注射器。

  • The saying is, "Epi first, and epi fast."

    俗話說:"Epi first, and epi fast"。

  • "Food allergies and food intolerances are the same thing."

    "食物過敏和食物不耐受是一回事"。

  • I see that a lot of people,

    我看到很多人都是這樣。

  • even sometimes medical professional,

    甚至有時是醫療專業人員。

  • will confuse the two,

    將混淆這兩者。

  • but they're really different.

    但它們真的不同。

  • Gupta: So, food allergies are actually mediated

    古普塔:所以,食物過敏實際上是由以下因素介導的

  • by our immune system, and they're caused by

    是由我們的免疫系統引起的,它們是由

  • an antibody called IgE in our immune system

    我們免疫系統中一種叫做IgE的抗體

  • that reacts to food when it shouldn't.

    對食物有反應而不應該有反應。

  • When that happens, we release a chemical called histamine,

    當這種情況發生時,我們會釋放一種叫做組胺的化學物質。

  • which then produces all of those symptoms,

    然後產生所有這些症狀。

  • like hives, difficulty breathing, low blood pressure,

    如蕁麻疹、呼吸困難、低血壓。

  • swelling of the face, of the eyes, of the tongue,

    臉部、眼睛和舌頭的腫脹。

  • vomiting, and sometimes even death.

    嘔吐,有時甚至死亡。

  • Food intolerances,

    食物不耐受。

  • or sometimes called food sensitivities,

    或有時稱為食物敏感症。

  • don't have any of that.

    沒有任何這些。

  • They are not mediated by our immune system.

    它們不是由我們的免疫系統介導的。

  • You have more gastrointestinal symptoms,

    你有更多的胃腸道症狀。

  • and they are not life-threatening.

    而且它們沒有生命危險。

  • Gupta: For example, lactose intolerance is a big one

    古普塔。例如,乳糖不耐受是一個很大的問題。

  • that people have an issue with.

    人們對這個問題有異議。

  • It's actually an enzyme deficiency in your body

    這實際上是你體內的一種酶的缺乏

  • where you can't digest lactose

    不能消化乳糖的地方

  • because you don't have the enzyme called lactase.

    因為你沒有稱為乳糖酶的酶。

  • And so you're going to have that bloating,

    所以你會有那種腹脹的感覺。

  • sometimes diarrhea, and just general feeling

    有時腹瀉,只是一般的感覺

  • of not feeling good after you ingest things

    攝入東西后感覺不舒服的原因

  • with cow's milk or with lactose.

    含有牛奶或乳糖的食品。

  • Li: Knowing the difference between food allergies

    李:瞭解食物過敏的區別

  • and food intolerance will determine

    和食物不耐受將決定

  • what kind of treatment you need to receive.

    你需要接受什麼樣的治療。

  • "Food-sensitivity testing is accurate."

    "食物敏感測試是準確的"。

  • We just don't have good tests

    我們只是沒有好的測試

  • to determine if somebody has a food sensitivity.

    以確定某人是否有食物敏感性。

  • There are commercially available tests

    有市面上的測試

  • called IgG, food-specific IgG testing.

    稱為IgG,食物特異性IgG檢測。

  • They're not FDA approved.

    他們沒有得到FDA的準許。

  • We see IgG as a memory test

    我們把IgG看作是一種記憶測試

  • to show that you have eaten the food,

    以表明你已經吃了這些食物。

  • not an allergic reaction to the food.

    不是對食物的過敏反應。

  • Gupta: Which is different than true food-allergy testing,

    古普塔:這與真正的食物過敏測試不同。

  • which is an IgE test.

    這是一個IgE測試。

  • So those IgG tests that are often sold online,

    所以那些經常在網上出售的IgG測試。

  • we don't go by them.

    我們不按他們的要求去做。

  • Instead of testing, we would recommend a food diary,

    我們不建議進行測試,而是建議進行食物日記。

  • where you can keep track of your symptoms,

    在那裡你可以跟蹤你的症狀。

  • the foods that you've been eating.

    你一直在吃的食物。

  • And then, over time, we'll start to see some patterns.

    然後,隨著時間的推移,我們將開始看到一些模式。

  • That's actually the most accurate and helpful tool

    這實際上是最準確和最有用的工具

  • that we have at this time

    我們目前擁有的

  • to help determine food sensitivities.

    以幫助確定食物敏感度。

  • "The best way to find out if you have a food allergy

    "發現你是否有食物過敏的最好方法是

  • is to get tested."

    是要接受測試。"

  • Myth.

    神話。

  • The best way to find out if you have food allergies

    發現你是否有食物過敏的最好方法

  • is to eat it and to see if you have symptoms

    是吃了它,看看你是否有症狀

  • after eating it.

    吃完後。

  • So, that's called an oral challenge,

    所以,這就叫口頭挑戰。

  • which is considered the gold standard

    這被認為是黃金標準

  • in diagnosing food allergies.

    在診斷食物過敏方面。

  • It's very safe, and it's in a controlled setting

    這是非常安全的,而且是在受控的環境下進行的。

  • with emergency medication on hand.

    手頭有緊急藥物。

  • You can get an IgE blood test done at home.

    你可以在家裡做一個IgE血液測試。

  • We might get people showing up as possible positives

    我們可能會讓人們作為可能的正面人物出現

  • to some of the foods,

    到一些食物。

  • but it doesn't mean anything

    但這並不意味著什麼

  • unless you've actually reacted to the food.

    除非你真的對食物有反應。

  • For example, if I have a patient that comes in

    例如,如果我有一個病人進來了

  • who ate peanut and shrimp sauce

    吃花生和蝦醬的人

  • and then they had a reaction

    然後他們就有了反應

  • and we're trying to determine,

    而我們正試圖確定。

  • was it the shrimp or was it the peanut

    是蝦子還是花生?

  • that they were reacting to?

    他們所反應的是什麼?

  • That's when those IgE tests

    這就是那些IgE測試的時候

  • and the skin tests that we do are super helpful

    我們所做的皮膚測試是非常有幫助的。

  • in helping us determine what the person reacted to.

    在幫助我們確定該人的反應時。

  • "You can cure food allergies."

    "你可以治癒食物過敏。"

  • You cannot cure food allergies right now.

    你現在無法治癒食物過敏。

  • The only food that we currently

    我們目前唯一的食物是

  • have an FDA-approved protocol for

    有一個FDA準許的方案,用於

  • is for peanut allergy.

    是針對花生過敏症。

  • Oral immunotherapy for peanut allergy

    花生過敏的口服免疫療法

  • is where you get small amounts

    是你獲得少量的

  • of the peanut allergen over time.

    花生過敏原隨著時間的推移而變化。

  • In the beginning, you get monitored to make sure

    在開始的時候,你得到監測,以確保

  • that you're not having reactions right away.

    你沒有立即產生反應。

  • And then the critical thing is

    然後最關鍵的事情是

  • to take that amount of peanut every single day.

    每一天都要吃那麼多的花生。

  • If they don't, if they miss a dose,

    如果他們不這樣做,如果他們錯過了一個劑量。

  • then it could kind of set things back,

    那麼它可能會使事情倒退。

  • and they could have a reaction

    而且他們可能會有反應

  • the next time that they're exposed to the peanut protein.

    下次他們再接觸到花生蛋白時,就會出現這種情況。

  • And I will add to that,

    我再補充一下。

  • oral immunotherapy will lead to a temporary state

    口服免疫療法會導致暫時的狀態

  • of desensitization or tolerance,

    的脫敏或容忍。

  • but not a permanent cure.

    但不是永久性的治療。

  • I would avoid the word "cure,"

    我將避免使用 "治癒 "一詞。

  • because it can lead to misunderstanding for patients.

    因為這可能導致病人的誤解。

  • "Allergic reactions won't happen

    "過敏性反應不會發生

  • if you didn't swallow the food."

    如果你沒有吞下食物。"

  • Myth.

    神話。

  • Even touching the food

    甚至觸摸食物

  • without ingesting the food

    不攝取食物

  • can cause allergic reaction.

    可引起過敏反應。

  • Gupta: That's why it's important to not touch a food

    古普塔:這就是為什麼不接觸食物很重要的原因。

  • and then touch somebody that has an allergy to that food.

    然後接觸對該食物過敏的人。

  • With shellfish allergy in particular,

    尤其是對貝類過敏的人。

  • because shellfish is usually steamed or boiled,

    因為貝類通常是清蒸或水煮的。

  • sometimes the food allergen protein from the shellfish

    有時來自貝類的食物過敏原蛋白質

  • can actually end up in some of that steam or that vapor.

    實際上可以在一些蒸汽或蒸氣中結束。

  • And so therefore it is, to a certain degree, airborne.

    是以,在某種程度上,它是空氣傳播的。

  • And if somebody who's highly allergic to that food

    如果有人對這種食物高度過敏的話

  • enters a room where shellfish is being boiled or cooked,

    進入正在煮沸或烹調貝類的房間。

  • they may start having symptoms,

    他們可能開始有症狀。

  • even without ingesting the food.

    即使沒有攝取食物。

  • "Each allergic reaction will be worse than the last."

    "每一次過敏反應都會比上一次更嚴重。"

  • So, that's a myth.

    所以,那是一個神話。

  • The reaction can be unpredictable.

    反應可能是不可預知的。