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  • On October 21st, 1909, 125 residents of an affluent Minneapolis neighborhood

    譯者: Man Chun Ma 審譯者: Thomas Tam

  • approached William Simpson, who'd just bought a plot in the area,

    1909 年 10 月 21 日,明尼亞波里斯 富人區的 125 名居民

  • and told him to leave.

    逼近在這個區域剛購買 一塊小地皮的威廉·辛普森,

  • The Simpsons would be the second Black family

    要求他離開。

  • in the otherwise white neighborhood, where they intended to build a home.

    辛普森家族是這清一色白人社區中的

  • When the Simpsons refused offers to buy them out,

    第二個黑人家庭, 他們想在此落地生根。

  • their neighbors tried blocking their home's construction.

    在辛普森家族拒絕被錢打發後,

  • They finally moved into their house, but the incident had a ripple effect.

    鄰居嘗試阻擋他們房子的施工。

  • Just a few months after the mob harassed the Simpsons,

    他們最終成功搬了進去, 但同時間,卻引起了連鎖反應。

  • the first racially restrictive covenant was put into place in Minneapolis.

    在辛普森家族被暴民 騷擾僅僅數個月後,

  • Covenants are agreements in property deeds that are intended to regulate

    明尼亞波里斯社區實施了 第一條種族限制條款。

  • how the property is to be used.

    條款是存在於產業契約的協議中,

  • Beginning in the mid-1800s,

    用意是控制產業如何使用。

  • people in the United States and elsewhere began employing them in a new way:

    從十九世紀中期開始,

  • specifically, to racially restrict properties.

    美國和其他地方的人 開始賦予條款新的意義:

  • They wrote clauses into deeds that were meant to prevent all future owners

    專門限制使用產業的種族。

  • from selling or leasing to certain racial and ethnic groups,

    他們在契約中立下條款, 防止所有的未來持有人

  • especially Black people.

    出售或租借予特定種族與族群,

  • Between 1920 and 1950,

    特別是黑人。

  • these racial covenants spread like wildfire throughout the US,

    在 1920 到 1950 年間,

  • making cities more segregated and the suburbs more restricted.

    這些種族的條款在美國火速蔓延,

  • In the county encompassing Minneapolis,

    使城市更隔離, 市郊更受限制。

  • racial covenants eventually appeared on the deeds to more than 25,000 homes.

    在包括明尼阿波利斯在內的縣城,

  • Not only was this legal,

    種族條款最終出現在超過 25,000 份房屋契約中。

  • but the US Federal Housing Administration

    這不只合法,

  • promoted racial covenants in their underwriting manual.

    美國聯邦住房管理局更在

  • While constructing new homes,

    承保指南中推廣種族條約。

  • real estate developers began racially restricting them from the outset.

    在興建房屋時,

  • Developments were planned as dream communities for American families

    房地產開發商從一開始 就實施種族限制。

  • but for white people only.

    發展項目標榜爲美國家庭的夢想社區,

  • In 1947, one company began building what became widely recognized

    但只適用於白人。

  • as the prototype of the postwar American suburb: Levittown, New York.

    在 1947 年,一間公司 開始建造紐約萊維敦,

  • It was a community of more than 17,000 identical homes.

    日後變成廣受認可的 戰後美國市郊的樣板。

  • They cost around $7,000 each and were intended to be affordable

    這是個有超過 17,000 棟 完全相同房屋的社區。

  • for returning World War II veterans.

    它們每棟售價約爲 $7,000 美元,

  • But, according to Levittown's racial covenants, none of the houses

    計劃爲從二戰回歸的退伍軍人 提供可負擔的房屋。

  • couldbe used or occupied by any person other than members of the Caucasian race,”

    但是,根據萊維敦的種族條款,

  • with one exception: servants.

    所有房屋「不得被高加索人種(白人) 以外的其他種族者使用或持有」,

  • Between 1950 and 1970,

    只有傭人例外。

  • the population of the American suburbs nearly doubled

    從 1950 到 1970 年,

  • as white people flocked to more racially homogenous areas

    美國市郊人口增加了約一倍,

  • in a phenomenon known aswhite flight.”

    白人大量湧入純白人社區,

  • The suburbs spread,

    這個現象稱爲「白人群飛」。

  • replacing native ecosystems with miles of pavement and water-guzzling lawns.

    白人在市郊擴散,

  • And their diffuse layout necessitated car travel.

    用數英里的道路和耗水的草坪 取代原有的生態系統。

  • American automobile production quadrupled between 1946 and 1955,

    而它們擴散的佈局令汽車變成必需品。

  • cementing the nation's dependence on cars.

    1946 到 1955 年間, 美國汽車產量翻了四倍,

  • Federal programs like the G.I. Bill offered American veterans

    加強了每個人對汽車的依賴。

  • favorable lending rates for buying homes.

    美國軍人權利法案等的聯邦法案 向退伍軍人提供

  • But it was difficult for people of color to take advantage of such resources.

    購房的低息貸款。

  • Racial covenants restricted them from certain neighborhoods.

    但有色人種難以獲得這些資源。

  • And, at the same time, government programs labelled neighborhoods of color

    種族條款限制他們進入特定社區。

  • bad investments and often refused to insure mortgages in those areas.

    而同時,政府計劃把有色人種社區

  • Therefore, banks usually wouldn't lend money to people purchasing property

    標記爲劣等投資,拒絕 爲那些地區提供抵押貸款投保。

  • in neighborhoods of color— a practice that became known as redlining.

    因此,銀行通常不會借錢給

  • So, instead of owning homes that increased in value over time,

    購買有色人種社區物業的人。 這種做法被稱為紅線制度。

  • creating wealth that could be passed to future generations,

    因此有色人種無法擁有

  • many people of color were forced to spend their income on rent.

    隨時間增值的房屋傳給下一代,

  • And even when they were able to buy property,

    他們也被迫把收入花在租金上。

  • their home's value was less likely to increase.

    而就算他們能夠買、

  • The suburbs boasted cul-de-sacs and dead ends that minimized traffic.

    房產也難於升值。

  • Meanwhile, city planners often identified redlined neighborhoods

    市郊地區都擁有死胡同, 最大程度限制了該地區的交通。

  • as inexpensive areas for industrial development.

    同時,城市規劃師常把紅線社區

  • So, the massive freeway projects of the mid-20th century

    列爲適合工業發展的便宜地區。

  • disproportionately cut through redlined neighborhoods,

    因此二十世紀中期的大型高速公路項目

  • accompanied by heavy industry and pollution.

    不成比例地大量跨越紅線社區,

  • As a result, many neighborhoods of color experience higher rates

    伴隨着重工業和污染。

  • of drinking water contamination, asthma, and other health issues.

    因此,很多有色人種社區的居民

  • People targeted by racial covenants increasingly challenged them in court

    有更高機率受食水污染、 哮喘和其他健康問題所苦。

  • and, in 1968, they were finally banned under the Fair Housing Act.

    被種族條款針對的人們 越來越多在法院上訴,

  • But the damage had been done.

    而 1968 年的公平住房法案 終於禁止了這些條款。

  • Racial covenants concentrated wealth and amenities in white neighborhoods

    但是傷害以成,無法消除。

  • and depressed the conditions and home values in neighborhoods of color.

    種族條款使財富和便利設施 集中在白人社區,

  • As of 2020, about 74% of white families in the US owned their homes,

    並且壓低了有色人種社區的 生活素質和房屋價值。

  • while about 44% of Black families did.

    在 2020 年,74% 的白人家庭 擁有自己的房屋,

  • That gap is greatest in Minnesota's Twin Cities.

    而黑人家庭則只有 44%。

  • Across the country, neighborhoods remain segregated

    明尼蘇達雙子城的差距最爲嚴重。

  • and 90% of all suburban counties are predominantly white.

    縱觀美國全地,種族隔離仍然存在,

  • Some landlords, real estate agents, and lenders

    而 90% 的市郊縣,白人占大多數。

  • still discriminate against people based on race

    有些地主、地產經紀和放貸者,

  • rejecting them, steering them to and away from certain neighborhoods,

    仍然會歧視有色種族,

  • or providing inaccessibly high interest rates.

    拒絕他們,讓他們 遠離或集中在特定社區,

  • Gentrification and exclusionary zoning practices also still displace

    亦或者提供難以負擔的高利息。

  • and keep people of color out of certain neighborhoods.

    高檔化和排他性的分區措施

  • Racial covenants are now illegal.

    仍然逼使有色人種遠離特定社區。

  • But they can still be seen on many housing deeds.

    現在種族條款是違法的,

  • The legacy of racial covenants is etched across the pristine lawns

    但它們仍然常見於很多房產契約上。

  • of the American suburbs.

    種族條款的遺害仍然在

  • It's a footnote in the demographic divides of every city.

    美國市郊的嶄新草坪上留有痕跡,

  • And it's one of the insidious architects of the hidden inequalities

    就是每個城市種族差異的註腳。

  • that shape our world.

    它是塑造世界隱藏不平等的

On October 21st, 1909, 125 residents of an affluent Minneapolis neighborhood

譯者: Man Chun Ma 審譯者: Thomas Tam

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關於郊區你可能不知道的事(What you might not know about the suburbs - Kevin Ehrman-Solberg and Kirsten Delegard)

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    Jimmy 發佈於 2022 年 04 月 23 日
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