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  • On sunny days, the Roman citizens of Ostia

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Coco Shen

  • could be found on a long stone bench near the Forum.


  • Friends and neighbors exchanged news and gossip


  • while simultaneously attending to more... urgent business.


  • These public latrines could sit up to 20 Romans at a time,


  • draining waste in water conduits below.

    這些公共廁所能同時 容納二十名羅馬人。

  • Today, most cultures consider trips to the restroom to be a more private occasion.


  • But even when going alone, our shared sewage infrastructure

    現今,大部分的文化認為 去洗手間是屬於比較私人的事情。

  • is one of the most pivotal inventions in the history of humanity.

    但,就算是單獨前往, 我們共同的汙水設施

  • While many ancient religious texts contain instructions


  • for keeping waste away from drinking water and campsites,


  • waste management took a more familiar shape as early as 3000 BCE.


  • Ancient Mesopotamian settlements often had clay structures

    但要到西元前三千年,我們現今 熟悉的廢水管理才開始成形。

  • made for squatting or sitting in the most private room of the house.

    在古時美索不達米亞的定居地 通常都會有一種泥土構造,

  • These were connected to pipes which used running water to move waste

    位在屋內最隱蔽的地方, 供蹲姿或坐姿使用。

  • into street canals and cesspits.


  • Water infrastructure like this flourished in the Bronze Age,

    用自來水將廢水帶到 街上的水渠和糞坑裡。

  • and in some parts of the Indus Valley,

    青銅器時代是這類 水利設施的頂盛時期。

  • nearly every house had a toilet connected to a citywide sewage system.


  • Ancient Cretan palaces even offered a manual flushing option.

    幾乎每間房子都有一間廁所, 與全市的汙水系統相連。

  • Researchers can't say for certain what inspired these early sewage systems,

    古時的克里特宮殿還有 可以手動沖水的廁所。

  • but we do know that waste management is essential for public health.

    研究者無法十分肯定 早期汙水系統的靈感來自何處。

  • Untreated sewage is a breeding ground for dangerous microorganisms,

    但我們確實知道,廢水管理 對於公共衛生十分重要。

  • including those that cause cholera, dysentery, and typhoid.

    沒有處理好的汙水系統 會成為危險微生物的溫床,

  • It would be several millennia before scientists fully understood

    包括造成霍亂、痢疾, 及傷寒的微生物。

  • the relationship between sewage and sickness.


  • But the noxious odors of sewage have recorded associations with disease


  • as early as 100 BCE.


  • And by 100 AD, more complex sanitation solutions were emerging.


  • The Roman Empire had continuously flowing aqueducts

    到了西元一百年,更複雜的 衛生解決方案出現了。

  • dedicated to carrying waste outside city walls.


  • Chinese dynasties of the same period also had private and public toilets,


  • except their waste was immediately recycled.

    中國同時期的王朝也有 私人廁所和公共廁所,

  • Most household toilets fed into pig sties,


  • and specialized excrement collectors gathered waste from public latrines

    大部分的家庭廁所 會把廢水排到豬欄內,

  • to sell as fertilizer.

    專門收集糞便的人則會 從公共廁所收集排泄物

  • In China, this tradition of waste management continued for centuries,


  • but in Europe the fall of the Roman Empire

    這種廢水處理的傳統 在中國持續了數百年,

  • brought public sanitation into the Dark Ages.


  • Pit latrines calledgongsbecame commonplace,


  • and chamber pots were frequently dumped into the street.


  • Castles ejected waste from tall windows into communal cesspits.

    把便壺拿到街上傾倒 也是司空見慣的事。

  • At night, so-called gong farmers would load up the waste

    城堡把廢水從高處的窗戶 朝社區的糞坑倒。

  • before traveling beyond city limits to dump their cargo.

    晚上,所謂的坑式廁所農夫 要裝載大量排泄物

  • Europe's unsanitary approach persisted for centuries,


  • but toilets themselves underwent some major changes.

    在歐洲,這些不衛生的方式 持續了數百年,

  • By the late Middle Ages, most wealthy families had commode stools


  • wooden boxes with seats and lids.

    到了中世紀末,大部分 有錢人家都有坐式馬桶——

  • And in the royal court of England,


  • the commodes were controlled by the Groom of the Stool.


  • In addition to monitoring the king's intestinal health,


  • the Groom's... intimate relationship with the monarch


  • made him a surprisingly influential figure.


  • The next major leap in toilet technology came in 1596,


  • when Sir John Harrington designed the first modern flush toilet

    廁所技術的下一個大躍進 出現在一五九六年,

  • for Queen Elizabeth.

    約翰哈林頓爵士為伊麗莎白皇后 設計了第一個現代沖式馬桶。

  • Its use of levers to release water and a valve to drain the bowl

    透過槓桿來放水並用閥門 將排泄物排出的方式

  • still inform modern designs.


  • But Harrington's invention stank of sewage.

    但哈林頓的發明 讓汙水系統產生惡臭。

  • Thankfully, in 1775, Scottish inventor Alexander Cumming

    好在,在一七七五年時, 蘇格蘭發明家亞歷山大卡明

  • added a bend in the drainpipe to retain water and limit odors.

    把排水管加上了一個彎道 來保留一些水並控制氣味。

  • This so-called S-trap was later improved into the modern U-bend by Thomas Crapper

    後來,這種所謂的 S 型彎管

  • though the termcrappredates the inventor by several centuries.

    被湯瑪斯克拉普(Crapper) 改良為現代的 U 管——

  • By the turn of the 19th century,

    不過「大便(crap)」一詞 出現的時間比這位發明早了數百年。

  • many cities had developed modern sewage infrastructure


  • and wastewater treatment plants,

    許多城市都開發出了 現代的汙水處理設施

  • and today, toilets have a wide range of features,


  • from the luxurious to the sustainable.


  • But roughly 2 billion people still don't have their own toilets at home.


  • And another 2.2 billion don't have facilities

    但大約有二十億人 家中沒有自己的廁所。

  • that properly manage their waste,


  • putting these communities at risk of numerous diseases.

    沒有相關場所設施 來妥當處理他們的廢水,

  • To solve this problem, we'll need to invent new sanitation technologies


  • and address the behavioral, financial, and political issues

    若要解決這個問題, 我們必須要發明新的衛生技術

  • that produce inequity throughout the sanitation pipeline.


On sunny days, the Roman citizens of Ostia

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Coco Shen


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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 廢水 廁所 馬桶 衛生 排泄物

廁所簡史(A brief history of toilets - Francis de los Reyes)

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    Jimmy 發佈於 2022 年 04 月 14 日