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  • On sunny days, the Roman citizens of Ostia

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Coco Shen

  • could be found on a long stone bench near the Forum.

    晴天時,奧斯蒂亞的羅馬公民

  • Friends and neighbors exchanged news and gossip

    會坐在廣場附近的長石凳上。

  • while simultaneously attending to more... urgent business.

    朋友和鄰居會交流新聞和八卦,

  • These public latrines could sit up to 20 Romans at a time,

    同時也在做更……急迫的事情。

  • draining waste in water conduits below.

    這些公共廁所能同時 容納二十名羅馬人。

  • Today, most cultures consider trips to the restroom to be a more private occasion.

    廢水會被排放到下方的水管。

  • But even when going alone, our shared sewage infrastructure

    現今,大部分的文化認為 去洗手間是屬於比較私人的事情。

  • is one of the most pivotal inventions in the history of humanity.

    但,就算是單獨前往, 我們共同的汙水設施

  • While many ancient religious texts contain instructions

    仍然是人類史上最重要的發明之一。

  • for keeping waste away from drinking water and campsites,

    雖然在許多古老宗教的文獻中有指示

  • waste management took a more familiar shape as early as 3000 BCE.

    要讓廢水遠離飲用水及營地,

  • Ancient Mesopotamian settlements often had clay structures

    但要到西元前三千年,我們現今 熟悉的廢水管理才開始成形。

  • made for squatting or sitting in the most private room of the house.

    在古時美索不達米亞的定居地 通常都會有一種泥土構造,

  • These were connected to pipes which used running water to move waste

    位在屋內最隱蔽的地方, 供蹲姿或坐姿使用。

  • into street canals and cesspits.

    這些構造和水管連結,

  • Water infrastructure like this flourished in the Bronze Age,

    用自來水將廢水帶到 街上的水渠和糞坑裡。

  • and in some parts of the Indus Valley,

    青銅器時代是這類 水利設施的頂盛時期。

  • nearly every house had a toilet connected to a citywide sewage system.

    在印度河流域的某些地方,

  • Ancient Cretan palaces even offered a manual flushing option.

    幾乎每間房子都有一間廁所, 與全市的汙水系統相連。

  • Researchers can't say for certain what inspired these early sewage systems,

    古時的克里特宮殿還有 可以手動沖水的廁所。

  • but we do know that waste management is essential for public health.

    研究者無法十分肯定 早期汙水系統的靈感來自何處。

  • Untreated sewage is a breeding ground for dangerous microorganisms,

    但我們確實知道,廢水管理 對於公共衛生十分重要。

  • including those that cause cholera, dysentery, and typhoid.

    沒有處理好的汙水系統 會成為危險微生物的溫床,

  • It would be several millennia before scientists fully understood

    包括造成霍亂、痢疾, 及傷寒的微生物。

  • the relationship between sewage and sickness.

    要到數百年之後,科學家才完全了解

  • But the noxious odors of sewage have recorded associations with disease

    汙水和生病之間的關係。

  • as early as 100 BCE.

    但早在西元前一百年就有記載

  • And by 100 AD, more complex sanitation solutions were emerging.

    汙水的難聞氣味與疾病有關。

  • The Roman Empire had continuously flowing aqueducts

    到了西元一百年,更複雜的 衛生解決方案出現了。

  • dedicated to carrying waste outside city walls.

    羅馬帝國就有持續流動的導水管,

  • Chinese dynasties of the same period also had private and public toilets,

    專門用來將廢水送到城牆外。

  • except their waste was immediately recycled.

    中國同時期的王朝也有 私人廁所和公共廁所,

  • Most household toilets fed into pig sties,

    不過他們的廢水馬上就會被回收。

  • and specialized excrement collectors gathered waste from public latrines

    大部分的家庭廁所 會把廢水排到豬欄內,

  • to sell as fertilizer.

    專門收集糞便的人則會 從公共廁所收集排泄物

  • In China, this tradition of waste management continued for centuries,

    當成肥料來銷售。

  • but in Europe the fall of the Roman Empire

    這種廢水處理的傳統 在中國持續了數百年,

  • brought public sanitation into the Dark Ages.

    但在歐洲,羅馬帝國的隕落

  • Pit latrines calledgongsbecame commonplace,

    讓公共衛生進入了黑暗時代。

  • and chamber pots were frequently dumped into the street.

    稱為「gong」的坑式廁所普及,

  • Castles ejected waste from tall windows into communal cesspits.

    把便壺拿到街上傾倒 也是司空見慣的事。

  • At night, so-called gong farmers would load up the waste

    城堡把廢水從高處的窗戶 朝社區的糞坑倒。

  • before traveling beyond city limits to dump their cargo.

    晚上,所謂的坑式廁所農夫 要裝載大量排泄物

  • Europe's unsanitary approach persisted for centuries,

    並運到城市外去缷貨。

  • but toilets themselves underwent some major changes.

    在歐洲,這些不衛生的方式 持續了數百年,

  • By the late Middle Ages, most wealthy families had commode stools

    但廁所本身發生了重大的改變。

  • wooden boxes with seats and lids.

    到了中世紀末,大部分 有錢人家都有坐式馬桶——

  • And in the royal court of England,

    在木廂中有座椅和蓋子。

  • the commodes were controlled by the Groom of the Stool.

    在英格蘭的皇家法院,

  • In addition to monitoring the king's intestinal health,

    有廁所侍從來管理坐式馬桶。

  • the Groom's... intimate relationship with the monarch

    除了監控國王的腸道健康,

  • made him a surprisingly influential figure.

    侍從與君主的……親密關係

  • The next major leap in toilet technology came in 1596,

    意外讓他成為很有影響力的人物。

  • when Sir John Harrington designed the first modern flush toilet

    廁所技術的下一個大躍進 出現在一五九六年,

  • for Queen Elizabeth.

    約翰哈林頓爵士為伊麗莎白皇后 設計了第一個現代沖式馬桶。

  • Its use of levers to release water and a valve to drain the bowl

    透過槓桿來放水並用閥門 將排泄物排出的方式

  • still inform modern designs.

    仍然是現代馬桶設計的參考。

  • But Harrington's invention stank of sewage.

    但哈林頓的發明 讓汙水系統產生惡臭。

  • Thankfully, in 1775, Scottish inventor Alexander Cumming

    好在,在一七七五年時, 蘇格蘭發明家亞歷山大卡明

  • added a bend in the drainpipe to retain water and limit odors.

    把排水管加上了一個彎道 來保留一些水並控制氣味。

  • This so-called S-trap was later improved into the modern U-bend by Thomas Crapper

    後來,這種所謂的 S 型彎管

  • though the termcrappredates the inventor by several centuries.

    被湯瑪斯克拉普(Crapper) 改良為現代的 U 管——

  • By the turn of the 19th century,

    不過「大便(crap)」一詞 出現的時間比這位發明早了數百年。

  • many cities had developed modern sewage infrastructure

    到了十九世紀末,

  • and wastewater treatment plants,

    許多城市都開發出了 現代的汙水處理設施

  • and today, toilets have a wide range of features,

    以及廢水處理廠,

  • from the luxurious to the sustainable.

    現今有各式各樣的馬桶,

  • But roughly 2 billion people still don't have their own toilets at home.

    從奢侈的到永續的都有。

  • And another 2.2 billion don't have facilities

    但大約有二十億人 家中沒有自己的廁所。

  • that properly manage their waste,

    另外還有二十二億人

  • putting these communities at risk of numerous diseases.

    沒有相關場所設施 來妥當處理他們的廢水,

  • To solve this problem, we'll need to invent new sanitation technologies

    讓這些社區要承受多種疾病的風險。

  • and address the behavioral, financial, and political issues

    若要解決這個問題, 我們必須要發明新的衛生技術

  • that produce inequity throughout the sanitation pipeline.

    並處理沿著整條衛生管線

On sunny days, the Roman citizens of Ostia

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Coco Shen

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 廢水 廁所 馬桶 衛生 排泄物

廁所簡史(A brief history of toilets - Francis de los Reyes)

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    Jimmy 發佈於 2022 年 04 月 14 日
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