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  • Transcriber:

    譯者: 童寧 張 審譯者: Thomas Tam

  • We live in a culture

    我們生活在一個

  • that doesn't take mental health issues seriously.

    不重視心理健康

  • There's a lot of stigma.

    還有許多誤解的社會裡

  • Some people tell you to just suck it up,

    有些人只會叫你撐下去

  • or get it together, or to stop worrying,

    振作起來,不要太擔心

  • or that it's all in your head.

    或說只是你在胡思亂想

  • But I'm here to tell you that anxiety disorders,

    但我想告訴你

  • they're as real as diabetes.

    焦慮症和糖尿病一樣真實

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • [Body Stuff with Dr. Jen Gunter]

    [與珍醫師了解你身體]

  • Hi again.

    哈囉

  • It's Dr. Jen,

    我是珍醫師

  • and I've noticed something with my patients.

    我發現我的病患有個共同問題

  • They often describe to me

    他們時常向我描述

  • some classic symptoms of an anxiety disorder.

    一些典型的焦慮症症狀

  • Constant worry, trouble sleeping,

    持續性擔憂和睡眠障礙

  • tense muscles and struggle with concentrating.

    肌肉緊繃以及無法專注

  • But they aren't getting treatment.

    但他們卻沒有任何治療

  • There's a lot of issues with mental-health care in this country.

    我們國家的心理保健有許多問題

  • Some people don't have insurance that would cover it.

    有些人因為沒有保險而無法負擔醫藥費

  • Some have been dismissed or minimized in the past,

    有些人曾被人小看或打發

  • and don't think seeking help will do any good.

    因此不認為尋求幫助是有效的

  • Some worry about the stigma

    有些人顧慮別人的眼光

  • and whether it could affect future jobs or relationships.

    怕會影響工作和人際關係

  • But severe anxiety isn't a moral or personal failing.

    但嚴重的焦慮不是道德或個人的失敗

  • It's a health problem,

    它是健康問題

  • just like strep throat or diabetes.

    就像咽喉炎或糖尿病一樣

  • It needs to be treated with the same kind of seriousness.

    它必須被同等嚴肅看待

  • Before we can talk about anxiety disorders,

    在我們談論焦慮症之前

  • let's talk about anxiety itself.

    我們先談談焦慮本身

  • Anxiety is the very real and normal emotion

    當我們處於有壓力的情況時

  • we feel in a stressful situation.

    焦慮是很真實和正常的情緒

  • It's related to fear.

    它和恐懼有關

  • But while fear is a response to an immediate threat

    但恐懼是對即刻威脅的反映

  • that quickly subsides,

    很快就能平息

  • anxiety is a response to more uncertain threats

    而焦慮反映的是更加不明確的威脅

  • that tends to last much longer.

    持續的時間更長

  • It's all part of the threat detection system,

    這是威脅偵測系統的一部分

  • which all animals have to some degree,

    所有動物或多或少都有

  • to help protect us from predators.

    它能幫助我們遠離危險

  • Anxiety starts in the brain's amygdala,

    焦慮源自大腦中的杏仁核

  • a pair of almond-sized nerve bundles

    一對杏仁大小的神經束

  • that alert other areas of the brain to be ready for defensive action.

    它警告大腦中的其他區域做好防禦準備

  • Next, the hypothalamus relays the signal,

    接著,下視丘會傳遞這個訊號

  • setting off what we call the stress response in our body.

    我們的身體就開始出現壓力反應

  • Our muscles tense,

    肌肉變得緊繃

  • our breathing and heart rate increase

    呼吸和心跳加速

  • and our blood pressure rises.

    血壓升高

  • Areas in the brain stem kick in

    腦幹中部分區域開始作用

  • and put you in a state of high alertness.

    讓你處於高度警覺狀態

  • This is the fight-or-flight response.

    這就是「戰鬥或逃走」反應

  • There are ways the fight-or-flight response

    有些方法能使這些反應

  • is kept somewhat in check,

    維持於控制範圍內

  • with an area of higher-level thinking called the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    哪就是能提供更高階思考的 腹內側前額葉皮質

  • It works like this.

    它是這樣運作的

  • If a person sees something they think is dangerous, like a tiger,

    如果人類處於危險的情況, 比如看見老虎

  • that sends a signal to the amygdala, saying "it's time to run."

    杏仁核就會收到應該逃跑的訊號

  • The ventromedial prefrontal cortex can say to the amygdala,

    腹內側前額葉皮質會通知杏仁核

  • "Hey, look. The tiger's in a cage.

    看!老虎被關在籠子裡

  • You know what a cage is? They can't escape from a cage.

    你知道籠子是什麼? 牠們無法從籠子逃走

  • It's OK to calm down."

    所以你可以冷靜下來了

  • It's a feedback loop that can help keep the response in check.

    這是一個讓反應可控的反饋迴路

  • The hippocampus is also involved.

    海馬體也在此反應中運作

  • It provides context, saying things like,

    它能提供一些情境,像是:

  • "Hey, we've seen tigers in cages before.

    「嘿,你曾看過老虎在籠子裡

  • We're in a zoo. You are extra safe."

    在動物園裡是非常安全的。」

  • With anxiety,

    當焦慮產生時

  • these threat-detection systems and mechanisms that reduce or inhibit them

    這些威脅偵測系統與機制會被抑制

  • are functioning incorrectly

    並且錯誤地運作

  • and cause us to worry about the future and our safety in it.

    使我們對自身安危感到擔心

  • But for many people, it goes into overdrive.

    但對某部分人來說它運作過度

  • They experience persistent pervasive anxiety

    他們的焦慮症狀持續不斷

  • that disrupts work, school and relationships

    並干擾到工作、課業與人際關係

  • and leads them to avoid situations that may trigger symptoms.

    使他們避開所有會觸發焦慮症狀的情境

  • Anxiety disorders are not at all uncommon.

    焦慮症一點也不少見

  • Based on data from the World Mental Health Survey,

    根據世界精神衛生調查的數據顯示

  • researchers estimate that about 16 percent of individuals

    約有百分之十六的人

  • currently have or have had an anxiety disorder.

    患有或曾患有焦慮症

  • These include social anxiety disorder,

    包含社交恐懼症

  • panic disorder, agoraphobia and phobias.

    恐慌症、廣場恐懼症及特殊恐懼症

  • Studies have shown that people with anxiety disorders

    研究顯示患有焦慮症者

  • don't just have a different way of reacting to stress.

    不只是對於壓力的反應與常人有異

  • There may be actual differences in how their brain is working.

    他們的大腦運作也可能與常人不同

  • One model describes possible mix-ups

    這個模型說明大腦產生混亂的原因

  • in the connections between the amygdala and other parts of the brain.

    杏仁核與大腦其他部分連結

  • The pathways that signal anxiety become stronger.

    傳送焦慮的路徑會逐漸增強

  • And the more anxiety you have, the stronger the pathways become,

    且越是焦慮,連結越強

  • and it becomes a vicious cycle.

    然後成為惡性循環

  • The good news is there's treatment for anxiety,

    值得慶幸的是焦慮是可以治療的

  • and that you don't have to suffer.

    不需要一直受其所苦

  • Remember, this isn't about weakness.

    記住,焦慮並不是你的軟弱

  • It's about changing brain patterns,

    只是你要改變大腦運作模式

  • and research shows that our brains

    研究顯示

  • have the ability to reorganize and form new connections

    我們的大腦有能力構成新的連結方式

  • all throughout our lives.

    且一生都有機會轉變

  • A good first step is to do the basics.

    第一步要維持基本的良好生活習慣

  • Eat a balanced diet,

    均衡飲食

  • exercise regularly

    規律運動

  • and get plenty of sleep,

    保持睡眠充足

  • as your mind is part of your body.

    畢竟腦部也是身體的一部分

  • It might also help to try meditation.

    冥想可能也會有所幫助

  • Instead of our heart rate rising and our body tensing,

    放鬆肌肉並使心跳平穩

  • with mindfulness and breathing,

    保持正念和平穩呼吸

  • we can slow down the fight-or-flight response

    我們可以減緩戰鬥或逃走反應

  • and improve how we feel in the moment.

    好好感受當下

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy, a form of talk therapy,

    「認知行為治療」是其中一種的談話療法

  • can also be fantastic.

    效果也很不錯

  • In it, you learn to identify upsetting thoughts

    在治療中你學識哪些使你心煩的想法

  • and determine whether they're realistic.

    並判斷它們是否切實

  • Over time, cognitive behavioral therapy can rebuild those neural pathways

    認知行為治療可以慢慢重建神經路徑

  • that tamp down the anxiety response.

    並抑制焦慮反應

  • Medication can also give relief,

    短期或長期服藥

  • in both the short-term and the long-term.

    也可以使症狀獲得緩解

  • In the short-term, anti-anxiety drugs

    短期服用抗焦慮藥物

  • can down-regulate the threat-detection mechanisms

    可以抑制威脅偵測機制

  • that are going into overdrive.

    避免它過度運作

  • Studies have shown that both long-term medications

    而研究顯示長期用藥

  • and cognitive behavioral therapy

    以及認知行為治療

  • can reduce that overreactivity of the amygdala

    可以降低杏仁核的活躍程度

  • we see an anxiety disorders.

    也就是我們所說的焦慮症

  • High blood pressure and diabetes,

    就像高血壓與糖尿病

  • they can be treated or managed over time.

    可以受控制或被治癒

  • And the same is true for an anxiety disorder too.

    焦慮症也一樣可以

Transcriber:

譯者: 童寧 張 審譯者: Thomas Tam

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What's normal anxiety -- and what's an anxiety disorder? | Body Stuff with Dr. Jen Gunter

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    たらこ 發佈於 2022 年 02 月 17 日
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