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  • In economics and public choice theoryrent-seeking is a behavior that is aimed to  

    在經濟學和公共選擇理論中,尋租是一種行為,其目的在於

  • increase one's existing wealth without creating  new wealth for others. In other words, it 

    增加自己現有的財富,而不為他人創造新的財富。換言之,它

  • describes the tendency of some people to  seek profits without doing any real work.  

    描述了一些人追求利潤而不做任何實際工作的傾向。

  • A classic example of rent-seeking is the story  of a lord. The lord inherited a lot of land  

    尋租的一個典型例子是一個領主的故事。這位領主繼承了大量的土地

  • and wealth and never worked a day in his lifeHowever, as the lord knows of another man who  

    和財富,一生中從未工作過一天。 然而,由於領主知道有另一個人

  • has even more than him, being wealthy isn't  enough. He needs more and he has an idea.  

    有比他更多的錢,光是富有還不夠。他需要更多,他有一個想法。

  • The lord sets up a chain across the  river that flows through his land  

    領主在流經他的土地的河流上設置了一條鎖鏈

  • and hires a collector to charge fishermen  a fee if they want to pass through.  

    並僱傭了一名收費員,如果漁民想通過,就向他們收取費用。

  • There is nothing productive about the chain.

    這條鏈子沒有任何成效。

  • The lord has made no improvements to the river  and is not adding value to society in any way,  

    領主沒有對河流進行任何改善,也沒有以任何方式為社會增加價值。

  • directly or indirectly, except for himself.  

    直接或間接,除了他自己。

  • All he is doing is finding a way to make  money from something that used to be free.

    他所做的只是找到一種方法,從過去免費的東西中賺錢。

  • To society there are three costs to this  

    對社會而言,這有三個方面的成本

  • First, the direct costs . The fisherman, who now  has to pay a fee, needs to sell the fish at a  

    首先,直接成本。漁民現在需要支付費用,他需要將魚以

  • higher price to make a living. On the market  fish become more expensive for everybody.  

    更高的價格來謀生。在市場上,魚對每個人來說都變得更加昂貴。

  • Then the opportunity costs . The lord invests  his money and resources into equipment that  

    然後是機會成本。領主將他的金錢和資源投入到設備中,而這些設備

  • adds no value to society , instead of  investing into something meaningful,  

    對社會沒有增加任何價值,而不是投資於有意義的東西。

  • such as fixing up the broken school building.  

    如修復破損的學校建築。

  • Lastly, the moral costs. The fisherman feels  that paying for something that used to be free  

    最後是道德成本。漁民認為,為過去免費的東西付費

  • is unfair and, following the lord's example, is  more likely to engage in rent-seeking himself.  

    是不公平的,而且,效仿領主的做法,自己更有可能參與尋租。

  • What if he were to eliminate all his  competitors and then increase prices?  

    如果他要消滅所有的競爭對手,然後提高價格呢?

  • The fisherman turns to his friend — a smooth  talker who cares for the environmentto  

    漁夫求助於他的朋友--一個關心環境的圓滑的人--以

  • help him convince the lord of an idea: If  a fence were to be running down the banks,  

    幫助他說服領主的一個想法:如果在河岸上建一個圍欄。

  • it would protect the river from overfishing  because access would be limited

    它將保護河流不被過度捕撈,因為訪問將受到限制。

  • When rent-seekers and moral advocates lobby  in teams, economists speak of bootleggers  

    當尋租者和道德倡導者結隊遊說時,經濟學家就會說到私運者

  • and baptists. The lord agrees and soon  after the river is being protected.  

    和施洗者。主人同意了,不久之後,河流就得到了保護。

  • Once the fence is built, only a few  fishermen are able to access the  

    一旦柵欄建成,只有少數漁民能夠進入。

  • river . That means our fisherman not only has more  

    河流.這意味著我們的漁民不僅有更多的

  • fish than ever before , but he can also  keep selling them at very high prices.  

    比以前更多的魚,但他也可以繼續以非常高的價格出售它們。

  • To keep it that way, the fisherman and his  lobbyist soon form the fishery department  

    為了保持這種狀態,漁民和他的說客們很快就組成了漁業部門

  • under the royal patronage of the lord . From  this day on, only those who pay a license fee  

    在領主的皇家贊助下,。從這一天起,只有那些支付許可費的人

  • are allowed to fish in the river. The lord  gets a nice cut for his growing empire  

    被允許在河裡捕魚。領主為他不斷增長的帝國獲得了豐厚的收益。

  • On the market the fish has become so  expensive that the commoners begin to 

    在市場上,魚已經變得如此昂貴,以至於平民們開始

  • complain. Unfortunately  there is little they can do.  

    抱怨。不幸的是,他們能做的很少。

  • Without ever taking notable risks  the landlord, the lobbyists,  

    在不曾承擔顯著風險的情況下,房東、說客。

  • and the fisherman get richer every day. Or  as economists would say, without having skin  

    而漁民們每天都會變得更富有。或者像經濟學家所說的那樣,在沒有皮膚的情況下

  • in the game, they create a lot of wealth  for themselves but no wealth for society.  

    在遊戲中,他們為自己創造了大量的財富,但沒有為社會創造財富。

  • In theory, rent-seeking behavior reduces economic  efficiency through the misallocation of resources.  

    在理論上,尋租行為通過資源的錯誤配置降低了經濟效率。

  • It also hinders the creation of wealth, reduces  government revenue, increases income inequality,  

    它還阻礙了財富的創造,減少了政府收入,增加了收入不平等。

  • and potentially leads to national decline. The term itself was coined by the British  

    並有可能導致國家衰落。 這個詞本身是由英國人創造的

  • economist David Ricardo, who had built his  ideas on the thoughts of the Scottish economist  

    經濟學家大衛-李嘉圖,他在蘇格蘭經濟學家的思想基礎上建立了自己的想法。

  • Adam Smith. The original meaning of "rent" does  not refer specifically to payment on a lease,  

    亞當-斯密。租金 "的原意並不特指租約上的付款。

  • but to gaining control of land  or other natural resources.  

    而是為了獲得對土地或其他自然資源的控制。

  • In 1776 Adam Smith wrote: “As soon as the land  of any country has all become private property,  

    1776年,亞當-斯密寫道:"一旦任何國家的土地全部成為私有財產。

  • the landlords reap where they never sowed, and  demand a rent. The wood of the forest, the grass  

    地主在他們從未播種的地方收割,並要求支付租金。森林裡的木頭,草

  • of the field, and all the natural fruits of the  earth, which, when the land was incommon, cost  

    田裡的莊稼和地上的一切天然果實,在土地不常見的時候,這些果實都是要花錢的。

  • the laborer only the trouble of gathering themcome, to have an additional price fixed upon them.

    勞動者只有在收集它們的時候才會感到麻煩,來吧,在它們身上確定一個額外的價格。

  • He must then pay for a license and must give  up to the landlord a portion of what his  

    然後,他必須支付許可證費用,並且必須向房東交出他的部分收入。

  • labor either collects or produces. This  portion constitutes the rent of land.”  

    勞動收集或生產。這一部分構成了土地的租金"。

  • How about you, where do you see rent-seekers

    你呢,你在哪裡看到尋租者?

  • Are they in your government  and in the corporations

    他們在你的政府和企業中嗎?

  • Or do you see them in the streets in  the form of gangsters or corrupt police

    還是你在街上看到他們以黑幫或腐敗警察的形式出現?

  • Maybe you even have your own personal story where  you seek to profit without adding any value?

    也許你甚至有自己的個人故事,在那裡你尋求利潤而不增加任何價值?

  • This and all other Sprouts' videos are  licensed under the Creative Commons

    本視頻和所有其他Sprouts的視頻都在知識共享協議下授權。

  • That means teachers from all around the world can 

    這意味著來自世界各地的教師可以

  • use them in classrooms, online courses or to start projects - and today, thousands

    在教室、在線課程或啟動項目中使用它們--而今天,成千上萬的

  • already do!

    已經做了!

  • To learn how it works and download this video without Ads or background music, checkout

    要了解它是如何工作的,並下載這個沒有廣告或背景音樂的視頻,請查看

  • our website or read the description below.

    我們的網站或閱讀下面的描述。

  • If you want to support our mission and help change education 

    如果你想支持我們的使命並幫助改變教育

  • visit our Patreon - that's patreon.com/sprouts.

    請訪問我們的PATREON - 即patreon.com/sprouts。

In economics and public choice theoryrent-seeking is a behavior that is aimed to  

在經濟學和公共選擇理論中,尋租是一種行為,其目的在於

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尋租。不勞而獲 (Rent Seeking: Taking Without Giving)

  • 20 3
    Summer 發佈於 2022 年 03 月 02 日
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