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  • Okay, now I don't want to alarm anybody in this room,

    嗯,我不想驚動在這講廳內的任何人

  • but it's just come to my attention

    但那引起我的注意

  • that the person to your right is a liar.

    在你右邊的那人是騙子。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • Also, the person to your left is a liar.

    還有,你左邊的那個是個騙子。

  • Also the person sitting in your very seats is a liar.

    坐在你位子上的那個人也是個騙子。

  • We're all liars.

    我們全是騙子。

  • What I'm going to do today

    今天我要做的是

  • is I'm going to show you what the research says about why we're all liars,

    我要讓你們看看為何研究指出我們都是騙子的理由、

  • how you can become a liespotter

    你如何能成為識破謊言者

  • and why you might want to go the extra mile

    及為何你也許想更進一步

  • and go from liespotting to truth seeking,

    由識破謊言到尋求真相,

  • and ultimately to trust building.

    最終到信任的殿堂。

  • Now speaking of trust,

    說到信任,

  • ever since I wrote this book, "Liespotting,"

    打從我寫這本書《破解謊言》

  • no one wants to meet me in person anymore, no, no, no, no, no.

    再也沒有人想和我會面,不、不、不、不、不。

  • They say, "It's okay, we'll email you."

    他們說:「沒關係,我們會email 給你。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • I can't even get a coffee date at Starbucks.

    我甚至得不到在星巴克喝咖啡的約會。

  • My husband's like, "Honey, deception?

    我丈夫會說:「親愛的,『欺騙』?

  • Maybe you could have focused on cooking. How about French cooking?"

    也許你可以專研烹飪。法國烹飪如何?」

  • So before I get started, what I'm going to do

    那麼在開始前,我首先要

  • is I'm going to clarify my goal for you,

    為你們釐清我的目標,

  • which is not to teach a game of Gotcha.

    我不是要教『抓鬼(Gotcha)』遊戲。

  • Liespotters aren't those nitpicky kids,

    識破謊言者不是那些雞蛋裡挑骨頭的孩子,

  • those kids in the back of the room that are shouting, "Gotcha! Gotcha!

    在房子後面大喊:「抓到了! 抓到了!

  • Your eyebrow twitched. You flared your nostril.

    你的眉毛抽搐、你撐大鼻孔。

  • I watch that TV show 'Lie To Me.' I know you're lying."

    我有看電視節目〈對我撒謊〉(Lie to me)。我知道你在說謊。」

  • No, liespotters are armed

    不,識破謊言者身懷

  • with scientific knowledge of how to spot deception.

    辨識欺騙的科學知識。

  • They use it to get to the truth,

    他們用之以取得真相,

  • and they do what mature leaders do everyday;

    他們做謹慎的領導者每天在做的事;

  • they have difficult conversations with difficult people,

    他們運用招術與棘手的人物交談,

  • sometimes during very difficult times.

    有時更是在相當難熬的時候。

  • And they start up that path

    他們一開始便循

  • by accepting a core proposition,

    依據同意一個核心論點的路線,

  • and that proposition is the following:

    該論點如下述:

  • Lying is a cooperative act.

    『說謊是一種樂意共構的行動』。

  • Think about it, a lie has no power whatsoever by its mere utterance.

    想一想,單僅是話語,一個謊言成不了氣候。

  • Its power emerges

    其能量匯集而成,

  • when someone else agrees to believe the lie.

    當其他人同意也相信謊言。

  • So I know it may sound like tough love,

    我知道那也許聽來像『嚴苛的愛(tough love)』,

  • but look, if at some point you got lied to,

    但聽好,在某些時候你被騙

  • it's because you agreed to get lied to.

    那是因為你同意被騙。

  • Truth number one about lying: Lying's a cooperative act.

    有關說謊的一號真相:說謊是一種共構的行為。

  • Now not all lies are harmful.

    不是所有的謊言都有害。

  • Sometimes we're willing participants in deception

    有時我們是騙局的自願參與者,

  • for the sake of social dignity,

    為社交體面之故,

  • maybe to keep a secret that should be kept secret, secret.

    可能對當保守的袐密守口如瓶。

  • We say, "Nice song."

    我們說:「好歌。」

  • "Honey, you don't look fat in that, no."

    「親愛的,你穿那件看起來不胖,不。」

  • Or we say, favorite of the digiratti,

    或是網路高手的最愛,我們說:

  • "You know, I just fished that email out of my spam folder.

    「你明白的,我才剛從垃圾郵件匣找出那封信。

  • So sorry."

    所以,抱歉囉!」

  • But there are times when we are unwilling participants in deception.

    但有時我們是非自願參與欺騙。

  • And that can have dramatic costs for us.

    我們為其付出慘痛代價。

  • Last year saw 997 billion dollars

    去年發生了九千九百七十億元

  • in corporate fraud alone in the United States.

    企業集團詐欺,單單在美國。

  • That's an eyelash under a trillion dollars.

    只差一點就到一兆美元了。

  • That's seven percent of revenues.

    那是7%的稅收。

  • Deception can cost billions.

    詐欺能耗上數來億。

  • Think Enron, Madoff, the mortgage crisis.

    想想安隆案( Enron)、馬道夫騙局(Madoff)、次級房貸危機。

  • Or in the case of double agents and traitors,

    或者是雙重代理和背信的案例,

  • like Robert Hanssen or Aldrich Ames,

    像是Robert Hanssen或者Aldrich Ames(兩者皆為間諜),

  • lies can betray our country,

    謊言能出賣我們的國家、

  • they can compromise our security, they can undermine democracy,

    謊言會危及我們國防、謊言能削弱民主、

  • they can cause the deaths of those that defend us.

    謊言會導致捍衛我們的一切瓦解。

  • Deception is actually serious business.

    詐欺事實上是危險的生意。

  • This con man, Henry Oberlander,

    騙徒Henry Oberlander,

  • he was such an effective con man

    他是高桿的騙徒,

  • British authorities say

    英國當局表示

  • he could have undermined the entire banking system of the Western world.

    他本可破壞西方世界的整個銀行系統。

  • And you can't find this guy on Google; you can't find him anywhere.

    你在Google搜尋不到這個人;你無從找起。

  • He was interviewed once, and he said the following.

    他有次受訪,說了這樣的話,

  • He said, "Look, I've got one rule."

    他說:「瞧,我有條法則。」

  • And this was Henry's rule, he said,

    這是『亨利的法則』,他說:

  • "Look, everyone is willing to give you something.

    「瞧,每個人願意給你某東西。

  • They're ready to give you something for whatever it is they're hungry for."

    他們準備好給你某東西,換取他們渴求的,不論是什麼。」

  • And that's the crux of it.

    而這就是其關鍵。

  • If you don't want to be deceived, you have to know,

    若你不想被欺騙,你必須知道

  • what is it that you're hungry for?

    你最渴望的是什麼?

  • And we all kind of hate to admit it.

    我們都有點討厭承認這點。

  • We wish we were better husbands, better wives,

    我們希望我們是更佳的丈夫、更佳的妻子;

  • smarter, more powerful,

    更聰明、更有權力、

  • taller, richer --

    更高、更富有──

  • the list goes on.

    願望清單不勝枚舉。

  • Lying is an attempt to bridge that gap,

    說謊是企圖在那道溝上架橋;

  • to connect our wishes and our fantasies

    把我們的願望、幻想

  • about who we wish we were, how we wish we could be,

    關於我們希望我們是誰、我們希望我們能如何

  • with what we're really like.

    與我們真正面貌連結。

  • And boy are we willing to fill in those gaps in our lives with lies.

    嘿!我們樂意以謊言填滿我們生命的溝壑。

  • On a given day, studies show that you may be lied to

    在某段時間,研究顯示,你可能被誆

  • anywhere from 10 to 200 times.

    在任何地點,次數起碼10次至200次。

  • Now granted, many of those are white lies.

    當然,多數是無傷大雅的謊言。

  • But in another study,

    但在另一個研究指出,

  • it showed that strangers lied three times

    陌生人撒謊三次,

  • within the first 10 minutes of meeting each other.

    在彼此見面的初始10分鐘內。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • Now when we first hear this data, we recoil.

    我們初次得知這個數據,大為震驚。

  • We can't believe how prevalent lying is.

    不敢置信,說謊已蔚然成風。

  • We're essentially against lying.

    本質上,我們是反對說謊。

  • But if you look more closely,

    但若你仔細瞧,

  • the plot actually thickens.

    情節著實撲朔迷離。

  • We lie more to strangers than we lie to coworkers.

    我們對陌生人說的謊比對工作伙伴說的還多。

  • Extroverts lie more than introverts.

    外向者說的謊言多於內向者。

  • Men lie eight times more about themselves

    男人談論自己時撒的謊是

  • than they do other people.

    談論他人時的八倍多。

  • Women lie more to protect other people.

    女人說謊大多為了保護他人。

  • If you're an average married couple,

    若你們是一對普通的已婚夫婦,

  • you're going to lie to your spouse

    你會對你的配偶撒謊,

  • in one out of every 10 interactions.

    每十次的交流就有一次。

  • Now you may think that's bad.

    現在你也許認為那不好。

  • It you're unmarried, that number drops to three.

    若你未婚,則數字掉至三次有一次。

  • Lying's complex.

    說謊是複雜糾結的。

  • It's woven into the fabric of our daily and our business lives.

    人們以之編造出我們每日生活、買賣交易的基本結構。

  • We're deeply ambivalent about the truth.

    我們對於真相深感矛盾,

  • We parse it out on an as-needed basis,

    我們將其解讀成一種『需要基礎』,

  • sometimes for very good reasons,

    有時理由十分充分,

  • other times just because we don't understand the gaps in our lives.

    其他時候只因我們不了解我們生活的溝渠。

  • That's truth number two about lying.

    那是關於說謊的真相二。

  • We're against lying,

    我們反對說謊,

  • but we're covertly for it

    但我們又暗渡陳倉,

  • in ways that our society has sanctioned

    以我們的社會讚許的方式

  • for centuries and centuries and centuries.

    存在已有好幾個世紀。

  • It's as old as breathing.

    如呼吸一般的久遠。

  • It's part of our culture, it's part of our history.

    是我們文化的一部分;歷史的一部分。

  • Think Dante, Shakespeare,

    想想但丁(Dante)、莎士比亞( Shakespeare)

  • the Bible, News of the World.

    《聖經》(Bible)、《世界新聞報》(News of the World)。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • Lying has evolutionary value to us as a species.

    說謊對身為一物種的人類有演化的貢獻。

  • Researchers have long known

    研究人員老早就已知

  • that the more intelligent the species,

    物種愈是聰明,

  • the larger the neocortex,

    新皮質愈是大,

  • the more likely it is to be deceptive.

    更可能難以捉摸。

  • Now you might remember Koko.

    你們也許記得Koko 。

  • Does anybody remember Koko the gorilla who was taught sign language?

    有誰記得被教導手語的大猩猩Koko?

  • Koko was taught to communicate via sign language.

    Koko被教導以手語溝通。

  • Here's Koko with her kitten.

    這是Koko和牠的小貓。

  • It's her cute little, fluffy pet kitten.

    牠的嬌小玲瓏、毛茸茸的寵物貓。

  • Koko once blamed her pet kitten

    Koko有次責備小寵物貓

  • for ripping a sink out of the wall.

    把水槽從牆上給拆下來。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • We're hardwired to become leaders of the pack.

    我們生來即為群雄/賊之首,

  • It's starts really, really early.

    這是真的真的很早就開始的行為。

  • How early?

    有多早?

  • Well babies will fake a cry,

    嗯,嬰兒假哭,

  • pause, wait to see who's coming

    停一下,等著瞧誰會來搭理,

  • and then go right back to crying.

    然後回頭繼續哭。

  • One-year-olds learn concealment.

    一歲學會隱瞞;

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • Two-year-olds bluff.

    兩歲學會裝模作樣;

  • Five-year-olds lie outright.

    五歲撒謊不臉紅,

  • They manipulate via flattery.

    他們巧妙的運用花言巧語;

  • Nine-year-olds, masters of the cover up.

    九歲,掩飾能手;

  • By the time you enter college,

    到了進大學前,

  • you're going to lie to your mom in one out of every five interactions.

    每五次和母親的交流中,有一次你會對她撒謊。

  • By the time we enter this work world and we're breadwinners,

    到了進職場、掙錢養家,

  • we enter a world that is just cluttered

    我們進入了一個世界,充斥著

  • with spam, fake digital friends,

    垃圾郵件、虛假的數位朋友

  • partisan media,

    政黨媒體、

  • ingenious identity thieves,

    神通廣大的身份盜賊、

  • world-class Ponzi schemers,

    世界級騙局陰謀者(Ponzi schemers) 、

  • a deception epidemic --

    一種欺騙流行病──

  • in short, what one author calls

    簡而言之,某位作家稱其為

  • a post-truth society.

    後真相社會。

  • It's been very confusing

    長久以來

  • for a long time now.

    一直令人困或不解。

  • What do you do?

    你能做什麼呢?

  • Well there are steps we can take

    我們可以採取這些步驟

  • to navigate our way through the morass.

    引領我們走出泥淖的明路。

  • Trained liespotters get to the truth 90 percent of the time.

    受過訓的識破謊言者有百分之九十的時候,能獲得真相。

  • The rest of us, we're only 54 percent accurate.

    我們則只有54%的準確度。

  • Why is it so easy to learn?

    為何容易學呢?

  • There are good liars and there are bad liars. There are no real original liars.

    有擅長說謊的人和蹩腳的編謊者;沒有誰是真正的謊言原創者。

  • We all make the same mistakes. We all use the same techniques.

    我們都犯同樣的錯誤;我們都使用同樣的伎倆。

  • So what I'm going to do

    那麼,我打算做什麼呢......

  • is I'm going to show you two patterns of deception.

    我要讓你們看兩種欺騙的模式。

  • And then we're going to look at the hot spots and see if we can find them ourselves.

    然後我們來檢視這些關鍵跡象(hot spots)並看看我們自己能否找出關鍵跡象。

  • We're going to start with speech.

    我們先來看這段演說。

  • (Video) Bill Clinton: I want you to listen to me.

    (影視)比爾‧克林頓:「我要你們聽我說。

  • I'm going to say this again.

    我要再次重申

  • I did not have sexual relations

    我沒有和那女人,

  • with that woman, Miss Lewinsky.

    Lewinsky小姐發生性關係。

  • I never told anybody to lie,

    我從未教唆任何人說謊,

  • not a single time, never.

    一次也沒有;從未。

  • And these allegations are false.

    這些是子虛烏有的指控。

  • And I need to go back to work for the American people.

    我必須回到崗位為美國人民工作了。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。」

  • Pamela Meyer: Okay, what were the telltale signs?

    Pamela Meyer:好,什麼是洩漏內情的訊號?

  • Well first we heard what's known as a non-contracted denial.

    我們聽到所謂的非縮寫式的否認。

  • Studies show that people who are overdetermined in their denial

    研究顯示,人們過度堅決否認

  • will resort to formal rather than informal language.

    會採取正式的語言而不是非正式的語言。

  • We also heard distancing language: "that woman."

    我們也聽到了疏離語言:『那女人』。

  • We know that liars will unconsciously distance themselves

    我們知道說謊者會下意識地讓自己疏離

  • from their subject

    與自己相關的對象,

  • using language as their tool.

    以語言作為他們的工具。

  • Now if Bill Clinton had said, "Well, to tell you the truth ... "

    若比爾‧柯林頓說了:「嗯,說真的......」

  • or Richard Nixon's favorite, "In all candor ... "

    或李察‧尼克森的最愛:「坦白說......」

  • he would have been a dead giveaway

    他早會洩漏真相

  • for any liespotter than knows

    給任何辨識謊言者,其明白

  • that qualifying language, as it's called, qualifying language like that,

    修飾語言,正如其名,像那類的修飾語言

  • further discredits the subject.

    敗壞對象的聲譽。

  • Now if he had repeated the question in its entirety,

    若言談中,他持續重覆問題

  • or if he had peppered his account with a little too much detail --

    或者若他的描述格外交代細節──

  • and we're all really glad he didn't do that --

    我們十分欣然他沒那樣做──

  • he would have further discredited himself.

    他就會進一步的自毁聲譽/自取其辱。

  • Freud had it right.

    佛洛伊德說的好。

  • Freud said, look, there's much more to it than speech:

    佛洛伊德說:「瞧,有更多言詞外的蛛絲馬跡:

  • "No mortal can keep a secret.

    『凡人守不住袐密。

  • If his lips are silent, he chatters with his fingertips."

    若其雙唇緘默,他的手指喋喋不休。』」

  • And we all do it no matter how powerful you are.

    無論你是何方神聖,你也會這麼做。

  • We all chatter with our fingertips.

    我們都以手指在交談

  • I'm going to show you Dominique Strauss-Kahn with Obama

    我要讓你看看Dominique Strauss-Kahn(前IMF總裁)和歐巴馬

  • who's chattering with his fingertips.

    歐巴馬的指尖正嘮叨不停。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • Now this brings us to our next pattern,

    這正是我們接著要探討的模式,

  • which is body language.

    所謂『身體語言』。

  • With body language, here's what you've got to do.

    對於『身體語言』,你必須這麼做:

  • You've really got to just throw your assumptions out the door.

    請先將你的預設想法放置一旁。

  • Let the science temper your knowledge a little bit.

    讓科學稍稍更新你的知識。

  • Because we think liars fidget all the time.

    因為我們認為說謊者往往焦躁不安

  • Well guess what, they're known to freeze their upper bodies when they're lying.

    猜怎麼著! 據了解,當他們撒謊時,上半身是僵硬的。

  • We think liars won't look you in the eyes.

    我們認為說謊者不會看著你的雙眼。

  • Well guess what, they look you in the eyes a little too much

    你們知道嗎?!他們過度直視你的雙眼

  • just to compensate for that myth.

    只為讓謊言更具說服力。

  • We think warmth and smiles

    我們認為熱情和微笑

  • convey honesty, sincerity.

    傳達誠實和真誠。

  • But a trained liespotter

    但一個受過訓的識謊者

  • can spot a fake smile a mile away.

    大老遠能認出虛情假意的微笑。

  • Can you all spot the fake smile here?

    你們會辨識虛情假意的微笑嗎?

  • You can consciously contract

    你能有意識的牽動

  • the muscles in your cheeks.

    你臉部雙頰的肌肉。

  • But the real smile's in the eyes, the crow's feet of the eyes.

    但真正的笑肌在眼中,眼部的魚尾紋,

  • They cannot be consciously contracted,

    它們不會有意識地收縮,

  • especially if you overdid the Botox.

    特別是你過分施打肉毒桿菌(Botox)。

  • Don't overdo the Botox; nobody will think you're honest.

    別過分施打肉毒桿菌,沒有人會認為你是誠實的。

  • Now we're going to look at the hot spots.

    現在我們來看看關鍵跡象(hot spots)。

  • Can you tell what's happening in a conversation?

    你們能辨識出在對話中發生了什麼事嗎?

  • Can you start to find the hot spots

    你能開始發現關鍵跡象、

  • to see the discrepancies

    找出差異之處,

  • between someone's words and someone's actions?

    從某人的言談或行動之中嗎?

  • Now I know it seems really obvious,

    我知道這顯而易見,

  • but when you're having a conversation

    但當你與某個

  • with someone you suspect of deception,

    你懷疑其行騙的人交談,

  • attitude is by far the most overlooked but telling of indicators.

    態度無疑是最常受忽視,但卻是顯著指標。

  • An honest person is going to be cooperative.

    誠實的人會協同合作。

  • They're going to show they're on your side.

    他們會表明他們與你同在、

  • They're going to be enthusiastic.

    他們古道熱腸、