Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Scotland – a country famous for its history,  

  • beautiful landscape, golfwhiskey and of course food.

  • Come on Scotland.

  • Amongst the nation's culinary delightsits beef has global recognition.

  • Scottish cattle breeds are famous  and have been adopted and bred

  • all around the world. They've even inspired  restaurant chains from London to California.

  • But unfortunately for the Scottish meat  industry, global beef and veal consumption

  • is trending downwards, even as demand  for meat grows in developing economies.

  • One likely contributing factor is  how terrible it is for the planet.

  • In fact, when it comes to food, beef  is one of the biggest offenders.

  • This chart shows how much greenhouse gas is  emitted per kilogram by different foods across

  • the supply chain. Nuts and citrus fruits emit  the least emissions, while eggs and fish have

  • a comparatively moderate level of emissionsBut the largest emissions of greenhouse gases,

  • particularly methane, comes from lamb and beef. Here in Scotland, cows are big business.

  • But they're also a big problem for the  environment. So, could our carbon intensive  

  • Aberdeen Angus one day be off the menu, and if  so, what's going to be on our plates instead?

  • These cows will probably all stand up and run  through that gate the minute we go in, but

  • we'll see how we get on. How many are in this field, about 20?

  • So, there's twenty-five in  here, yeah, these are all cows.

  • So, they've all had calves beforethey're all in calf again. So,

  • they'll have their calves next spring. Kate Rowell is chair of Quality Meat Scotland,

  • a body set up to support the Scottish red  meat sector and improve its efficiency and

  • profitability, while maximizing its contribution  to Scotland's economy. She's also a cattle farmer.

  • I'm a farmer here in the Scottish Borders, sixth  generation farmer on this fantastic farm here.

  • And as primary producers of the raw materialsfarmers are really there to help grow the food

  • and drink economy and to contribute to that  increase in the Scottish domestic income.

  • So how important is Scottish  beef to the Scottish economy?

  • 70% of the cows in Scotland are beef cows and  only 30% are dairy cows. This is the highest

  • ratio of beef to dairy cows in Europe. The  cattle sector alone accounts for (24%) about

  • a quarter of Scotland's agricultural outputworth about 849 million pounds Scotland's red

  • meat processing industry supports 3,000  jobs and £77 million in salaries.

  • Sales of red meat help contribute to all sorts  of things in the rural economy. So it's not

  • just the farmers who are producing them. It's  all the other businesses that are associated:

  • the feed merchants, the vets, the auctioneersthe hauliers, all those sorts of people depend on

  • the red meat sector in Scotland and in the  U.K. It is such an enormous part of the

  • rural economy throughout the country. When you look at climate change, is it

  • something that your industry thinks about, how  you're going to reduce your carbon footprint?

  • Yeah, absolutely. That is all  the talk there is just now.

  • The biggest challenge for all of us, is the  weather, it is the climate. And as farmers on the

  • ground, we are absolutely aware on a very intimate  level that there is a climate emergency. You know,

  • every farmer is seeing the differences  and what's happening on the ground.

  • Things like the soil, possibly in the past, we  haven't paid as much attention to it as we should.

  • And there is evidence that soils across  the world are getting degraded. So,

  • we need to pay really close attention, we need  to measure, we need to take samples and see

  • what's in the soil, what needs to be added and  if we can do all those things that make the

  • soil as healthy as possible, it's going  to store as much carbon as possible.

  • The earth's soil removes about a quarter of the  world's fossil fuel emissions every year. It's

  • estimated to store more than three times the  amount of carbon in the atmosphere and four

  • times the amount stored in plants and animals. And while soil can be great for storing carbon,

  • it often lacks the capability and suitability for  growing crops. That's due to a number of factors,

  • including steep terrain, an adverse climate  or the lack of freshwater irrigation.

  • So often the chat is to, grow more  vegetables, grow more grains. In these

  • fields here we can't do that. The quality  of the ground is not enough to do that.

  • So, what we can do is we can grow grass,

  • and that's the same for over  80% of the farms in Scotland

  • And obviously, as people, as humans, we  can't eat that. We can do nothing with it

  • but these amazing animals out here, the sheep  and cattle, can eat that grass, and then turn

  • it into a food source for us. And that's really  the sustainable part of Scottish farming.

  • True environmental sustainability, howeveralso has to take into consideration the 

  • sector's impact on climate change. Fifty miles  away in Glasgow, a food company called Enough

  • is attempting to tackle feeding a growing  population while also providing a solution

  • to 'the unsustainable impact of sole  reliance on traditional protein farming'.

  • The process starts from here, so there is waterglucose and some other salts and minerals. So this

  • is the fermenter, it goes through heat  treatment and then it goes through the

  • decanter centrifuge here. The solids are separated  from the liquid, the solids is what we take from

  • under the decanter and that's  our Abunda micro-protein.

  • We make what we believe is the most  sustainable source of food protein.

  • It's micro-protein, which is using fungi, adding  a glucose feedstock, so any fermentable sugar

  • and that grows the fungi into whole biomass and  as long as you give it all of its food sources,

  • so a carbon nitrogen oxygenation, it grows very  happily, and it grows on a continuous basis.

  • Enough is one of the first synthetic  protein companies borne out of the

  • increasing global demand for animal-based protein.

  • In 2020, human beings ate 574  million metric tons worth of meat,

  • seafood, dairy and eggs. That's  roughly 75 kilograms per person.

  • And the amount of protein being consumed is  only set to grow, particularly in developing  

  • markets. This rising demand coupled with  the environmental costs of producing all  

  • these animals has helped the alternative  protein market move into the mainstream.

  • Around 13 million metric tons of alternative  proteins were eaten in 2020, just 2% of the

  • animal protein market. But according to the Boston  Consulting Group, consumption is set to increase

  • seven times to 97 million metric tons by 2035. The protein transition, or the protein crisis

  • that we're facing, has really  emerged in the last five years.

  • So we need to do it without the negative  aspects of intensive animal farming and

  • with a high-quality product that tastes  delicious and meets consumer's needs.

  • But does it taste delicious? The beauty of it is it's pale in color,

  • right? It's fairly neutral in taste, and  you can make all sorts of stuff with it.

  • Can I try? Feel free.

  • That's quite a big bit there. That is a big bit. You're going full on there.

  • Driving straight in. So, you're not getting much

  • taste. I think you won't get much tasteyou will get a bit of fibre and bite.

  • The texture is very similar to  what you would get with chicken.

  • With a little bit of fat, a little  bit of potato protein to help bind

  • it and a little bit of flavour. It gets  to chicken breast in a fairly easy way

  • and it's got that fibrosity of chicken  you can just tell, it tastes like that.

  • I wonder if I was doing a taste test whethercould tell the difference and probably not.

  • Many meat producers have questioned the  health benefits of meat imitations such

  • as plant-based burgers. Critics have campaigned  against what they call 'ultra-processed' food,

  • listing all the ingredients  that go into fake meat.

  • But plant-based burgers and synthetic  burgers are two different things.

  • Producing synthetic protein is relatively quickThe fungi biomass doubles in size every six

  • hours and Enough are moving into a large-scale  production facility which will be able to make

  • five or six cows worth of protein every day. In terms of mince, a burger, we will add some

  • flavourings again, some oils  but it's everyday processing.

  • That's really good. I like that one.

  • I like that one a lot. When we talk about the meat industry and  

  • a lot of the meat being produced mass scale, think  of brands like McDonalds and Burger King all over

  • the world, selling millions and millions  of burgers, does that make this product,

  • the burger product more exciting because  it could infiltrate that market space?

  • We're competing with the gristly end of the  fairly expensive animal so being able to make a

  • product which doesn't have some of the  baggage of the existing product. That's where

  • I think the scale ambition is unparalleled. Do you see sustainable protein as a supplement

  • to traditional meat and other plant-based dietsOr do you want to replace the meat industry?

  • We crave making something that tastes as  good as the animal and costs the same or

  • less than the animal and if the choice iscan have the thing that tastes as good but

  • doesn't kill the planet and doesn't have ethical  challenges, I think that market will prevail.

  • Many people would say, we just shouldn't be  eating meat at all because of those emissions.

  • What would be your argument against that? So you're absolutely right. Nobody is trying

  • to deny that cattle and sheep do produce methaneBut also, the one thing that we haven't touched

  • on yet is biodiversity. And you've got to look  at those two things in sync. Up on the hills,

  • you really need grazing animals to help with  the natural ecosystem. Down here, you can see

  • we've got woods, we've got hedges, farmers as  a whole are certainly on the journey to try and

  • make sure that they're addressing that crisisalongside the climate crisis. We can't focus

  • too much on one and not the other, or else we're  going to end up with unintended consequences.

  • Synthetic protein joins the new wave of  advanced farming methods and equipment that is

  • needed to meet the world's future food needs. If the world is going to eat less meat, other

  • types of food will need to replace it. Plant based  diets and synthetic protein may fill that void,

  • but replacing the jobs and the income that comes  from a vast meat industry may be more difficult.

Scotland – a country famous for its history,  

字幕與單字

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋

B1 中級

With beef sales falling, can the home of Angus reinvent the protein industry?

  • 0 0
    Summer 發佈於 2022 年 01 月 09 日
影片單字