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  • ["The beauty of the universe consists not only of unity in variety, but also of variety in unity." - Umberto Eco, The Name of the Rose ]

    [「宇宙之美不僅在於多樣性中的統一性,也在於統一性中的多樣性。」-安伯托·艾可,《玫瑰的名字》

  • Peering into the eyes of different animals, you'll see some extraordinarily shaped pupils.

    凝視不同動物的眼睛,你會發現一些形狀奇特的瞳孔。

  • But why?

    但這是為什麼呢?

  • It turns out that pupil shape is a powerful indicator of what role an animal plays in its ecosystem.

    原來,瞳孔的形狀可以有力地說明動物在其生態系統中扮演的角色。

  • Pupils mark the hollow opening in the iris, the eye's band of pigmented muscle.

    瞳孔標記了虹膜中的空心開口,而虹膜是眼睛的色素沉著肌肉帶。

  • They're the portholes through which light enters the eye, where it then strikes the retina and activates light-sensitive cells, setting the process of vision in motion.

    它們是讓光線進入眼睛的舷窗,而光線在撞擊視網膜後觸發了光敏細胞,使視覺活動起來。

  • Pupils are black because most of the light that enters them is absorbed.

    瞳孔之所以是黑色的,是因為進入瞳孔的光線大部分都被吸收了。

  • Their size changes in response to brightness, as well as certain drugs and emotional and mental statesbut their basic form varies greatly among species.

    它們的大小會隨著亮度以及某些藥物、情緒和精神狀態的改變而變化—但它們的基本形態在物種之間差別甚大。

  • House cats, for one, are twilight hunters with vertically elongated pupils.

    舉個例子,家貓是黃昏獵手,瞳孔垂直拉長。

  • In the dark, these structures expand dramatically, taking in the available light.

    在黑暗中,這些結構會急劇擴張,吸收所有可用的光線。

  • When it's bright, they shrink into slits.

    在明亮時,它們則會縮成狹縫。

  • In fact, cat pupils are so flexible that their maximum area is 135 times greater than their minimum areawhereas our pupils only shrink and expand 15-fold.

    事實上,貓的瞳孔非常靈活,它們的瞳孔最大面積是最小面積的 135 倍,而我們的瞳孔只能縮小或擴大 15 倍。

  • And because of how the slit pupil takes in light, it creates sharp, vertical contours.

    而由於瞳孔的狹縫吸收光線的方式,它便有了尖銳的垂直輪廓。

  • When the cat's brain processes the visuals from each eye, the small but sharp differences between them help the cat judge the precise distance of its target.

    當貓的大腦處理兩顆眼睛各自帶來的視覺資訊時,它們之間微小但確切的差異能幫助貓判斷與目標之間的精確距離。

  • In fact, many other ambush hunters also have vertically elongated pupilsbut mainly those whose eyes are located closer to the ground.

    事實上,許多其他的伏擊獵者也具備垂直伸長的瞳孔—但主要是眼睛離地面更近的那些。

  • This may be because these pupils are especially useful in perceiving objects at the relative short distances these animals tend to hunt.

    這可能是因為這種瞳孔在這些動物較常進行狩獵的較短的距離上,特別能夠精確感知與物體的距離。

  • The world looks very different from behind the horizontally elongated pupils of many grazing and browsing animals, like goats.

    而從許多放牧和食草動物的橫向拉長瞳孔所看出去的世界,例如像山羊等等,則看起來非常不同。

  • These pupils, situated on either side of the head, let horizontal bands of light in that give the goat a near-360-degree view and provide it with sharp, horizontal images.

    這些位於頭部兩側的瞳孔讓水平的光線直接進入,使山羊具有近 360 度的視野,以及清晰的水平視覺。

  • This helps goats detect any disruption to the horizonalerting them to potential predatorswhile still enabling them to see ahead and detect obstacles as they make their escape.

    這能幫助山羊探測到地平線上的任何擾動,提醒它們注意潛在的捕食者,同時還能讓它們在逃跑時看得到前方並探測到障礙物。

  • In fact, goats always keep their pupils aligned with the horizon, rotating their eyeballs in their sockets as they move their heads up and down.

    事實上,山羊在頭部上下移動時,瞳孔仍然永遠與地平線保持一致,並將眼球保持在眼窩裡轉動。

  • Meanwhile, nocturnal geckos have pupils that shrink into slits studded with pinholes in higher light conditions.

    與此同時,夜間活動的壁虎在較高的光照條件下,瞳孔則會收縮成佈滿針孔的狹縫。

  • Each pinhole projects a separate, sharp image onto the geckos retina.

    每個針孔都能將一個單獨的清晰圖像投射到壁虎視網膜上。

  • Scientists think that comparing these different inputs might help the gecko judge distance without having to move.

    科學家們認為,比較這些不同的輸入資訊可能有助於壁虎無需移動就能判斷距離。

  • And while they might have fooled you, mantises and other insects and crustaceans have "pseudopupils."

    雖然它們可能騙倒你了,但螳螂和其他昆蟲以及甲殼類動物都有「偽瞳孔」。

  • These aren't optical structures; they're optical illusions experienced by the observer.

    這些不是光學結構,而是觀察者體驗到的視覺錯覺。

  • Mantises have compound eyes composed of thousands of light-sensing units.

    螳螂的複眼由數千個感光單元組成。

  • When some are aimed at you, they appear black because they're absorbing most wavelengths of incoming lightbut there's no actual opening.

    當它們瞄準著你的時候,因為吸收了入射光的大部分波長而看起來是黑色的-但上面其實沒有實際的開口。

  • So, why do we have round pupils?

    那麼,為什麼我們人類的瞳孔是圓的呢?

  • Elongated pupils help sharpen certain dimensions of an animal's vision.

    細長的瞳孔有助於提升動物在某些維度下的視覺。

  • But scientists think that, for animals like us with circular pupils, this is a lower priority.

    但科學家們認為,對於像我們這樣瞳孔呈圓形的動物來說,這樣的需求優先順序較低。

  • Instead of seeing some elements of a scene in extreme focus, we see a larger picture in relative detail, which enables more general skills of observation.

    我們看到的不是極端聚焦的場景中的一些元素,而是一個更廣泛場景中香對細節的事物,並讓我們能更廣泛地進行觀察。

  • This may be especially helpful for foragers looking for food, hunters eyeballing and chasing their prey, and social animals recognizing other faces.

    這可能對尋找食物的覓食者、注視和追逐獵物的捕獵者,以及需要識別其他面孔的社會動物來說特別有幫助。

  • As we peer at different pupils, patterns emerge.

    隨著我們觀察到各種不同的瞳孔,便能找出幾個規律。

  • And yet there are exceptions.

    然而其中仍有例外。

  • For example, Pallas's cats and mongooses are both small ambush predators, but the Pallas's cat has round pupils and mongooses have goat-like pupils.

    例如,帕拉斯貓和貓鼬都是小型伏擊捕食者,但帕拉斯貓有圓形的瞳孔,貓鼬則有山羊般的瞳孔。

  • And we've only explored a few pupil shapes.

    而我們在這裡還只探索了幾種瞳孔形狀而已。

  • Other animals have crescent- or heart-shaped pupils.

    其他動物還有著新月形或心形的瞳孔。

  • And the cuttlefish has perhaps some of the most bizarre: their pupils are circular in the dark, but W-shaped in the light.

    或許墨魚的是最奇特的:它們的瞳孔在黑暗中是圓形的,但在光線下是 W 形的。

  • So, what's going on here?

    那麼,這到底是怎麼回事呢?

  • Well, wouldn't we all like to know?

    我們都想知道答案,不是嗎?

  • But are some adaptations just cooler than others? Allow us to introduce you to the aphid: a bug that poops candy.

    但是不是有些動物的適應就是比較酷一些呢?容我們向你介紹蚜蟲:這是種會排泄出糖果的蟲子。

  • Or, if you think the variety of pupils in the animal kingdom is impressive, wait until you see the variety of genitalia.

    或者,如果你覺得動物王國中千奇百怪的瞳孔形狀已經夠讓人印象深刻了,等你看到各種不同的生殖器再來驚訝也不遲。

  • Keep exploring with these videos.

    繼續觀賞這些影片來探索新知吧。

["The beauty of the universe consists not only of unity in variety, but also of variety in unity." - Umberto Eco, The Name of the Rose ]

[「宇宙之美不僅在於多樣性中的統一性,也在於統一性中的多樣性。」-安伯托·艾可,《玫瑰的名字》

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貓咪瞳孔細細長長的好可怕!?為什麼動物的瞳孔有不同形狀?(Why do cats have vertical pupils? - Emma Bryce)

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    Jeff Chiao 發佈於 2022 年 03 月 30 日
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