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  • "That statue represents Liberty holding a torch which lights the passage [...] But are the Chinese allowed to come?" - Saum Song Bo in an open letter to The Sun newspaper, 1885

    「這座雕像象徵著自由女神正舉著火把照亮航道 [...] 但中國人有被允許前來嗎?」- Saum Song Bo 於 1885 年在《太陽報》上撰寫的公開信

  • After 12 years living in California, Chinese citizen Chae Chan Ping was ready for a visit home.

    在加利福尼亞居住十二年後,中國公民柴禪平準備回家鄉一趟。

  • He procured the necessary documents for his departure and return journey, and set sail for China, where he spent the next year reconnecting with friends and family.

    他取得了去程和回程的必要文件,啟航駛往中國,隔年在中國和親朋好友重聚。

  • But when he returned to San Francisco on October 8th, 1888, Ping and his fellow immigrant passengers were forbidden to disembark.

    但在 1888 年 10 月 8 日禪平回到舊金山時,卻和其他中國移民一起被禁止下船。

  • Just days earlier, President Grover Cleveland had signed the Scott Act, which invalidated the legal documents allowing their re-entry to the United States.

    就在幾天前,克里夫蘭總統簽署了《史考特法案》,將他們重新入境美國的法律文件作廢。

  • This policy threatened to separate families and deprive Chinese immigrants of their homes and livelihoods.

    這項政策威脅拆散家庭並剝奪中國移民的家園和生計。

  • Ping challenged the ruling, beginning a legal battle for the rights of thousands of Chinese immigrants.

    禪平挑戰這個判決並打起了法律戰,想藉此維護數千名中國移民的權利。

  • But his case inspired an even more controversial policy that continues to impact immigrants around the globe.

    但他的官司卻激起了另一個更具爭議性的政策,並從此影響了來自全球的移民。

  • Discrimination against Chinese immigrants had begun decades earlier, when the California Gold Rush created a massive demand for labor.

    對中國移民的歧視開始於幾十年前,加利福尼亞淘金熱創造了大量的勞力需求。

  • Initially, Chinese immigrants were welcomed as reliable workers and became essential parts of frontier communities.

    工作可靠的中國移民最初深受歡迎,成為拓荒者族群中不可或缺的一部分。

  • Many built railroads and worked in the mines, while others operated laundries, restaurants, and general stores.

    很多人興建鐵路或挖礦,其他人則開設洗衣店、餐廳、雜貨店等。

  • The 1868 Burlingame Treaty even granted China favored trading status with the US, and allowed unrestricted migration between the two countries.

    1868 年的《蒲安臣條約》甚至給予了中國最惠國待遇,允許兩國之間自由移民。

  • But as large numbers of Chinese immigrants found success, American workers began to see them as a threat.

    但就在許多中國移民獲致成功後,美國工人開始將他們視為威脅。

  • Politicians and labor leaders denounced them for driving down wages, and violence against Chinese individuals became increasingly common.

    政治人物和勞工領袖譴責他們拉低薪資,對華人的暴力也越來越常見。

  • This anti-Chinese sentiment soon found its way into California's courts.

    這種排華情緒很快就體現在加利福尼亞的法庭之中。

  • In 1854, following a murder trial where a white man was convicted of murdering a Chinese man,

    在 1854 年的一件謀殺審判中,一名白人男子因為殺害了一名華人男子而被定罪,

  • the California Supreme Court overturned the conviction, holding that Chinese eyewitness testimony was inadmissible.

    但加利福尼亞最高法院卻推翻了原來的判決,認為華裔目擊證人的證詞不足採信。

  • The court declared that Chinese citizens could not testify against white defendants, citing similar precedents forbidding testimony by Black and Native American individuals.

    法庭宣告中國公民不能作證控告白人,並援引了禁止黑人與美洲原住民作證的類似先例。

  • This decision effectively legalized violence against California's Chinese population, inspiring mob attacks and campaigns for segregation.

    這個判決實際上合法化了針對加利福尼亞華人的暴力行徑,激勵暴民發動攻擊並鼓吹種族隔離。

  • Before long, anti-Chinese sentiment reached the federal level.

    不久後,排華的情緒上升到了聯邦層級。

  • In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, the first federal law that restricted immigration based explicitly on nationality.

    1882 年美國國會通過了《排華法案》,而這是第一部明確以國籍限制移民的聯邦法律。

  • In practice, the Act banned entry to all ethnically Chinese immigrants besides diplomats, and prohibited existing immigrants from obtaining citizenship.

    實務上《排華法案》禁止所有除了外交官以外的華裔移民入境,並阻止現有移民取得公民權。這也代表中國人離開美國後不能返回,除非事先申請申請重新入境的證明。

  • It also meant Chinese individuals couldn't leave the United States and return without first applying for a certificate of re-entry.

    這也代表中國人離開美國後便無法返回,除非事先申請申請重新入境的證明。

  • This policy remained in place until October 1st, 1888, when the Scott Act prohibited re-entry altogether, stranding Chae Chan Ping and thousands of other Chinese immigrants.

    這項政策持續施行,直到 1888 年 10 月 1日,《史考特法案》完全禁止重新入境,使柴禪平和其他數千名中國移民就此無法返回美國。

  • In court, Ping argued he had followed the proper protocol obtaining his re-entry certificate, and the government had not honored his legally issued document.

    禪平在法庭主張他依循正當程序取得重新入境的證明,而政府卻未兌現依法發布的文件。

  • This argument was strong enough to send his case all the way to the Supreme Court.

    這項論點強大的足以將本案一路送進最高法院。

  • But the justices ruled against Ping, invalidating thousands of legal re-entry certificates in one fell swoop.

    但大法官卻作出了對他不利的判決,一舉使數千份合法的重新入境證明作廢。

  • The decision led to Ping's deportation and left up to 20,000 Chinese immigrants unable to return to the US.

    這個判決不但讓禪平被驅逐出境,更使得多達兩萬名中國移民無法返美。

  • But arguably even more important than the court's racist ruling was the logic they used to support it.

    但比法庭種族主義的判決更重要的大概是他們用以支持的邏輯。

  • Traditionally, the Supreme Court is considered a check on the other two branches of American government, offering judgment on policies passed by Congress and the president.

    傳統上最高法院被視為對美國政府行政和立法部門的檢核,為國會和總統通過的政策作出判決。

  • In this case, however, the court stated they had no power to pass judgment on the Scott Act since Congress had declared the immigration policy "a matter of national security."

    然而在這個案例中,法庭聲稱他們無權裁決《史考特法案》,因為國會已宣告移民政策是「國家安全問題」。

  • This decision set a unique precedent.

    這個判決開了先例。

  • Unless Ping's case was overturned, congressional and executive branches could claim national security concerns to pass whatever immigration laws they wanted.

    除非禪平的案子被推翻,否則國會和行政部門便能以國家安全的名義,通過任何他們想要的移民法律。

  • Throughout the 20th century, xenophobic government officials used this power to freely discriminate against immigrant groups.

    整個二十世紀,仇外的政府官員利用這一權力任意歧視移民族群。

  • The 1917 Asiatic Barred Zone Act prohibited the entry of all South Asians.

    1917 年《亞洲人禁區法》禁止所有南亞人民入境。

  • And a series of immigration acts in the 1920s expanded restrictions throughout Asia, Eastern Europe, and southern Europe.

    1920 年代的一連串移民法案則將限制擴張到亞洲、東歐、南歐等地。

  • Many of these restrictions were lifted after World War II, and the Chinese Exclusion Act itself was finally repealed in 1943 — over 60 years after it was enacted.

    這些限制很多在二戰後取消了,《排華法案》本身則終於在 1943 年廢除,此時距離開始施行已經超過六十年了。

  • But the US government continues to use this precedent to deploy sudden and sweeping immigration policies, targeting journalists and dissidents as well as ethnic groups.

    但美國政府仍持續利用著這個先例,針對記者、異見人士、特定種族部署突如其來而全面的移民政策。

  • Little is known about what became of Chae Chan Ping following his deportation.

    我們對柴禪平被驅逐出境後的結果所知甚少。

  • But the injustices visited upon him and thousands of other Chinese Americans continue to impact immigrant rights and liberties.

    但他和其他數千名美國華人遭逢的不公,仍持續影響著移民的權利和自由。

  • The Chinese Exclusion Act wouldn't be the last time America violated human rights at its own principles in the name of "belonging."

    《排華法案》並不是歷史上美國最後一次違反自己的原則,以「歸屬」之名侵害人權的事件。

  • Learn about the Japanese-American incarceration camps of World War II with this video.

    觀看此影片來了解二戰期間的日裔美國人集中營。

"That statue represents Liberty holding a torch which lights the passage [...] But are the Chinese allowed to come?" - Saum Song Bo in an open letter to The Sun newspaper, 1885

「這座雕像象徵著自由女神正舉著火把照亮航道 [...] 但中國人有被允許前來嗎?」- Saum Song Bo 於 1885 年在《太陽報》上撰寫的公開信

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 移民 中國 法案 政策 法庭

美國的暗黑史-排華法案(The dark history of the Chinese Exclusion Act - Robert Chang)

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    shuting1215 發佈於 2022 年 04 月 24 日
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