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  • Throughout his novel /1984/, Orwell maintains that in order to protect yourself from the

    在他的小說/1984/中,奧威爾堅持認為,為了保護自己免受

  • authoritarian, you must never abandon the truth.

    專制者,你決不能放棄真理。

  • The authoritarian wants absolute power over you, and one of the things they need to achieve

    獨裁者希望對你擁有絕對的權力,而他們需要實現的一個目標是

  • this is for you to abandon the truth.

    這是讓你放棄真理。

  • How does holding on to the truth protect you from the authoritarian?

    堅持真理如何保護你免受專制主義的影響?

  • That’s what I’m interested in exploring, and as always, I’m gonna explore this idea

    這就是我感興趣的探索,和以往一樣,我將探索這個想法

  • through a dialogue.

    通過對話的方式。

  • ---

    ---

  • The following is a conversation between a monk (M) and a student (S).

    下面是一個和尚(M)和一個學生(S)之間的對話。

  • M: If you wanna protect yourself from the authoritarian, never abandon the truth.

    M:如果你想保護自己不受獨裁者的影響,就永遠不要放棄真理。

  • S: Well, before I can even decide whether to abandon it or not, I need to know something:

    S:好吧,在我決定是否放棄它之前,我需要知道一些事情。

  • what is truth?

    什麼是真理?

  • M: Truth is the only way to get what you want.

    M: 真相是獲得你想要的東西的唯一途徑。

  • S: What do you mean?

    S:你是什麼意思?

  • Can’t I lie to you in order to get what I want from you?

    我不能為了從你那裡得到我想要的東西而對你撒謊嗎?

  • M: You can, but youre not understanding what I mean by the truth.

    M:你可以,但你沒有理解我說的真相是什麼意思。

  • Were using the word differently.

    我們使用這個詞的方式不同。

  • Let me explain.

    讓我解釋一下。

  • Let’s say I wanna walk to a particular point across the room.

    比方說,我想走到房間對面的一個特定點。

  • There are several ways I can get to that point.

    我有幾種方法可以達到這個目的。

  • For one, I can walk directly to it.

    首先,我可以直接走到它那裡。

  • Or, I can take an indirect path.

    或者,我可以走一條間接的道路。

  • I can walk around the room until I eventually arrive at the point.

    我可以在房間裡走來走去,直到最終到達那個點。

  • And the truth contains all of those ways.

    而真理包含所有這些方式。

  • /So truth is all of the ways you can reach your goal./

    /所以,真理是你能達到目標的所有方法。

  • S: Hmmall of the ways I can reach my goal.

    S:嗯......所有我可以達到目標的方法。

  • M: Yeah.

    M:是的。

  • So we could say the truth /is/ what works, and in fact, it is the /only/ thing that works!

    是以,我們可以說,真理/是/是有效的,事實上,它是/唯一/有效的東西!

  • So if you wanna get something from me and lying helps you get it, then that’s the

    所以,如果你想從我這裡得到一些東西,而撒謊能幫助你得到它,那麼這就是

  • truth.

    真相。

  • Truth isn’t something you speak.

    真理不是你說出來的東西。

  • It isn’t even something you act.

    這甚至不是你的行為。

  • Rather, it’s more like a road between where you are and where you wanna be.

    相反,它更像是你所在的地方和你想去的地方之間的一條道路。

  • If you travel down that road, then you arrive at the point where you wanna be.

    如果你沿著這條道路走下去,那麼你就會到達你想去的地方。

  • S: So truth is like a road.

    S:所以真理就像一條路。

  • Can you give me an example?

    你能給我一個例子嗎?

  • M: Sure.

    M:當然。

  • So imagine a cup on a table.

    是以,想象一下桌子上有一個杯子。

  • Let’s say you wanna move that cup across the table.

    比方說,你想把那個杯子移到桌子對面。

  • There are two separate moments.

    有兩個獨立的時刻。

  • There’s the present: that’s where the cup is now.

    那裡是現在:那是杯子現在的位置。

  • And there’s the future: that’s where you want the cup to be.

    還有就是未來:那是你希望杯具的地方。

  • Now there are several ways you can get that cup from where it is to where you want it

    現在有幾種方法可以讓杯子從原地到你想要的地方。

  • to be.

    是的。

  • You can drag the cup across the table, you can lift it up and put it down, you can call

    你可以在桌子上拖動杯子,你可以把它抬起來又放下,你可以叫

  • a friend and ask them to move it for you, and so on.

    一個朋友並要求他們為你移動它,以此類推。

  • Now here comes the important part.

    現在重要的部分來了。

  • There are several /roads/ you can take to get the cup to where you want it to be.

    你可以走幾條路,把杯子送到你想要的地方。

  • But there are other roads, that if you take them, won’t get the cup to where you want

    但也有其他的路,如果你走了,也不會把杯子帶到你想要的地方。

  • it to be.

    它是。

  • For example, you can’t just knock the cup off the table and expect it to be where you

    例如,你不能只是把杯子從桌子上打下來,然後期望它在你的位置上。

  • want.

    想。

  • When you take the right roads, which is to walk the truth, you get what you want, but

    當你走正確的道路,也就是走真理的時候,你會得到你想要的東西,但

  • when you take the wrong roads, which is to walk falsehood, you don’t get what you want.

    當你走錯了路,也就是走虛偽的路,你就得不到你想要的東西。

  • Do you understand now?

    你現在明白了嗎?

  • S: I think I do.

    S:我想我知道。

  • So when we began talking, you told me that if I wanted to protect myself from the authoritarian,

    是以,當我們開始交談時,你告訴我,如果我想保護自己不受獨裁者的影響。

  • I should never abandon the truth.

    我不應該放棄真理。

  • What does it mean to abandon the truth?

    拋棄真理是什麼意思?

  • M: If you reject evidence that contradicts your current beliefs, that means you have

    男:如果你拒絕與你目前的信念相矛盾的證據,這意味著你有

  • abandoned the truth.

    拋棄了真理。

  • S: Why does the authoritarian want me to abandon truth?

    S:為什麼獨裁者要我放棄真理?

  • M: So they can take advantage of you.

    男:所以他們可以利用你。

  • S: How will they take advantage of me?

    S:他們會如何利用我?

  • M: By making you dependent on them.

    男:通過使你依賴他們。

  • Once youre dependent on them, they can make you do and believe whatever they want.

    一旦你依賴他們,他們就可以讓你做任何事,相信任何事。

  • S: But how will they make me dependent on them?

    S:但他們會如何讓我依賴他們?

  • M: If you abandon the truth, you will have no choice.

    男:如果你放棄真理,你將別無選擇。

  • S: How does abandoning truth make me dependent on them?

    S: 拋棄真理如何使我依賴他們?

  • M: Because once you abandon truth, you reject any evidence that contradicts your current

    M: 因為一旦你放棄了真理,你就會拒絕任何與你目前的情況相矛盾的證據。

  • beliefs.

    信念。

  • And once you start rejecting evidence that contradicts your beliefs, you stop being able

    而一旦你開始拒絕與你的信念相矛盾的證據,你就不再能夠

  • to learn.

    來學習。

  • And once you stop learning, you start losing the ability to take care of yourself.

    而一旦你停止學習,你就開始失去照顧自己的能力。

  • And once you start losing the ability to take care of yourself, you look to others to take

    而一旦你開始失去照顧自己的能力,你就會期待別人來照顧你。

  • care of you.

    照顧你。

  • And when others are in a position of care over you, they have immense power over you.

    而當別人處於對你的照顧位置時,他們對你有巨大的權力。

  • And it’s the authoritarians dream for you to be in their care, because once they have

    而讓你接受他們的照顧是專制者的夢想,因為一旦他們擁有了

  • you, they have every intention of abusing their power.

    你,他們完全打算濫用他們的權力。

  • Theyll make you do and believe whatever they want.

    他們會讓你做什麼,相信什麼。

  • S: Well, what if I hold on to the truth?

    S:那麼,如果我堅持真理呢?

  • What happens then?

    然後會發生什麼?

  • How will that protect me?

    這將如何保護我?

  • M: When you hold on to the truth, you acknowledge any evidence that contradicts your current

    男:當你堅持真理的時候,你會承認任何與你目前的情況相矛盾的證據。

  • beliefs.

    信念。

  • You use that contradiction to learn and expand your mind.

    你利用這種矛盾來學習和擴大你的思想。

  • And as your knowledge grows, you get better and better at taking care of yourself.

    而隨著你的知識的增長,你在照顧自己方面會越來越好。

  • And as you get better at taking care of yourself, you become more independent.

    隨著你在照顧自己方面變得更好,你會變得更加獨立。

  • And when you become independent, no one can have absolute power over you.

    而當你變得獨立時,沒有人可以對你有絕對的權力。

  • Independence is the greatest threat to the authoritarian, because it undermines the source

    獨立性是對專制主義的最大威脅,因為它破壞了專制主義的來源。

  • of their power: dependence.

    他們的權力:依賴性。

  • S: So dependence is the source of the authoritarian’s power?

    S:所以依賴性是專制者的權力來源?

  • M: Yeah.

    M:是的。

  • Think about a baby.

    想一想一個嬰兒。

  • A baby is completely dependent on its parents, and practically speaking, the parents have

    嬰兒完全依賴其父母,實際上,父母有

  • absolute power over that baby.

    對那個嬰兒有絕對的權力。

  • But as the baby grows up, it becomes educated.

    但隨著嬰兒的長大,它變得有教養。

  • And as it becomes more and more educated, it learns to take care of itself.

    而且隨著它變得越來越有教養,它學會了照顧自己。

  • It becomes more independent.

    它變得更加獨立。

  • And this independence decreases the power that the parents have over it.

    而這種獨立性減少了父母對它的權力。

  • S: But education isn’t enough to be independent, right?

    S:但要獨立,光有教育是不夠的,對嗎?

  • What if I lose my ability to move?

    如果我失去行動能力怎麼辦?

  • Then I’ll be dependent on others to take care of me.

    然後我就會依賴別人來照顧我。

  • M: That’s true.

    M:那是真的。

  • Education isn’t the only cause of independence, but it is, perhaps, the one you have the most

    教育並不是獨立的唯一原因,但它也許是你最擁有的原因

  • control over.

    控制的。

  • Independence is a very easy thing to lose.

    獨立性是一個非常容易失去的東西。

  • You may even spend your whole life educating yourself on how to do a certain job, and all

    你甚至可能花費一生的時間來教育自己如何做某項工作,而所有的

  • of a sudden, that job may no longer be useful to society.

    突然間,這份工作可能不再對社會有用了。

  • And so you lose that job, and not just that, but your education may becomes useless.

    是以,你失去了那份工作,不僅如此,你的教育也可能變得毫無用處。

  • And so you instantly go from independent back to dependent.

    是以,你馬上就從獨立的狀態回到了依賴的狀態。

  • Independence is a very rare, fragile, and treasured thing, and it’s not a bad thing

    獨立性是一種非常罕見的、脆弱的、值得珍惜的東西,而且它不是一件壞事

  • to be dependent.

    要有依賴性。

  • You might even say that were all dependent on each other to some degree.

    你甚至可以說,我們在某種程度上都是相互依賴的。

  • We can’t even breathe without the trees.

    沒有樹木,我們甚至無法呼吸。

  • But you should always keep this in mind: the more dependent you are on others, the more

    但你應該始終牢記這一點:你越是依賴他人,就越是

  • power theyll have over you.

    他們將對你擁有的權力。

  • And the authoritarian thrives among the most dependent people.

    而獨裁者在最依賴的人中茁壯成長。

  • ---

    ---

  • In his novel /1984/, George Orwell consistently wrote about the importance of never abandoning

    在他的小說/1984/中,喬治-奧威爾一直在寫永不放棄的重要性。

  • the truth, and I explored this idea more deeply through a dialogue.

    真相,我通過對話更深入地探討了這個想法。

  • When you abandon the truth, you stop being able to learn.

    當你放棄真理時,你就不再能夠學習。

  • And when you stop being able to learn, you become less able to take care of yourself.

    而當你不再有能力學習時,你就變得沒有能力照顧自己。

  • And when you become less able to take care of yourself, you become more dependent on

    而當你變得不太能照顧自己時,你就會變得更加依賴

  • others.

    其他人。

  • And the authoritarian uses this dependence to gain absolute power over you.

    而獨裁者利用這種依賴性來獲得對你的絕對權力。

  • But by holding on to the truth, educating yourself, and becoming independent, you become

    但通過堅持真理,教育自己,併成為獨立的人,你會成為

  • a threat to the authoritarian.

    對獨裁者的威脅。

  • You undermine the source of their power, which is dependence, and you become capable of liberating

    你破壞了他們力量的來源,也就是依賴性,你就有能力解放他們。

  • yourself, and others, from their control as well.

    你自己和其他人也能擺脫他們的控制。

  • But at the end of the day, this is just my opinion and understanding of Orwell’s words,

    但說到底,這只是我對奧威爾的話的看法和理解。

  • not advice.

    不是建議。

  • Feel free to use this information however you like, and if you have a different take

    請隨意使用這些資訊,如果你有不同的看法

  • on his words, I’d love to hear your perspective in

    對他的話,我很想聽聽你的觀點,在

  • the comments.

    的評論。

Throughout his novel /1984/, Orwell maintains that in order to protect yourself from the

在他的小說/1984/中,奧威爾堅持認為,為了保護自己免受

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喬治-奧威爾--永不放棄的真理|1984年 (George Orwell - Never Abandon the Truth | 1984)

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    Summer 發佈於 2022 年 01 月 14 日
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