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  • The history of Venice is a tale of sea power, and who could be a more fitting sponsor than

    威尼斯的歷史是海權的故事, 有誰能比

  • WORLD OF WARSHIPS - the epic free-to-play MMO that combines naval strategy, tactics


  • but mostly firepower.


  • World of Warships has more than 200 playable ships, all meticulously researched historical

    在戰艦世界中玩家可操控200種以上船隻, 每個艦種都經過仔細考證

  • vessels such as cruiser HMS Belfast, or the massive USS Iowa, plus constant updates with

    像是巡洋艦HMS Belfast和戰艦Iowa, 遊戲不斷更新

  • new missions, ships and upgrades.


  • Epic History TV is a registered and very mediocre player, whose trademark tactic is using the

    Epic History TV在遊戲中註冊,戰力普通 註冊商標戰術是用

  • hull of his slow-moving cruiser to soak up enemy torpedoes, and thereby save the fleet.

    慢速巡洋艦的船體吸收敵人魚雷, 從而拯救艦隊

  • Use the link and code below to get a bonus starter pack that includes HMS Campbeltown,

    使用下面的連結和代碼獲取新手獎勵包 其中包括HMS Campbeltown

  • the destroyer the British famously rammed into St.Nazaire dock, and blew to pieces.


  • Thanks to World of Warships for supporting this video.


  • This is the extraordinary city of Venice - today one of the world’s top tourist destinations,

    威尼斯市景令人讚嘆, 是熱門的旅遊景點之一

  • but once capital of a maritime republic, that ruled the most powerful empire in the Mediterranean.

    曾經是海上共和國的首都, 統治地中海最強大的帝國

  • Venice’s history was shaped by its unique location.


  • At the height of the Roman Empire, these coastal lagoons were home only to small fishing communities.

    羅馬帝國鼎盛時, 這些沿海的潟湖都只是小漁村

  • But then, in the 5th century AD, the Western Roman Empire was overrun by barbarian tribes.


  • As Italy became a battleground for Huns, Goths, Eastern Romans and Lombards, many sought refuge

    隨著義大利成為匈奴人,哥德人,東羅馬人和倫巴第人 的戰場,許多人躲到潟湖間

  • among the lagoons.


  • In 726, these refugees elected Orso to be their duke, or doge - the first in an unbroken

    公元726年,難民們推選Orso為公爵, 或者是總督(doge)--以後統治威尼斯

  • line of 117 Doges who’d rule Venice for a thousand years.


  • For nearly 200 years, much of Italy was ruled by a resurgent Eastern Roman, or Byzantine


  • Empire.


  • Its Italian province, known asthe Exarchate of Ravenna’, fell to the Lombards in 751.

    東羅馬的義大利省份被稱為拉溫納總督區(Exarchate Ravenna),於751年落入倫巴第人手中

  • Only Venice held out, protected by its lagoons.


  • Answering the pope’s call for aid, Charlemagne and the Franks came to Italy and crushed the

    回應教皇的求援,查理曼及法蘭克人來到義大利, 擊敗

  • Lombardsbut they also failed to take Venice.

    倫巴第人--但他們也未能成功 奪取威尼斯

  • Charlemagne’s son Pepin, King of Italy, was said to have died from a fever caught

    查里曼的兒子,義大利國王匹平, 據說曾試圖進攻威尼斯

  • in the marshes that surrounded Venice, as he tried to attack the city.


  • In the following decades, Venice asserted its independence from the Byzantine empire

    接下來的幾十年裡,威尼斯堅持自己 獨立於拜占庭帝國之外的地位

  • And thanks to its location, flourished as a trading hub between Europe and the East.

    得益於他的位置,作為東西方貿易的節點 繁榮發展

  • Venetian merchants sold Italian grain and wine to the great city of Constantinople,


  • where they bought spices and silk to sell to Western Europe.


  • Above all, Venice’s early success came from the trade of saltthe vital food preservative

    最重要的是,威尼斯的早期成功來自於 販鹽--用於食物防腐

  • of the medieval world, harvested from salt pans and lagoons.


  • The Venetians went so far as to describe salt asil vero fondamento del nostro stato

    威尼斯人甚至形容鹽 為'il vero fondamento del nostro stato'

  • the true foundation of our state.


  • In 828, two Venetian merchants visiting Alexandria smuggled the supposed body of St.Mark back

    828年,兩個訪問亞歷山大港的威尼斯商人 將被信以為真的聖馬可遺體

  • to Venice, to boost the standing of their home city. The saint’s relics were interred

    偷回威尼斯,提升他們家鄉的地位, 聖人的遺骨被埋在威尼斯

  • in the city’s great new churchthe Basilica di San Marco. The first basilica was destroyed


  • by fire in 976. Today’s cathedral, consecrated in 1094, stands on the same site.

    976年的火災,今天的大教堂是於1094年, 在原地重建啟用

  • St.Mark became the city’s patron saint; his emblem, the winged lion, became the symbol

    聖馬克成為這座城市的守護聖人; 他的徽章,翼獅子,成為了共和國的

  • of the Republic - and decorated its standard.


  • Venetian trade routes to the east were plagued by pirates from the Balkan and North African

    威尼斯向東的貿易路線受到了來自巴爾幹 和北非海岸的海盜

  • coasts.


  • So Venice built a navy to drive them from the seas, and garrisoned strategic harbours

    所以威尼斯建造了一支海軍來驅趕海盜 駐防有戰略價值的港口

  • and islands along the Adriatic shore.


  • By the year 1000, Doges of Venice were also styling themselvesDukes of Dalmatia’.

    到了公元1000年,威尼斯的總督也自稱 「達爾馬提亞公爵」

  • The distinctive Venetian warship was the galley, powered by up to 150 oars, and triangular

    獨特的威尼斯戰艦是槳帆船, 由多達150隻槳和三角形的

  • lateensails, rigged fore-and-aft. Weapons included a battering ram, and around 30 crossbowmen.

    拉丁式縱帆推動 武器包括一個撞角和大約30個弩手

  • Galleys were also used to transport high-value cargo, such as spices, silks or precious stones.

    槳帆船也被用來運輸高價貨物 如香料,絲綢或寶石

  • In 1103, construction began of Venice’s famous Arsenale - a giant state-owned shipyard

    1103年,威尼斯開始建造著名的大軍械庫 巨大的國有造船廠

  • that would become one of Europe’s largest industrial centres, employing around 2,000

    之後成為歐洲最大的工業中心之一, 僱用約2,000工人

  • workmen, and turning out hundreds of ships a year.


  • The Arsenale pioneered many modern industrial techniques, and underpinned Venetian naval

    大軍械庫首創許多現代工業技術, 並支撐威尼斯海軍

  • power for centuries.


  • Armed with a powerful navy, and lucrative trading concessions from the Byzantine Emperor,

    以強大的海軍做後盾,經營拜占庭帝國特許 超好賺的東方貿易路線

  • Venice rose to become the greatest commercial and naval power in the Eastern Mediterranean.


  • But Venetian power also came through shrewd negotiation and self-interest.


  • This was the age of the Crusades, and Venice was closely-involved with Crusader states

    十字軍東征的時代, 威尼斯和基督教國家密切合作

  • as allies and trading partners.


  • In 1202, the Fourth Crusade arrived in Venice seeking ships to take them to Egypt, but with

    1202年,第四次十字軍抵達威尼斯 要搭船去埃及

  • no money to pay for them.


  • Doge Enrico Dandolo sensed an opportunity.


  • In exchange for loans, he first persuaded the crusaders to capture Zadar for Venice

    他首先說服十字軍為威尼斯奪取扎達爾 用來折抵運費

  • then, relations having soured between Venice and the Byzantines, to attack Constantinople


  • itself.


  • In 1204 the world’s greatest Christian city was sacked and plundered by self-proclaimed

    1204年,世界上最偉大的基督教城市 被自稱為基督戰士的十字軍

  • warriors of Christ.


  • Venice took its share of the loot, including, most famously, four bronze horses from the

    威尼斯參與洗劫, 最有名的戰利品是來自君士坦丁堡競技場的

  • Hippodrome of Constantinewhich found a new home on the façade of St.Mark’s Basilica

    四匹青銅馬, 牠們的新家是聖馬可大教堂門口

  • in the centre of Venice.

    在 威尼斯市中心

  • Doge Enrico and the Crusaders carved up the Byzantine Empire between them: Venice got

    丹多洛總督和十字軍瓜分拜占庭帝國, 威尼斯得到了

  • the islands of the AegeanCreteand the strategically-placed ports of Modone and


  • Corone, known henceforth asthe eyes of the Republic’.


  • Empire brought Venice unprecedented wealth and powerbut fuelled a bitter rivalry

    拜占庭帝國為威尼斯帶來了前所未有的財富和權力 但也激化威尼斯和另一個

  • with another Italian maritime republic: Genoa.


  • For more than a century, these two Italian city-states vied for supremacy in the Eastern

    一個多世紀以來,這兩個義大利 城邦爭奪東地中海的主導權

  • Mediterranean, their wars ranging from the Levant, to Sicily, the Aegean, Black Sea and


  • Adriatic.


  • During these wars a Venetian captain named Marco Polo was taken prisonerand used

    在這些戰役中 一個名為馬可波羅的威尼斯船長被俘

  • his time in a Genoese jail to dictate an account of his travels in China.

    在熱那亞囚禁期間, 他口述自己到中國旅行的見聞

  • The rivalry became a regional conflict: Genoa making alliances with the Hapsburg Duke of

    競爭演變為跨區衝突: 熱那亞與奧地利的哈布斯堡公爵

  • Austria, the King of Hungary, and Padua; Venice with a revived Byzantine Empire, Cyprus and

    匈牙利王以及帕多瓦結盟; 威尼斯和復國的拜占庭帝國,塞浦路斯

  • Milan.


  • The fortunes of war ebbed and flowed, until in 1379 Venice came under attack from land

    雙方互有進退, 直到1379年威尼斯遭到來自陸海兩面的攻擊

  • and sea, with a Genoese force occupying Chioggia, just 15 miles south of the city.

    熱那亞部隊佔領基奧賈, 就在威尼斯南方15英里

  • But Venice miraculously turned the tables, using galleys, armed with gunpowder artillery

    但威尼斯奇蹟般地扭轉局面, 使用首次裝備火砲的槳帆船

  • for the first time, to trap and capture the Genoese fleet.


  • The wars finally ended in 1381 with the Peace of Turin.


  • Venice had to make significant concessions, and like Genoa, had been exhausted by war.

    威尼斯作出重大讓步,和熱那亞一樣, 它已戰得精疲力盡

  • But while Genoa soon fell victim to internal feuding, Venice would stage an astonishing

    但熱那亞很快因內部不合而一蹶不振 而威尼斯則驚人復甦

  • recoverythanks, in large part, to the unique system of government by which the Republic

    這在很大程度上要歸功於 統治共和國的獨特政府制度

  • was now ruled.

    這在很大程度上要歸功於 統治共和國的獨特政府制度

  • The most miraculous city of Venice, rich in gold but richer in fame, strong in power but

    奇蹟城市威尼斯,多金但更富美名 掌權卻更重美德

  • stronger in virtue, built on both solid marble and the harmony of its citizens. Petrarch


  • While Western Europe was dominated by kings who claimed to rule by divine right, several


  • Italian city-states harked back to classical forms of governmentchiefly, the idea

    而幾個義大利城邦則想回歸古典政府形式-- 主要是

  • of the republic.


  • Res-publica, the thing of the people.


  • However at the height of its power, Venice’s republic, La Serenissima, as it was known,

    然而,在威尼斯的巔峰期,它的共和, La Serenissima,眾所周知

  • was firmly in the hands of its nobility.


  • Only those whose names were listed in the Golden Bookthe city’s registry of nobility


  • could join the Great Council, which appointed all senior officials through a complex system

    才能進入大議會, 大議會透過一套複雜的投票和抽籤體制

  • of voting and drawing lots.


  • They chose 40 of their members to form the Quarantia, who supervised economic affairs,

    他們挑選40名成員組成40人議會(the Quarantia) 負責監督經濟事務

  • and two to three hundred to form the Senate, the main legislative body, attended in addition


  • by the Republic’s admirals, generals and diplomats.

    共和國的海、陸軍將領及外交官 也可加入議事

  • The elected head of government remained the Doge. His powers had been steadily diminished

    總督仍是選舉出的政府領導人, 但權力一直被縮減

  • until by the 1400s, he was no more, Venetians joked, than ‘a tavern sign’ – a decorative

    到了15世紀,他已如威尼斯人開玩笑道 變成「酒館招牌」

  • symbol of powerthough he continued to wield huge influence.

    權力的裝飾品 雖然他持續發揮巨大影響力

  • The Republic’s day-to-day government was the Signoria, made up of the Doge, the six

    共和國的日常管理機構是市議會(Signoria), 由總督

  • members of his Minor Council, and three representatives of the Quarantia. They could be joined by

    他的6個內閣閣員,和3名40人議會代表組成 3個由被稱為薩維

  • three boards of special advisors known as the Savi, orwise men’… to form the


  • Full College.


  • The Council of Ten, meanwhile, had a special remit to sniff out subversion.


  • It was a system that eventually acquired so many checks and balances that changefor

    最後這個系統中充滿制約和均衡, 以至於改變

  • good or illseemed both unimaginable, and undesirable.

    不管是好的或壞的 看起來都變得難以想像、難以接受

  • The constitution of Venicean insuperable monument of wisdom and efficiency.”

    “威尼斯的憲法......無法超越的 智慧和效率的紀念碑“

  • Gasparo Contarini.


  • Over time, an idea developed across Europe that Venice’s constitution contained the

    漸漸地,歐洲人開始認為 威尼斯憲法以一種完美的平衡

  • three classical forms of government - democracy, oligarchy, and monarchy - in perfect balance,

    融合了三種古典政府形式-- 民主制,寡頭制和君主制

  • and so ensured social harmony and stability.


  • The myth of Venice’, as this became known, overlooked the Republic’s healthy tradition

    隨著「威尼斯神話」一詞變得廣為人知, 威尼斯共和國習以為常的的政變

  • of attempted coups, rampant corruption and social tension.


  • But the Venetians did achieve something rare in the medieval and Renaissance world: a durable,

    但威尼斯人在中世紀和文藝復興時期確實取得了 罕見的成就:持久

  • stable and effective government.


  • The Serene Republic had one further, strikingly modern feature: the best diplomats in Europe:

    平靜的共和國還有一個令人驚奇的現代特色: 歐洲最出色的外交官

  • skilled ambassadors in every capital and court, sending information back to Venice in secret

    整個歐洲大陸上,每個首都和議會中 都有經驗豐富的大使,用密碼

  • code from across the continent.


  • Venice would need every advantage, for the years ahead would be dominated by bitter wars

    威尼斯不能浪費任何優勢,因為 之後將面對與義大利鄰國的戰爭

  • with her Italian neighbours, and new challenges to her empire


  • Weve designed an exclusive range of Alexander the Great t-shirts and hoodies inspired by

    我們設計了一系列獨特的亞歷山大T恤和連帽衫, 靈感來自

  • ourMutiny at Opisvideoquote Arrian, look epic and support the channel, available

    我們的'Mutiny at Opis'視頻,引用Arrian名句 外型古典,且贊助本頻道

  • for a very limited time only.


  • A special thanks as ever to our Patreon supporters. If you too would like to support the channel,

    特別感謝我們的Patreon支持者 如果你也想支持本頻道

  • get early access and updates on new videos, and a say in what we do next, please visit

    提前觀看並更新新視頻, 建議新主題,請參觀我們的

  • our Patreon page.


The history of Venice is a tale of sea power, and who could be a more fitting sponsor than

威尼斯的歷史是海權的故事, 有誰能比


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