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  • "The best looking, the most comfortable and longest wearing work garment you have ever had." - Levi Strauss ad from 1922

    「這會是你擁有過最好看、最舒適而且最耐用的工作用衣物。」-1922 年的 Levi Strauss 廣告

  • The first pairs of jeans were designed for durability.


  • Named for the French city ofmes, denim was constructed as a sturdy cotton weave worn by sailors.


  • This rugged material got even stronger in the 19th century, when Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis added metal rivets to reinforce stress points.


  • Their design introduced a new brand of durable trousers for California miners that could withstand years of wear and tear.


  • Over the course of the 20th century, these working-class pants have transformed into fashion icons.


  • But as the demand for jeans has gone up, their durability has gone down.


  • Today, most pairs last no longer than a year.


  • And each new pair you buy has a much higher cost than you might think.


  • Every pair of jeans begins its life in a cotton field.


  • It takes about 0.7 kilograms of cotton to produce a single pair of pants.

    生產一件牛仔褲需要大約 0.7 公斤的棉花。

  • Growing this much cotton requires roughly 10,000 liters of water, not to mention various herbicides and pesticides, which can contaminate groundwater.


  • The cotton is harvested by hand or industrial machines, and transported to textile factories where it's spun into yarn.


  • At this point, it's typically combined with plastic fibers like spandex to increase the yarn's elasticity.


  • These plastic threads make modern jeans more comfortable and flexible, but also much less durable.


  • Next, the yarn is dyed jeans' trademark blue.


  • Historically, this color came from natural plant-derived indigo.


  • But most modern manufacturers use a synthetic dye made from petroleum byproducts and toxic chemicals.


  • Once dyed, the cotton-plastic blend is woven into denim sheets, which are then cut and sewn into jeans.


  • After assembly, some jeans undergo additional procedures to get a distressed look.


  • This often includes chemical sprays and multiple cycles of acid-washing, the toxic runoff can turn rivers indigo-blue.


  • Finally, there are the zippers, buttons, and rivets made of copper and other metals, whose mining is yet another source of environmental degradation.


  • All in all, the manufacturing process for a single pair of jeans emits over 33 kilograms of carbonthe equivalent of driving over 110 kilometers.

    總之,一件牛仔褲的製造過程會排放超過 33 公斤的碳,相當於開車超過 110 公里。

  • But this process doesn't just damage the environment.


  • Much of the world's cotton is grown in developing countries, with poor labor practices and few protections for workers.


  • Cotton here is often picked by children or forced labor, and most jean manufacturing plants frequently expose workers to toxic chemicals throughout production.


  • One particularly dangerous technique called sandblasting involves spraying jeans with fine sand at high pressures, and has been linked with numerous cases of incurable and often fatal lung disease.


  • Like many globally produced products, jeans are made in poor countries and bought in rich ones.


  • All these pants will likely be washed dozens or even hundreds of times per year.


  • This energy intensive process breaks down the plastics woven into each pair, releasing microplastics into the water and, perhaps most ironic of all, shortening the jean's lifespan.


  • Like most waste, discarded jeans end up in landfills, where their decomposition releases methane gas, while their dyes and plastics leach into the soil and groundwater.


  • Some companies are working on solutions here, from using organic cotton to recycling and reusing denim.


  • You can also help reduce the environmental impact of your favorite pants by buying used jeans and buying fewer pairs altogether.


  • Denim manufacturers also recommend only washing your jeans once every 10 wears.


  • And, when possible, air dry your pants to reduce energy consumption.


  • Life cycle and labor problems like these extend far beyond just jeans.


  • Some governments are pursuing policies to make companies more responsible for worker pay and welfare, but unsustainable practices still run rampant throughout the fashion industry.


  • So when the price tags on your clothes seem like a steal, it's important to consider who's actually being robbed.


  • Now you know the journey your jeans take, but what about the rest of your wardrobe?


  • Find out how your favorite t-shirt made it into your closet with this video, or check out this video and explore what goes into making the world's most beloved shoes.

    看看這個影片來了解你最喜歡的 T 恤是怎麼抵達你的衣櫃的吧。或是看看這個影片來了解製作出世界上最受歡迎的球鞋背後的秘辛。

"The best looking, the most comfortable and longest wearing work garment you have ever had." - Levi Strauss ad from 1922

「這會是你擁有過最好看、最舒適而且最耐用的工作用衣物。」-1922 年的 Levi Strauss 廣告


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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 牛仔褲 棉花 衣物 勞動 製造

Why do your jeans wear out so quickly? - Madhavi Venkatesan

  • 10 1
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 12 月 14 日