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  • "The best looking, the most comfortable and longest wearing work garment you have ever had." - Levi Strauss ad from 1922

    「這會是你擁有過最好看、最舒適而且最耐用的工作用衣物。」-1922 年的 Levi Strauss 廣告

  • The first pairs of jeans were designed for durability.

    第一件牛仔褲是為了耐用而設計的。

  • Named for the French city ofmes, denim was constructed as a sturdy cotton weave worn by sailors.

    名字源於法國城市尼姆,丹寧布過去是用來製造水手身上衣物的牢固棉紡織品。

  • This rugged material got even stronger in the 19th century, when Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis added metal rivets to reinforce stress points.

    這個耐用的材質在十九世紀時在李維‧史特勞斯和雅各布‧戴維斯在布上加了金屬鉚釘來穩固受力點後又更加強化了。

  • Their design introduced a new brand of durable trousers for California miners that could withstand years of wear and tear.

    他們的設計為加州礦工帶來了一種新穎耐用的長褲,穿好幾年也不會破。

  • Over the course of the 20th century, these working-class pants have transformed into fashion icons.

    隨著二十世紀的進展,這種勞動階級的長褲變成了時尚的符號。

  • But as the demand for jeans has gone up, their durability has gone down.

    但牛仔褲需求上升的同時,耐用度卻下降了。

  • Today, most pairs last no longer than a year.

    如今,多數牛仔褲只能穿不到一年。

  • And each new pair you buy has a much higher cost than you might think.

    而且每製造一件新牛仔褲的成本比你想像得還要高很多。

  • Every pair of jeans begins its life in a cotton field.

    每一件牛仔褲的生命歷程都從棉花田開始。

  • It takes about 0.7 kilograms of cotton to produce a single pair of pants.

    生產一件牛仔褲需要大約 0.7 公斤的棉花。

  • Growing this much cotton requires roughly 10,000 liters of water, not to mention various herbicides and pesticides, which can contaminate groundwater.

    要種出這麼多棉花大概需要一萬公升的水,此外還有可能汙染地下水的各種除草劑和殺蟲劑。

  • The cotton is harvested by hand or industrial machines, and transported to textile factories where it's spun into yarn.

    棉花是以手工或機器收割,再運到紡織工廠紡成紗。

  • At this point, it's typically combined with plastic fibers like spandex to increase the yarn's elasticity.

    這時通常會混入氨綸之類的塑料纖維,以提升紗線的彈性。

  • These plastic threads make modern jeans more comfortable and flexible, but also much less durable.

    這些塑料線使現代的牛仔褲更舒服而且有彈性,但也比較不耐用。

  • Next, the yarn is dyed jeans' trademark blue.

    接下來,紗線會被染成牛仔褲標誌性的藍色。

  • Historically, this color came from natural plant-derived indigo.

    歷史上,這個顏色取自於自然植物的靛藍色。

  • But most modern manufacturers use a synthetic dye made from petroleum byproducts and toxic chemicals.

    但多數現代製造商使用以石油副產品和有毒化學物質所製造而成的合成染料。

  • Once dyed, the cotton-plastic blend is woven into denim sheets, which are then cut and sewn into jeans.

    一染完色,棉花和塑膠的混合物就會被織成丹寧布,接著裁剪並縫成牛仔褲。

  • After assembly, some jeans undergo additional procedures to get a distressed look.

    縫製完畢後,有些牛仔褲會進行額外的處理,做成仿古的磨損樣貌。

  • This often includes chemical sprays and multiple cycles of acid-washing, the toxic runoff can turn rivers indigo-blue.

    這個流程時常包含噴灑化學物質和很多輪次的酸洗,而在期間含有有毒物質的逕流可能會將河流也染成靛藍色。

  • Finally, there are the zippers, buttons, and rivets made of copper and other metals, whose mining is yet another source of environmental degradation.

    最後還要裝上拉鏈、鈕扣、鉚釘,這些都是用銅和其他金屬製成,開採這些礦產又會造成個環境進一步劣化。

  • All in all, the manufacturing process for a single pair of jeans emits over 33 kilograms of carbonthe equivalent of driving over 110 kilometers.

    總之,一件牛仔褲的製造過程會排放超過 33 公斤的碳,相當於開車超過 110 公里。

  • But this process doesn't just damage the environment.

    但這個過程不只會破壞環境而已。

  • Much of the world's cotton is grown in developing countries, with poor labor practices and few protections for workers.

    世界上的棉花大多數種植於開發中國家,勞動行為不佳,對工人的保護很少。

  • Cotton here is often picked by children or forced labor, and most jean manufacturing plants frequently expose workers to toxic chemicals throughout production.

    這裡的棉花通常由孩童或被強迫勞動的勞工收成,而且多數牛仔褲生產工廠常常讓工人在生產過程中暴露於有毒化學物質。

  • One particularly dangerous technique called sandblasting involves spraying jeans with fine sand at high pressures, and has been linked with numerous cases of incurable and often fatal lung disease.

    有一種特別危險的技術稱為噴砂,以高壓對牛仔褲噴灑細小的砂粒,而這與無數容易致命的肺部絕症案例有關聯。

  • Like many globally produced products, jeans are made in poor countries and bought in rich ones.

    就像許多全球化生產的產品,牛仔褲在窮國製造,在富國販售。

  • All these pants will likely be washed dozens or even hundreds of times per year.

    每一件牛仔褲很可能每年要洗上幾十次甚至上百次。

  • This energy intensive process breaks down the plastics woven into each pair, releasing microplastics into the water and, perhaps most ironic of all, shortening the jean's lifespan.

    這個能源密集的過程會分解縫在每一條牛仔褲中的塑料,讓微塑料釋放到水中,而最諷刺的是,它還會縮減牛仔褲的壽命。

  • Like most waste, discarded jeans end up in landfills, where their decomposition releases methane gas, while their dyes and plastics leach into the soil and groundwater.

    跟多數垃圾一樣,廢棄牛仔褲最後會被丟到垃圾掩埋場,而牛仔褲分解後會排放甲烷,褲子的染劑和塑料則被沖入泥土和地下水中。

  • Some companies are working on solutions here, from using organic cotton to recycling and reusing denim.

    有些公司在尋找解決問題的方法,像是使用有機棉花、回收和重複利用丹寧布。

  • You can also help reduce the environmental impact of your favorite pants by buying used jeans and buying fewer pairs altogether.

    你也可以幫忙減少你最愛的長褲對環境的影響,像是買二手牛仔褲或是少買幾條牛仔褲等等。

  • Denim manufacturers also recommend only washing your jeans once every 10 wears.

    丹寧布製造商也建議每穿十次再洗一次牛仔褲即可。

  • And, when possible, air dry your pants to reduce energy consumption.

    還有如果可以的話,風乾而不是烘乾你的長褲以減少能源消耗。

  • Life cycle and labor problems like these extend far beyond just jeans.

    這些生命週期和勞動的問題遠遠大於一條牛仔褲。

  • Some governments are pursuing policies to make companies more responsible for worker pay and welfare, but unsustainable practices still run rampant throughout the fashion industry.

    有些政府正在推行政策,讓企業對工人薪資和福利更加負責,但不永續的行徑在時尚業仍然十分猖獗。

  • So when the price tags on your clothes seem like a steal, it's important to consider who's actually being robbed.

    所以當你衣物的價格非常低廉時,想想誰被剝削了是很重要的事。

  • Now you know the journey your jeans take, but what about the rest of your wardrobe?

    現在你知道你的牛仔褲經歷了怎麼樣的旅程才來到你的身邊,但你衣櫃裡的其他衣物呢?

  • Find out how your favorite t-shirt made it into your closet with this video, or check out this video and explore what goes into making the world's most beloved shoes.

    看看這個影片來了解你最喜歡的 T 恤是怎麼抵達你的衣櫃的吧。或是看看這個影片來了解製作出世界上最受歡迎的球鞋背後的秘辛。

"The best looking, the most comfortable and longest wearing work garment you have ever had." - Levi Strauss ad from 1922

「這會是你擁有過最好看、最舒適而且最耐用的工作用衣物。」-1922 年的 Levi Strauss 廣告

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 牛仔褲 棉花 衣物 勞動 製造

Why do your jeans wear out so quickly? - Madhavi Venkatesan

  • 10 1
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 12 月 14 日
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