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  • Hey guys! I just learned about a dog named Chaser.

    嘿各位!我剛得知有隻名為 Chaser 的狗狗。

  • Chaser is a border collie who has a vocabulary of more than 1,000 words, that's like the same as a 4-year-old child.

    Chaser 是一隻邊境牧羊犬,他能夠分辨超過 1000 個單字,相當於一名4歲幼童。

  • But what makes Chaser even more special, is that he can even separate nouns from verbs.

    但讓 Chaser 更顯特別的是他甚至能夠區分名詞與動詞。

  • Take lips. Take lips. Do it girl, do it! Good girl, good girl.

    把「嘴唇」拿過來。拿「嘴唇」。快去吧女孩!做得好,做得好。

  • Paw lamb. Paw lamb, paw lamb, Chaser. Good girl, good girl!

    把腳放到「羊」上。腳放羊上,Chaser。做得好!

  • Nose ABC, nose ABC. Good girl, good girl!

    把鼻子放到「ABC」上。做得好!

  • This is Oliver. Oliver, you think you're smarter than Chaser? What do you say? What do you say?

    這是 Oliver。Oliver 你覺得你有比 Chaser 聰明嗎?你覺得怎麼樣?怎麼樣?

  • Yeah, let's go find out. Come on!

    好,讓我們實驗看看吧。來吧!

  • Get your ball. Where's your ball?

    去拿你的球。你的球在哪?

  • Get your bone. Where's your bone? Nope, that's your ball.

    拿你的骨頭。骨頭在哪?不對,那是你的球。

  • Where's your bone? Bone. Bone. Nope.

    你的骨頭呢?骨頭。不對。

  • Find your bone? Where's your bone?

    去找你的骨頭吧?骨頭在哪?

  • Okay, so maybe Oliver's not that good at this particular test, but the fact that we even try to communicate with dogs, and that they communicate back with us,

    好吧,或許 Oliver 在這個測驗的表現沒那麼好,但光是我們試著想與狗溝通,而他們也想和我們溝通這點,

  • means that the human-dog relationship is truly something special.

    就顯示了人類與狗的關係真的相當特別。

  • Who's the best boy? Who's the best boy?

    誰是最乖的寶寶?誰是乖寶寶啊?

  • I… have been known to talk to dogs a little.

    大家都知道我有一點點會跟狗狗說話。

  • Who's the good boy? Who's the good boy?

    誰是乖寶寶?誰是乖寶寶?

  • Or... a lot.

    或者說... 經常。

  • Who is the smartest doggy in the world?

    誰是這世界上最聰明的狗狗?

  • It's hard to know if they're responding to the words, or just the emotion in my voice, or the fact that I sound ridiculous.

    要得知他們究竟是真的在對我說的話做回應,或是對我聲音裡的感情做回應,或只是單純覺得我的聲音很奇怪。

  • Well, one recent study suggests it's both...or all three.

    最近的一項研究顯示兩者皆是或者說三者皆是。

  • Researchers at the University of Sussex played sounds out of speakers on both sides of a dog.

    薩塞克斯大學的研究人員在一隻狗的兩側各放了具音響,並從中播放一些聲音。

  • When dogs heard commands stripped of their emotional context, they turned their head to the right, suggesting they process verbal meaning in their left hemisphere.

    當那隻狗聽到沒有感情的命令時,他們會轉向右邊的音響,代表他們是用左腦來處理話語中的意涵。

  • And when they heard the emotional sounds in the voice, but the words were jumbled, they turned to the left, suggesting they process emotional sounds on the right.

    當他們聽到飽含情緒,但是文字排列混亂的聲音時,他們則轉向了左邊,代表他們在用右腦來處理情緒性的聲音。

  • These experiments show that dogs can definitely separate the meaning of words from the emotions attached.

    這些實驗顯示了狗完全可以在不管話語背後情緒的情況下,理解其意涵。

  • But how much information do they take from each?

    但他們能從中提取出多少資訊呢?

  • When I ask my dogs "Do you want to go for a walk?" they aren't processing the real meaning of that sentence the way we do, like

    當我問我家的狗「你想出去散步嗎?」,他們並不像我們一樣直接去理解這個句子的真正意涵,像是

  • Hmm, let me see, do I want to go for a walk right now? Get some exercise? Maybe I'm not feeling it today.

    嗯,我想想喔,我現在會想出去散步嗎?或許運動一下?但感覺今天沒什麼興致。

  • But I'm a dog, what does it even mean to want something?

    可是我只是隻夠欸,「想要」這個概念是什麼意思啊?

  • As good as dogs are with words, in many of our interactions there's probably a good amount of Clever Hans at play.

    雖然狗狗看起來好像可以理解文字,但是其中許多的互動或許更與一種叫做「聰明漢斯」的效應有關。

  • In the early 1900's a horse named Hans was said to be able to solve simple math problems by tapping his hoof to represent numbers. 2 + 3?

    在 20 世紀初,有一匹叫做漢斯的馬據說可以解開簡單的數學問題,並藉由踩踏的次數來做答。2 + 3 等於?

  • Smart horse! It was later found, though, that Hans couldn't do math at all.

    真聰明的馬!但是之後人們發現,漢斯根本不會數學。

  • He was just responding to tiny cues from his handlers, maybe their facial expressions would tense as he got close to the right answer,

    他只是從訓練師的反應來看出端倪而已。例如說他們的表情可能會隨著漢斯越來越接近答案而便得更加嚴肅,

  • or they would exhale when he tapped the right number.

    或是他們會在漢斯踩踏的次數等於正確答案時吐氣。

  • Clever Hans demonstrates that while we might think of language as something we experience mainly through our ears, we communicate meaning using more than just sound frequencies.

    聰明漢斯展示了儘管我們會覺得語言只能從耳朵聽見來理解,我們其實利用了許多除了聲音的頻率變化以外的方式來溝通。

  • In his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin argued that the way that we outwardly express and interpret emotions evolved from animals,

    查爾斯·達爾文在他的著作《人類和動物的情感表達》中提出了我們向外表達與解讀情緒的能力是從動物演變而來的,

  • and that our ability to recognize fear, happiness, sadness, even across species, is universal, and innate. It's something that we're born with.

    而我們甚至能跨越物種辨識出恐懼、快樂、悲傷情緒的能力是共通且固有的。這是我們天生的能力。

  • Today, scientists are still debating whether Darwin was right, but recent research suggests that we do share one special bit of emotional intuition with our canine companions.

    直到今日,科學家們仍在爭論達爾文的說法是否正確,但近期的研究顯示我們確實和我們的犬科好朋友們分享了同一種情緒直覺。

  • Dogs are the only non-primate animals that seek out eye contact with humans.

    家犬是唯一會與人類進行眼神互動的非靈長類動物。

  • Their wolf ancestors, even tame ones, although they're close enough genetically to interbreed with dogs, won't look us in the eyewhich is why you can never, ever trust a wolf.

    他們的狼類祖先雖然與家犬的基因型接近到能到繁衍子孫,但就算經過了馴服後仍不會與人類有眼神接觸... 這就是你永遠,永遠都不該相信一匹狼的原因。

  • How am I doing?

    我過得怎麼樣?

  • When reading emotions in other people we tend to look disproportionately and unconsciously to the right side of their face.

    在解讀他人的情緒時,我們會無意識地注意他們的右臉。

  • The dogs share this so-called left-gaze bias, but only when looking at human faces, not when they look at other dogs.

    狗也擁有這種被稱為左側凝視的偏見,但只會在他們看著人類臉龐的時後出現,在他們看向其他狗兒時並不會發生。

  • It seems like they genuinely want to understand what we're telling them and what it means.

    看起來他們是真心想要了解我們到底在跟他們說什麼,其中的涵義又是什麼。

  • And we seem to understand them too, or at least we think we do.

    而我們似乎也能理解他們,或者至少我們是這麼想的。

  • Researchers in Hungary tested people's ability to interpret the meaning of recorded dog barks, and found that many people really can speak dog.

    一群匈牙利的研究員們測試了人類解讀犬隻吠叫錄音中涵義的能力,並發現許多人真的能說「狗」語。

  • What do you think this bark means?

    你覺得這個叫聲是什麼意思?

  • Okay, that dog's angry. That's pretty easy.

    好,那隻狗很生氣。還蠻簡單的。

  • What about this one?

    那這個呢?

  • Do you want to go for a walk?

    你想不想去散步?

  • Okay, that dog wants to go for a walk. One more.

    好,那隻狗想去散步。再來一個。

  • I have no idea what that means.

    我對他想說什麼一點頭緒都沒有。

  • If you think about it, this dog-human language connection makes a lot of sense.

    仔細思考一下,這個狗與人之間的語言聯繫其實其來有自。

  • We've co-evolved with these creatures for the past 10,000 years or so.

    我們與這些生物們一起演化了 10,000 年以上。

  • We've molded them from wolves into puppies with our hands and our brains, and our voices.

    我們利用了自己的手、腦與聲音來將野狼們塑造成了小狗狗。

  • Even if we don't always understand each other, well, they're always there to listen, and that's the real meaning of a best friend. Isn't it buddy?

    儘管我們無法總是知道對方在說什麼,但他們總是會在一旁傾聽,而這正是人類最好朋友的真正詮釋。對不對呀,夥計?

  • Wait a second. Sorry.

    等我一下。抱歉。

  • Hello? Um, yeah, sure. It's for you.

    哈囉?嗯,對,好喔。給你的電話。

  • Hello? This is Oliver.

    哈囉?我是 Oliver。

  • Hello. This is dog.

    哈囉。是老狗我啦。

  • Oh, hey Luna!

    噢,嘿 Luna!

  • Have you seen Vanessa? She's been out for hours! I miss her.

    你有看到 Vanessa 嗎?她已經出去好幾小時了!我好想她。

  • Ruh roh!

    糟糕!

  • Um, thanks Luna! If you want to find out more about dog behavior, head on over to BrainCraft and find out if they really miss us when we're gone. Stay curious.

    呃,謝謝你 Luna!如果你想要知道更多有關狗狗的行為舉止,那就前往 BrainCraft 並了解他們在我們離開的時候會不會真的在思念我們吧。保持好奇。

  • Good boy. Oh, and special thanks to Oliver.

    好孩子。噢,還有特別感謝 Oliver。

Hey guys! I just learned about a dog named Chaser.

嘿各位!我剛得知有隻名為 Chaser 的狗狗。

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