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  • NASA spent billions on the James Webb Space Telescope and now they're going to launch it really far away.

    NASA 花費了數十億美元打造詹姆士·韋伯太空望遠鏡,而他們正準備把它發射到相當遙遠的太空中。

  • I'm talking about over 1.5 million kilometers to be exact.

    確切來說,我指的是 150 多萬公里遠。

  • But why do we need to send it so far and what kind of technology did we put on board to support mission success?


  • Affectionately known as Webb, or JWST, this next-generation observatory has been in development for over 25 years.

    這個經常被簡稱為韋伯望遠鏡或 JWST 的次世代天文台經歷了超過 25 年的研發。

  • And fun fact, as a mechanical engineer, I actually got the chance to work with NASA on this incredible telescope, specifically with the instrument module, which holds cutting-edge infrared technology.

    有趣的是,作為一名機械工程師,我實際上曾有幸與 NASA 一起研發這個令人驚嘆的望遠鏡,主要是在其中配備了最先進紅外線科技的儀器模組部分。

  • Webb is set to tackle some of humanity's biggest goals like searching for the first galaxies in our universe and observing various signs for potential life in planetary systems.


  • Mostly known as the successor of the incredibly popular Hubble Space Telescope, Webb will observe the universe with detectors that target near and mid-infrared wavelengths.


  • This means that the instruments on board Webb are specifically designed to combat some of the historic challenges astronomers have faced when trying to observe the early universe,


  • like huge dust clouds that block the view of celestial objects, cosmological red-shifting, and even interference from other bodies.


  • In fact, there are three things necessary to create the perfect environment for an infrared telescope: a large mirror to collect as much light as possible, extremely cold temperatures, and a clear line of sight to your target.


  • Each detail has been thought out meticulously over the past two decades leading to this point, like where it will orbit. 1.5 million kilometers is a bit of a trip to say the least.

    在過去的二十多年來,每個細節都被仔細地考量與評估後,才總算完成了望遠鏡。例如它應該要在個軌道上運行150 萬公里可不是個隨隨便便就能抵達的距離。

  • So why are we putting Webb in such a distant orbit?


  • Well, it's headed to L2, the second Lagrange point around the Sun and Earth.

    它要進到 L2 運行軌道是,也就是圍繞太陽與地球的第二格拉格朗日點

  • These five points are stable configurations that allow bodies to orbit each other, but still remain in the same position relative to one another.


  • The key to L2 is centripetal force, which you can imagine as the tension in a rope on a tether ball that keeps it connected to the pole.

    選擇 L2 的關鍵點在於向心力。你可以把它想像是成一顆被繩子拴住的球,繩子被綁在一根竿子上時所受到的張力。

  • At L2, the centripetal force required for a small satellite-sized object to move in respect to the Earth is equal to the gravitational pull of the two larger masses.

    在 L2 上,讓像是衛星這樣的小型物體相對於地球移動起來的向心力,與兩個巨大星體所造成的引力相當。

  • Meaning that this particularly cozy orbit has several benefits to support Webb's mission.


  • The first is that because of the gravitational pull from the larger bodies, Webb will move in sync with the Earth as it orbits the Sun,


  • which is great for commanding and telemetry data drops back to our ground stations.


  • This allows us to use the Deep Space Network to stay in constant communication with the satellite, and cuts down on any potential delay time that you might see in other missions.


  • The second is, thanks to centripetal force, it takes very short bursts of rocket thrust to keep the observatory in the original L2 orbit, which can ultimately increase mission life.

    第二個好處則是由於有向心力的關係,我們只需要非常短暫的火箭推力便能將望遠鏡保持在原本的 L2 軌道上,藉此便能提升服役壽命。

  • The third benefit of the L2 position is that Webb's tennis court-sized sun shield can effectively block out any excess light from the Sun, Earth, and even the Moon.

    第三個好處則是在 L2 位置上,韋伯望遠鏡上網球場大小的遮陽護盾能夠有效地阻擋任何來自太陽、地球甚至是月亮的多餘光線。

  • Thus voila! Creating a beautiful and open line of sight between Webb and our target.


  • So remember the reason why we use the shield is because infrared light can also be interpreted as heat.


  • Since one of Webb's main goals is to study extremely distant and usually faint wavelengths, engineers had to ensure the observatory is protected from all heat sources, including itself.


  • For this reason, the telescope is uniquely divided into two separate sections: the Cold and the Hot Side with the sunshield layers acting as the dividing line between the two.


  • The cold side handles the observation functions, meaning it's where we get our data.


  • This side includes the primary and secondary mirrors, infrared instruments, and the detectors with an operating temperature of -233 degrees Celsius.

    這一側包含了能夠在 -233 攝氏度下運作的主要與次要鏡面組、紅外線儀器以及探測器。

  • The hot side includes mainly spacecraft operation elements.


  • This includes the sunshield, solar panel, communication antenna, spacecraft bus, and star tracker with an operational temperature of 85 degrees Celsius.

    其中包括了能在 85 攝氏度下運作的遮陽護盾、太陽能板、通訊天線、太空飛行器平台以及星體追蹤儀。

  • And it's insane to think that this telescope has to operate at these two extreme temperatures simultaneously.


  • Having the opportunity to work on this satellite was an absolutely amazing experience,


  • and I have to say although I'm Team Cold Side, I can't think of a better group to have fully integrated this amazing telescope with.


  • And just think, following launch, it will take Webb approximately 30 days to fully deploy and reach its desired L2 orbit.

    想想看,在從地球發射出去後,還得花上 30 天韋伯望遠鏡才能完全部署完成並抵達 L2 軌道。

  • From there, a series of calibrations will occur and we can expect to see data within six months.


  • I'm not sure about you, but I'm beyond excited to get one step closer to answering the question, "Where did it all begin?"


  • So what are some of your biggest questions about the Webb telescope?


  • Let us know in the comments below and make sure to subscribe.


  • Thanks so much for watching Seeker, and I'll see you next time.

    非常感謝各位收看 Seeker,我們下次再見。

NASA spent billions on the James Webb Space Telescope and now they're going to launch it really far away.

NASA 花費了數十億美元打造詹姆士·韋伯太空望遠鏡,而他們正準備把它發射到相當遙遠的太空中。

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人類天眼!詹姆斯-韋伯太空望遠鏡發射升空 (Inside the James Webb Space Telescope’s Orbit Around the Sun)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2022 年 01 月 03 日