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  • If you're a minimum wage worker in an industry like hospitality or retail, you could be earning

    如果你是一個在酒店或零售等行業的最低工資工人,你的收入可能是

  • between $5 and $2,433 per month, depending on where you live.

    每月5美元到2433美元之間,取決於你住的地方。

  • A minimum wage system is very complex.

    一個最低工資制度是非常複雜的。

  • It depends from country to country, sector to sector, political landscape, you name it.

    這取決於國家與國家之間,部門與部門之間,政治格局,你的名字。

  • But at the same time, a lot of people argue that increasing minimum wage could actually

    但與此同時,很多人認為,提高最低工資實際上可以

  • lift millions of people out of poverty.

    使數以百萬計的人擺脫貧困。

  • But some people argue that an increase in the minimum wage might lead to a loss of jobs.

    但有些人認為,提高最低工資可能會導致工作崗位的流失。

  • That's debatable.

    這是值得商榷的。

  • The minimum wage is the lowest amount of compensation an employer can legally pay its workers.

    最低工資是僱主可以合法地支付給工人的最低補償金額。

  • That said, an estimated 266 million wage earners globally, 15% of the working population,

    也就是說,全球估計有2.66億工薪族,佔工作人口的15%。

  • are paid below minimum wage.

    僱員的工資低於最低工資。

  • This is either because they are not legally covered or because of non-compliance.

    這要麼是因為他們沒有受到法律保護,要麼是因為不符合規定。

  • And of the 187 member states in the International Labour Organization, 10% don't have a minimum wage.

    而在國際勞工組織的187個成員國中,10%的國家沒有最低工資。

  • So, why is that?

    那麼,這是為什麼呢?

  • The effectiveness of a minimum wage has been debated since the concept was first introduced

    自最低工資的概念首次提出以來,人們一直在爭論最低工資的有效性。

  • and has come even more into the forefront as income inequality within nations rises.

    並且隨著國家內部收入不平等的加劇而更加凸顯出來。

  • To help me illustrate some points, I've enlisted the help of London correspondent

    為了幫助我說明一些問題,我請來了倫敦記者的幫助

  • Silvia Amaro, who covers European politics and markets.

    報道歐洲政治和市場的西爾維婭-阿馬羅。

  • Silvia, I have a question for you.

    西爾維婭,我有一個問題要問你。

  • When you think about a minimum wage, what comes to mind?

    當你想到最低工資時,你會想到什麼?

  • An ideal.

    一個理想。

  • An ideal to avoid a race to the bottom when it comes to wages.

    在工資問題上,避免競相壓低的理想。

  • And I use the word ideal, Nessa, because essentially there are too many elements that can decide

    我使用理想這個詞,Nessa,因為本質上有太多的元素可以決定

  • the standards of living of people.

    人民的生活水準。

  • What first came to my mind is one single magic number that applies to all employees in a

    我首先想到的是一個適用於所有員工的單一神奇數字。

  • country that increases their standard of living, but it's not really a silver bullet, is it?

    國家,提高他們的生活水準,但這並不是真正的銀彈,不是嗎?

  • No, it's not.

    不,不是的。

  • Essentially, there's not a universal number.

    從本質上講,沒有一個通用的數字。

  • But in essence when you look at a minimum wage, it needs to be enough to then cover

    但從本質上講,當你看到最低工資時,它需要足以支付

  • income taxes, social contributions and other levies.

    所得稅、社會捐款和其他稅費。

  • And when you look at these contributions, they also change from country to country.

    而當你看這些貢獻時,它們也會因國家而改變。

  • Some countries may have as much as 50, or more, different minimum wage rates.

    一些國家可能有多達50種,甚至更多的不同的最低工資標準。

  • And these rates are determined by factors like sector, occupation, age, or geographical region.

    而這些比率是由部門、職業、年齡或地理區域等因素決定的。

  • That also adds another layer of complexity when you try to compare the different systems

    當你試圖比較不同的系統時,這也增加了另一層的複雜性。

  • across the world.

    在世界範圍內。

  • For example, as many as 14 countries in Africa have two rates: One for the agricultural sector

    例如,非洲有多達14個國家有兩個比率。一個用於農業部門

  • and the other for everything else.

    而另一個則用於其他一切。

  • In Europe, workers in the textile and leather industry have a lower rate.

    在歐洲,紡織和皮革業的工人的比率較低。

  • And for big countries such as the U.S. and China, this disparity may apply across regions too,

    而對於美國和中國這樣的大國來說,這種差異可能也適用於各地區。

  • because of the different costs of living, economic development and the labor market situation.

    因為生活成本、經濟發展和勞動力市場狀況不同。

  • In Shanghai, which is China's financial hub, its minimum wage is the highest in the country.

    在作為中國金融中心的上海,其最低工資是全國最高的。

  • What is the purpose of minimum wage?

    最低工資的目的是什麼?

  • In very broad terms, the idea is to ensure fairness.

    從非常廣泛的角度來看,這個想法是為了確保公平性。

  • We're talking about an idea that is meant to protect workers, but ultimately, it's

    我們正在談論一個旨在保護工人的想法,但最終,它是

  • about ensuring equality in our societies.

    關於確保我們社會中的平等。

  • But how are minimum wages determined?

    但最低工資是如何確定的?

  • If it's too high, it gets hard to enforce.

    如果它太高,就很難執行。

  • If it's too low, that protection net is gone.

    如果它太低,這個保護網就會消失。

  • There's not a concrete formula how much a person should have, should earn, in order

    沒有一個具體的公式,一個人應該有多少錢,應該賺多少錢,以便於

  • to live in a decent way.

    以體面的方式生活。

  • This is a policy that is often debated around elections.

    這是一項經常在選舉前後辯論的政策。

  • But at the same time, of course, in more practical terms, the minimum wage can also change because

    但與此同時,當然,從更實際的角度來看,最低工資也可以改變,因為

  • of inflation.

    的通貨膨脹。

  • Since 2010, countries with minimum wages have adjusted them every 3 years on average.

    自2010年以來,設有最低工資的國家平均每3年調整一次。

  • So, it takes a while to adjust to higher consumer prices.

    是以,需要一段時間來適應更高的消費價格。

  • Essentially, you needed a benchmark, to compare the systems across the world.

    從本質上講,你需要一個基準,以比較世界各地的系統。

  • The one that we're using in this case, is the purchasing power parity exchange rates.

    我們在這種情況下使用的,是購買力平價匯率。

  • All of these rates are converted into U.S. dollars, and then compared.

    所有這些匯率都被轉換為美元,然後進行比較。

  • Globally, the median minimum wage level for 2019 is $486 per month.

    在全球範圍內,2019年的最低工資水準中位數為每月486美元。

  • Luxembourg has one of the highest at $2,433 per month, while Australia and Canada are

    盧森堡是最高的之一,每月2433美元,而澳洲和加拿大是

  • also near the top of the list.

    也接近榜首。

  • At the bottom, we have countries like Mexico, Bangladesh and Uganda.

    在底部,我們有墨西哥、孟加拉國和烏干達等國家。

  • It's important to also note that minimum wage is not an isolated concept, right?

    還需要注意的是,最低工資不是一個孤立的概念,對嗎?

  • It works in tandem with other social and other employment policies.

    它與其他社會政策和其他就業政策協同工作。

  • Yeah, absolutely.

    是的,當然。

  • And when you look at the labor market, one of the issues that we see is the gender pay gap.

    當你看一下勞動力市場,我們看到的一個問題是性別工資差距。

  • So in other words, the idea that men tend to earn more than women, even if they are

    是以,換句話說,男性的收入往往比女性高,即使他們是

  • doing the same role.

    做同樣的角色。

  • The idea with a minimum wage can also help in narrowing that gap between men and women.

    有最低工資的想法也可以幫助縮小男女之間的這種差距。

  • There are some groups of workers in particular industries or occupations, for example agriculture

    有一些特定行業或職業的工人群體,例如農業

  • or even domestic work, they are excluded from a minimum wage.

    甚至是家務勞動,他們被排除在最低工資之外。

  • According to the ILO, 22.4 million domestic workers worldwide are not covered by any minimum

    根據國際勞工組織的數據,全世界有2240萬名家庭傭工沒有受到任何最低限度的保護。

  • wage provisions.

    工資規定。

  • And it's not just limited to specific industries.

    而且這不僅僅侷限於特定行業。

  • In Oman, only nationals are covered by a minimum wage law.

    在阿曼,只有國民受最低工資法的保護。

  • Foreign workers are notably excluded.

    外國工人明顯被排除在外。

  • This brings us to the other side of the debate.

    這讓我們看到了辯論的另一面。

  • There are a number of countries without statutory minimum wage systems.

    有一些國家沒有法定最低工資制度。

  • So, for instance, the Nordic European countries, they have a collective bargaining system.

    是以,例如,北歐的歐洲國家,他們有一個集體談判制度。

  • So, in other words, it's up to usually the trade unions or the workers to negotiate with

    是以,換句話說,通常是由工會或工人來與之進行談判。

  • the employers, what are the minimum wages for certain types of jobs.

    僱主,某些類型工作的最低工資是什麼。

  • So, it's not a government mandate, and it's not universal across the countries.

    所以,這不是政府的任務,也不是各國的普遍做法。

  • Other countries have also bucked the trend, including the United Arab Emirates and Singapore.

    其他國家也逆勢而上,包括阿拉伯聯合酋長國和新加坡。

  • Singapore has, what it calls, a progressive wage model for certain sectors, which it claims

    新加坡對某些部門實行所謂的累進工資模式,它聲稱

  • incentivizes workers to upgrade their skills and take on more responsibility.

    激勵工人提升他們的技能並承擔更多責任。

  • And you might be surprised to learn countries like Germany, Malaysia and Qatar barely adopted

    而你可能會驚訝地發現,像德國、馬來西亞和卡達這樣的國家幾乎沒有採用

  • minimum wage systems in the last decade.

    在過去十年中,最低工資制度。

  • But for the majority, most of the debate is centered around whether to increase the current

    但對大多數人來說,大部分的辯論都集中在是否增加目前的

  • rate or not.

    率與否。

  • Let's imagine that there is indeed a government mandate to increase minimum wage, then smaller

    讓我們想象一下,確實有一個政府授權增加最低工資,那麼小的

  • companies might decide, well, you know what, I don't want to pay more.

    公司可能會決定,好吧,你知道嗎,我不想多付錢。

  • I'm going to hire workers part-time, going forward.

    我打算僱用工人兼職,繼續前進。

  • And part-time will mean that these low-skilled jobs will essentially have less security for

    而兼職將意味著這些低技能的工作在本質上會有更少的保障,因為

  • the workers, and they will potentially be earning less as well.

    工人,他們的收入也有可能減少。

  • Part of it is Economics 101, right?

    它的一部分是經濟學101,對嗎?

  • If you increase the minimum wage, then it might follow that you have to lay off some

    如果你提高了最低工資,那麼你就可能不得不裁掉一些人。

  • workers, and this might create a spillover effect.

    工人,而這可能會產生溢出效應。

  • It's also important to look at the actual increases.

    看一下實際的增長情況也很重要。

  • And some people argue that when you increase minimum wage, it's because not it's not just

    有些人認為,當你提高最低工資時,這是因為它不只是

  • because consumer prices are higher, potentially, but because those workers deserve to be paid more.

    因為消費者價格可能更高,但因為這些工人應該得到更多的報酬。

  • A 1993 study by the late-economist Alan Krueger and his colleague David Card found that employment

    後期經濟學家艾倫-克魯格和他的同事大衛-卡德1993年的研究發現,就業

  • levels in the U.S. state of New Jersey actually grew slightly after a minimum wage hike the

    在美國新澤西州提高最低工資後,該州的工資水平實際上略有增長。

  • year before.

    前一年。

  • It compared employment growth in New Jersey with Pennsylvania, which didn't increase

    該報告將新澤西州的就業增長與賓夕法尼亞州進行了比較,後者沒有增加

  • the minimum wage.

    最低工資。

  • The report, which challenged the conventional view then, that higher minimum wages led to

    該報告挑戰了當時的傳統觀點,即較高的最低工資會導致

  • lower employment, won Card the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2021.

    較低的就業率,在2021年為卡德贏得了諾貝爾經濟學獎。

  • You can read different people, different economists, and they will show you different points of view.

    你可以閱讀不同的人,不同的經濟學家,他們會向你展示不同的觀點。

  • Some will keep arguing that, indeed, increasing minimum wages can increase inflation because

    有些人會一直爭辯說,的確,提高最低工資會增加通貨膨脹,因為

  • people will have more money available, and therefore, they are more likely to spend it,

    人們將有更多的錢可用,是以,他們更有可能花錢。

  • and that tends to increase inflation.

    而這往往會增加通貨膨脹。

  • One thing's for sure: No two countries will have the exact same minimum wage systems.

    有一件事是肯定的:沒有兩個國家會有完全相同的最低工資制度。

  • Many incorporate different features that can't be categorized so easily.

    許多人結合了不同的功能,不能輕易歸類。

  • In fact, countries are continuously adjusting their minimum wages according to the changes

    事實上,各國都在根據變化不斷調整其最低工資。

  • in their economies.

    在他們的經濟中。

  • In a post-pandemic future, there might be more labor market shifts.

    在大流行之後的未來,可能會有更多的勞動力市場轉變。

  • A 2021 report estimates that more than 4.3 million jobs may disappear over the next decade,

    2021年的一份報告估計,在未來十年內可能會有超過430萬個工作崗位消失。

  • displaced by automation.

    被自動化取代。

  • And a lot of these jobs in industries that they have highlighted, they are either minimum wage

    而他們所強調的這些行業中的很多工作,要麼是最低工資

  • or low-wage jobs.

    或低工資的工作。

  • So, I think this will remain a topic of discussion for the future, for sure.

    是以,我認為這將仍然是未來討論的一個話題,是肯定的。

  • Essentially, a minimum wage isn't a means to an end.

    從本質上講,最低工資並不是達到目的的手段。

  • Some people do argue that going forward, minimum wages will become obsolete, because of automation.

    有些人確實認為,在未來,最低工資將變得過時,因為自動化。

  • And if you think about the concrete example, already in our modern lives, when you go to wage

    如果你想一想具體的例子,在我們的現代生活中,當你去支付工資時,已經有了這樣的例子

  • the supermarket, you now have the option to self-checkout.

    在超市裡,你現在可以選擇自助結賬。

  • But because inequality is such a global problem, perhaps minimum wages as a policy deserve

    但由於不平等是一個全球性的問題,也許最低工資作為一項政策值得

  • our utmost attention.

    我們最大的關注。

  • Silvia, have you ever worked, you know, a minimum wage or a low-wage job?

    西爾維婭,你是否曾經做過,你知道,最低工資或低工資的工作?

  • I have, my first job was the minimum rate in the UK.

    我有,我的第一份工作是英國的最低工資。

  • The only reason why I ask is because I've worked in a minimum wage job too, I think

    我問的唯一原因是我也做過最低工資的工作,我想

  • I worked in some retail job, and I wasn't very good at it.

    我做過一些零售工作,但我並不擅長。

If you're a minimum wage worker in an industry like hospitality or retail, you could be earning

如果你是一個在酒店或零售等行業的最低工資工人,你的收入可能是

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B1 中級 中文 工資 工人 國家 本質 提高 工作

為什麼沒有全球最低工資 (Why there's no global minimum wage)

  • 6 1
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 28 日
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