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  • - Greg: The world is warm. - ( sighs )

    - 格雷格:世界是溫暖的。 - ( 嘆氣 )

  • Our cooling has officially been shut off.

    我們的冷卻系統已經正式被關閉了。

  • - I'm so hot. - I'm making an off-grid fridge.

    - 我太熱了。- 我正在做一個離網冰箱。

  • It's going to be complicated, possibly amazing...

    這將是複雜的,可能是驚人的...

  • - Moment of truth. - ...or a huge fail.

    - 真理的時刻。- ...或巨大的失敗。

  • Snug as a button.

    舒適得像個鈕釦。

  • Mitchell: And I'm gonna cool our bunky with paint.

    米切爾。 我要用油漆來冷卻我們的床鋪。

  • But this isn't your grandparents' white paint. It's high tech stuff.

    但這不是你祖父母的白漆。 這是高科技的東西。

  • Okay, we've got 53 degrees Celsius.

    好的,我們有53攝氏度。

  • Where's Greg? He's better at the manual labor.

    格雷格在哪裡?他更擅長體力勞動。

  • - Oh! - That's actually cool air.

    - 哦!--那實際上是涼爽的空氣。

  • Greg: Can we really cool our planet

    格雷格:我們真的可以冷卻我們的星球嗎?

  • with cheap and easy technologies?

    用廉價和簡單的技術?

  • - ( groans ) - ( stammers )

    - ( 呻吟聲 ) - ( 口吃聲 )

  • No!

    不!

  • Mitchell and Greg: This is "Shut It Off ASAP."

    米切爾和格雷格:這是 "儘快關閉它"。

  • Mitchell: The world is warming, and that excess heat

    米切爾。 世界正在變暖,而這些多餘的熱量

  • is causing frequent wildfires, droughts, crop failures,

    正在造成頻繁的野火、乾旱和作物歉收。

  • optimized conditions for disease vectors,

    對疾病媒介的優化條件。

  • thermal-induced pollution-- the list goes on.

    熱引起的汙染--這個名單還在繼續。

  • Unfortunately, we don't have a choice.

    不幸的是,我們沒有選擇。

  • We need to keep ourselves cool. And that is a problem.

    我們需要讓自己保持冷靜。 而這是一個問題。

  • The cooling industry is responsible

    製冷行業負責

  • for around 10% of carbon emissions,

    約佔碳排放的10%。

  • which is around three times as much as shipping

    這大約是運費的三倍

  • and aviation combined.

    和航空相結合。

  • So we have two universal, potentially sustainable

    是以,我們有兩個普遍的、可能是可持續的

  • off-grid cooling experiments we want to try.

    我們想嘗試的離網冷卻實驗。

  • So there's been a trend in roofs in particular

    是以,特別是在屋頂方面出現了一種趨勢

  • to think about the color they actually are,

    思考他們實際上是什麼顏色。

  • and to figure out how much light and heat they are actually absorbing.

    並計算出它們實際吸收了多少光和熱。

  • So I decided I'm going to find the whitest paint I can

    是以,我決定要找到最白的油漆。

  • and paint the entire roof white

    並將整個屋頂塗成白色

  • to see if we can get a big temperature drop inside

    看看我們是否能讓室內溫度大幅下降

  • and ultimately cool ourselves down.

    並最終為自己降溫。

  • White paint has been used to cool buildings

    白色塗料已被用於冷卻建築物

  • for thousands of years across the Mediterranean,

    幾千年來,在整個地中海地區。

  • the Middle East, and parts of Africa.

    中東和非洲部分地區。

  • People have utilized white materials

    人們利用了白色材料

  • to reflect the heat of the sun away from their homes.

    將太陽的熱量從他們的家裡反射出去。

  • These white structures, although picturesque

    這些白色的結構,雖然風景如畫

  • and quaint in the modern era, serve a practical purpose.

    而在現代社會中,古色古香的東西也有其實際用途。

  • I actually spoke with the creator of the whitest paint ever,

    我實際上與有史以來最白的油漆的創造者談過。

  • which is able to reflect 98% of light,

    它能夠反射98%的光線。

  • including UV light, that we can't even see.

    包括紫外線,我們甚至無法看到。

  • Professor, thank you so much

    教授,非常感謝您

  • for taking the time to chat today

    感謝你今天抽出時間與我交談

  • - about white paint in particular. - It's my pleasure.

    - 特別是關於白色油漆。- 這是我的榮幸。

  • We used a few different sort of innovations

    我們使用了一些不同的創新方法

  • that we came up with in seven years.

    我們在七年內想出了這個辦法。

  • It's a long journey.

    這是一個漫長的旅程。

  • Sunlight has many different wavelengths.

    太陽光有許多不同的波長。

  • We eventually found that using different particle sizes will help you.

    我們最終發現,使用不同的顆粒大小將有助於你。

  • Each particle size can scatter one wavelength.

    每種顆粒大小都能散射一個波長。

  • If you use them all together,

    如果你把它們都用在一起。

  • they reflect all the wavelengths well.

    它們能很好地反射所有的波長。

  • So, do you think that there is

    那麼,你認為是否有

  • a long-term practical application

    一個長期的實際應用

  • with cooling cities and potentially helping

    與冷卻城市和潛在的幫助

  • against climate change and global warming?

    反對氣候變化和全球變暖?

  • We did an interesting analysis that you just need 1%

    我們做了一個有趣的分析,你只需要1%的

  • of the Earth's surface covered with white paint.

    覆蓋著白色油漆的地球表面。

  • Then that is enough to cool the Earth down back by 1 degree,

    那麼這就足以使地球降溫1度。

  • and restore our climate hopefully.

    並有希望恢復我們的氣候。

  • That's wild. That's amazing.

    這很狂野。這是驚人的。

  • Our ice caps naturally reflect incoming solar radiation,

    我們的冰蓋自然地反映了進入的太陽輻射。

  • which moderates our climate.

    這使我們的氣候變得溫和。

  • But as the Earth warms and they melt,

    但隨著地球變暖,它們會融化。

  • the effect is hugely reduced, which warms the Earth further.

    的效果大大降低,從而使地球進一步變暖。

  • Painting the top of buildings, roadways, and even cars

    在建築物、道路、甚至汽車的頂部作畫

  • can make up for this and help fight climate change.

    可以彌補這一點並幫助應對氣候變化。

  • I'm gonna be focusing on cooling our food.

    我將專注於冷卻我們的食物。

  • I'm gonna be making an off-grid fridge.

    我準備做一個離網冰箱。

  • I'll be putting it underground, under the soil,

    我將把它放在地下,放在土壤下面。

  • for some geothermal cooling aspects.

    對於一些地熱冷卻方面。

  • We're also going to be having some evaporative cooling aspects,

    我們還將有一些蒸發冷卻的方面。

  • which will be part of this fridge

    這將是這個冰箱的一部分

  • which is gonna be using Peltier modules,

    這將會使用珀爾帖模塊。

  • which require electricity and fans,

    這需要電力和風扇。

  • which will be powered by solar panels

    這將由太陽能電池板提供動力

  • in order to create this underground fridge.

    以創建這個地下冰箱。

  • - I have so many questions. - They'll be answered in the video. Keep going.

    - 我有這麼多問題。- 它們會在視頻中得到解答。繼續前進。

  • - Okay. - Greg: Oh, there we go.

    - 好的。 格雷格:哦,我們走吧。

  • The complexity of my build means I need help

    我的建築的複雜性意味著我需要幫助

  • from Paul, our master builder.

    來自保羅,我們的建築大師。

  • I not only need his power tool skills,

    我不僅需要他的電動工具技能。

  • but I also need his muscles.

    但我也需要他的肌肉。

  • My fridge has three parts.

    我的冰箱有三個部分。

  • There are the Peltier modules.

    有佩爾蒂埃模塊。

  • They need electricity, so we are powering them

    他們需要電力,所以我們為他們提供電力。

  • using solar panels.

    使用太陽能電池板。

  • The Peltier models help to take heat away

    珀爾帖模型有助於帶走熱量

  • from inside the cooler and disperse it.

    從冷卻器裡面出來,並將其分散開來。

  • Our evaporative cooling device

    我們的蒸發冷卻裝置

  • cools the outside of the Peltier modules

    冷卻珀爾帖模塊的外部

  • to maximize their efficiency.

    以使其效率最大化。

  • And, lastly, for some geothermal cooling,

    最後,是為了一些地熱製冷。

  • we're burying the cooling box and evaporative cooling device

    我們正在埋設冷卻箱和蒸發冷卻裝置

  • in the ground to keep it colder

    埋在地下以保持寒冷

  • and its temperature stable.

    並且其溫度穩定。

  • More about that later.

    稍後會有更多關於這個問題的介紹。

  • Oh, God, I'm so deep in the hole.

    哦,上帝啊,我已經陷得很深了。

  • Psych! Okay.

    心理!好的。

  • So, if you're wondering why I'm digging this hole,

    所以,如果你想知道我為什麼要挖這個洞。

  • it's 'cause I'm trying to teach you all

    這是因為我想教給你們所有人

  • how to bury a body. I kid.

    如何埋葬一具屍體。我的孩子。

  • So we're digging this hole to put the cooler in,

    所以我們在挖這個洞,把冷卻器放進去。

  • and it's actually gonna help it keep cold,

    而且它實際上會幫助它保持低溫。

  • because the Earth has so much more mass,

    因為地球的品質大得多。

  • and so essentially it's a lot harder for the Earth to lose heat.

    是以,從本質上講,地球失去熱量要難得多。

  • So we're just trying to take advantage

    所以我們只是想利用

  • of those geological properties

    這些地質特性的

  • in order to keep our cooler cool.

    以使我們的冷卻器保持涼爽。

  • Mitchell: With the temperature above 35 degrees Celsius,

    米切爾。 在溫度高於35攝氏度的情況下。

  • sleeping in the bunky has become unbearable.

    睡在下鋪的人已經無法忍受了。

  • It's way too hot, so I'm hoping that using a bit of science

    它太熱了,所以我希望利用一點科學的方法

  • will help me cool the place down.

    將幫助我把這個地方降溫。

  • It's time to paint. I've got my security harness.

    是時候畫畫了。我已經拿到了我的安全繩。

  • We've got our scaffolding, and I've got, you know, my coverage and booties

    我們有我們的腳手架,而我有,你知道,我的覆蓋和靴子

  • to make sure I don't get any paint all over me.

    以確保我不會把任何油漆弄到身上。

  • The temperature right now-- I'm gonna check it--

    現在的溫度 -- 我去看看 --

  • is at 53 degrees Celsius, so more than halfway to boiling.

    是在53攝氏度,所以超過了沸騰的一半。

  • Okay, let's explore what makes white paint so special.

    好吧,讓我們來探討一下,是什麼讓白色油漆如此特別。

  • So, why is it that different colors

    那麼,為什麼不同的顏色

  • are better at reflecting light?

    在反射光線方面更好?

  • Whenever you look around you and see something colorful,

    每當你環顧四周,看到色彩斑斕的東西。

  • you're actually seeing the spectrum of visible light

    你實際上看到的是可見光的光譜

  • that the object is not absorbing.

    該物體沒有吸收。

  • Plants, for example, appear green

    例如,植物出現綠色

  • because they mostly absorb the blue and red spectrum

    因為它們主要吸收藍色和紅色光譜

  • and not green light, which is then bounced

    而不是綠光,然後被反彈到

  • off the plant and hits your eye.

    從植物上掉下來,砸到你的眼睛。

  • When something appears white, that actually means

    當某些東西出現白色時,這實際上意味著

  • that every color is bouncing back to your eye,

    每種顏色都會反彈到你的眼睛。

  • because, like a prism that splits white light into a rainbow,

    因為,就像一個稜鏡把白光分割成彩虹一樣。

  • white is actually all of the colors combined.

    白色實際上是所有顏色的組合。

  • And it's the material or chemical makeup on an object

    而它是物體上的材料或化學構成

  • that defines how light will interact with it.

    界定了光與它的互動方式。

  • For example, our paint contains titanium dioxide in it,

    例如,我們的塗料中含有二氧化鈦。

  • which reflects around 80 to 90% of light,

    它能反射大約80-90%的光線。

  • ultimately making it appear white.

    最終使其呈現白色。

  • All right, first part is always the scariest.

    好吧,第一部分總是最可怕的。

  • Ooh-la-la!

    哦-拉-拉!

  • Okay, that's very white. That's awesome.

    好吧,那是非常白的。這真是太棒了。

  • This is easy.

    這很容易。

  • Now I just have to be careful I don't step backwards and die.

    現在我只需要小心,不要讓我退步,不要讓我死。

  • Greg: The next step in my build

    格雷格:我的建設的下一個步驟

  • is the insulated box for the fridge,

    是冰箱的保溫箱。

  • and it's something I'm not looking forward to.

    而這是我不期待的事情。

  • First, we have to glue this foam insulation,

    首先,我們要把這個保麗龍保溫材料粘起來。

  • before we build the exterior of our cooler,

    在我們建造冷卻器的外部之前。

  • but it is a separate AsapScience episode

    但它是一個單獨的AsapScience情節

  • about the physiology of why touching foam insulation

    關於為什麼觸摸保麗龍保溫材料的生理學問題

  • literally gives me the heebie-jeebies

    簡直讓我心驚肉跳

  • and scream and salivate and freak out, so...

    和尖叫,流口水和嚇壞了,所以...

  • I think you should just do it. Or I'll do it!

    我想你應該直接去做。或者由我來做!

  • I'm strong. Okay.

    我很堅強。好的。

  • Aah! I hate it. I don't know, please.

    啊!我討厭它。我不知道,求你了。

  • Oh-kay. I know I seem insane, but I'm not kidding.

    哦,好的。我知道我看起來瘋了,但我不是在開玩笑。

  • Oh, God, oh, God.

    哦,上帝,哦,上帝。

  • Ho! ( imitating squirting sound )

    吼!((模仿噴水的聲音)。)

  • So skilled, so skilled.

    如此熟練,如此熟練。

  • You could do this at home with a normal cooler

    你可以在家裡用一個普通的冷卻器來做這件事

  • that you just bought from a store,

    你剛從商店買來的。

  • but we've got Paul here.

    但我們這裡有保羅。

  • Go deeper. Press, press, press.

    再深入一點。按、按、按。

  • ( imitates drill whirring ) Okay, good, good.

    ((模仿鑽頭的呼呼聲)好,好,好。

  • - Oh, God. - Oh.

    - 哦,上帝。- 哦。

  • - No. - Oh, my God.

    - 不 哦,我的上帝。

  • I was like, "Oh, and I'm getting sued."

    我當時想,"哦,我還被起訴了。"

  • Where's Greg? He's better at the manual labor.

    格雷格在哪裡?他更擅長體力勞動。

  • Mitch is literally watching paint dry, which is very practical,

    米奇簡直就是在看油漆幹,這非常實用。

  • but not nearly as complex as me trying to make an off-grid fridge.

    但還沒有像我試圖製作一個離網冰箱那樣複雜。

  • But it shows you how cool it is

    但它告訴你它有多酷

  • to just paint roofs white.

    只是把屋頂塗成白色。

  • Like, we can all do that.

    比如,我們都能做到這一點。

  • Whoo.

    嗚呼。

  • It's hot.

    它很熱。

  • Greg: We are currently in an awful heat wave,

    格雷格:我們目前正處在一個可怕的熱浪中。

  • so we want to figure out how to cool

    所以我們要想出如何冷卻

  • our bodies down right now.

    我們的身體現在正在下降。

  • If your core body temperature goes above 38.3 degrees Celsius,

    如果你的核心體溫超過38.3攝氏度。

  • you not only risk heat stroke,

    你不僅有中暑的風險。

  • but literally denaturing the proteins in your cells.

    但實際上是使你細胞中的蛋白質變性。

  • So the military has developed a couple techniques

    是以,軍方已經開發了幾種技術

  • to cool yourself down efficiently.

    以有效地給自己降溫。

  • One in particular is called the Arm Emersion Cooling System.

    其中一個特別的項目被稱為 "臂部急救冷卻系統"。

  • Because your hands and feet have more surface area on them,

    因為你的手和腳上有更多的表面積。

  • you want to focus on those.

    你要專注於這些。

  • If you can put your hands, up to your elbows,

    如果你能把你的手,直到你的肘部。

  • in cold water, in particular, though,

    特別是在冷水中,不過。

  • 10 degrees Celsius is the optimum,

    10攝氏度是最佳狀態。

  • you can cool your core temperature down

    你可以將你的核心溫度降下來

  • by one degree Celsius.

    攝氏1度。

  • - Does it feel good? - It's beautiful.

    - 它感覺好嗎?- 很漂亮。

  • It's refreshing, it's great.

    這很新鮮,很好。

  • Okay, you may have heard that having a hot soup

    好吧,你可能已經聽說過,有一個熱湯

  • on a hot day can cool you down, and this is true,

    在炎熱的日子裡可以讓你降溫,這是真的。

  • but only under specific circumstances.

    但僅在特定情況下。

  • This all has to do with sweating.

    這都與出汗有關。

  • You see, the evaporation of water off of your body cools you down,

    你看,水從你的身體上蒸發,使你降溫。

  • so eating something hot actually causes you to sweat.

    所以吃熱的東西實際上會使你出汗。

  • But it's important that it's a dry day and it's not too humid,

    但重要的是,這是一個乾燥的日子,不會太潮溼。

  • and it's important that you also have some skin exposed,

    而且重要的是,你也有一些皮膚暴露在外。

  • and preferably, maybe, you're in the shade.

    而且最好是,也許,你是在陰涼處。

  • Also, there's receptors in your mouth,

    另外,你的嘴裡有受體。

  • the TRPV1 receptor,

    TRPV1受體。

  • which tells your brain, "Oh, my goodness, it's hot. Time to sweat."

    它告訴你的大腦,"哦,我的天哪,它很熱。是時候出汗了。"

  • And you can trigger those even with hot sauce.

    而且你甚至可以用辣醬來觸發這些。

  • So if you add that to your soup, even just to a cold soup,

    是以,如果你在湯中加入這個,甚至只是加入冷湯。

  • you can trigger those receptors, cause your body to sweat,

    你可以觸發這些受體,使你的身體出汗。

  • and cool you down on a hot day.

    並在熱天為你降溫。

  • Mm, warm soup. Refreshing.

    嗯,熱湯。令人神清氣爽。

  • Why does sweating have a cooling effect?

    為什麼出汗會有冷卻效果?

  • The answer is evaporative cooling--

    答案是蒸發式冷卻 --

  • turning a liquid such as sweat

    變成液體,如汗水

  • from its liquid state into a gas requires energy.

    從液態變成氣體需要能量。

  • This energy is taken from our body, or sweat, in the form of heat.

    這種能量來自我們的身體,或者說是汗水,以熱的形式。

  • The resulting heat transfer leads to the desired cooling effect of sweating.

    由此產生的熱傳遞導致了所需的出汗冷卻效果。

  • For sweating to ideally cool you down,

    對於出汗來說,最理想的是讓你降溫。

  • you need skin exposed to the air that isn't too humid,

    你需要暴露在不太潮溼的空氣中的皮膚。

  • you need to be hydrated,

    你需要補充水分。

  • and a shady, windy spot is ideal.

    和一個陰暗、有風的地方是理想的。

  • Wind increases the effect of evaporative cooling,

    風會增加蒸發冷卻的效果。

  • which you may have experienced

    你可能經歷過的

  • after leaving a swimming pool on a windy day.

    在大風天離開游泳池後。

  • You'll feel extra cool when wet in the wind.

    在風中潮溼時,你會感到特別涼爽。

  • This is because the wind increases the evaporation rate

    這是因為風會增加蒸發率

  • of the liquid water from you skin's surface

    的液態水從你的皮膚表面流出

  • and accelerates the amount that's being

    並加速了正在進行的

  • converted to vapor, thus cooling your body.

    轉化為水汽,從而冷卻你的身體。

  • ( thunder )

    ( 雷聲 )

  • 'Tis absolutely raining. Cats and dogs, as they say.

    絕對在下雨。就像他們說的,貓和狗。

  • I'm very happy that we moved away from the bunky to do this electrical circuitry.

    我非常高興,我們搬離了沙坑,做這個電路。

  • So what we're about to do right now is create

    所以我們現在要做的是創建

  • a thermoelectric cooling effect.

    熱電冷卻效應。

  • We're essentially building a fridge,

    我們基本上是在建造一個冰箱。

  • but using a really interesting scientific principle.

    但使用了一個非常有趣的科學原理。

  • First step is getting these components onto the box.

    第一步是將這些組件裝到盒子上。

  • This is my favorite part, as someone who considers themselves fashionable.

    這是我最喜歡的部分,作為一個認為自己很時尚的人。

  • It's the glasses. Okay.

    是眼鏡的問題。好的。

  • I'm cutting holes for these things called Peltier modules,

    我正在為這些叫做珀爾帖模塊的東西開孔。

  • which are made of semiconductors.

    這些都是由半導體制成的。

  • Snug as a button. Is that even a saying?

    像鈕釦一樣緊貼。這甚至是一個說法嗎?

  • The heat sink is gonna be on this side of the Peltier module,

    散熱器會在珀爾帖模塊的這一側。

  • and the cooler side's gonna be over here.

    涼爽的一面會在這裡。