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  • It's no secret, bees are super important.

    這不是什麼祕密,蜜蜂是超級重要的。

  • And it's not just for food sources; bees

    而且這不僅僅是為了食物來源;蜜蜂

  • also keep the health of wild ecosystems in check by pollinating wildflowers, which in

    通過給野花授粉,還能保持野生生態系統的健康,而野花在

  • turn maintains biodiversity and a thriving terrestrial biomes. And while all bee species

    反過來維持生物多樣性和一個繁榮的陸地生物群落。而且,雖然所有的蜜蜂物種

  • are helpful pollinators, honey bees are crucial to our own food supply, pollinating close

    蜜蜂是有益的傳粉者,對我們自己的食物供應至關重要,它們為近距離傳粉。

  • to 90 commercially grown crops in the U.S.

    在美國有90種商業種植的農作物。

  • But bee populations have been under extreme stresses, from pesticides to the climate crisis,

    但是,從殺蟲劑到氣候危機,蜜蜂種群一直處於極端壓力之下。

  • to parasites and diseases.

    對寄生蟲和疾病。

  • -We are currently losing between 30% and close to 50% of our honeybee colonies every single

    -目前,我們正在失去30%至接近50%的蜜蜂群,每一個

  • year. What would be worse is to add a parasite

    年。更糟糕的是,要增加一個寄生蟲

  • that we know has a dramatic impact on honey bees.

    我們知道這對蜜蜂有極大的影響。

  • -Unfortunately, that's exactly the situation all bees are facing. This is Dr. Sammy Ramsey,

    -不幸的是,這正是所有蜜蜂所面臨的情況。這位是薩米-拉姆齊博士。

  • a scientist at the USDA focused on protecting bees from an emerging threat.

    美國農業部的一位科學家專注於保護蜜蜂免受一種新出現的威脅。

  • -The tropilaelaps mite or the tropi mite is a type of mesostigmatid mite. Many of the

    -託皮拉普斯蟎或託皮蟎是一種介殼蟲蟎。許多

  • mesostigmatid are parasites or predators of other organisms.

    mesostigmatid是其他生物體的寄生蟲或捕食者。

  • -Tropi mites are reddish brown parasites that measure roughly a millimeter in length. The

    -託匹蟎是紅褐色的寄生蟲,長度約為一毫米。蟎蟲

  • mites originated in Southeast Asia, and they started off as parasites of the Giant honey

    蟎蟲起源於東南亞,一開始是寄生在巨人蜂蜜中。

  • bees, which over time developed behavioral responses to remove these pests. But the resourceful

    蜜蜂,隨著時間的推移,它們形成了消除這些害蟲的行為反應。但足智多謀的

  • tropi mites have now jumped to a new hostthe European honey bee or Apis mellifera,

    託匹蟎現在已經跳到一個新的宿主--歐洲蜜蜂或Apis mellifera。

  • a species that you're all probably familiar with here in the U.S., simply as our honey bees.

    一個你們在美國可能都很熟悉的物種,只是作為我們的蜜蜂。

  • These honey bees thrive in many other places around the world. Luckily, the tropi

    這些蜜蜂在世界許多其他地方茁壯成長。幸運的是,託比

  • mite hasn't reached all those populations yet. And bees in the U.S. are safe for now.

    蟎蟲還沒有達到所有這些種群。而美國的蜜蜂目前是安全的。

  • But if tropi mites do invade, honey bees are far less equipped to deal with the mite, making

    但是,如果託皮蟎真的入侵,蜜蜂處理蟎蟲的能力就會大打折扣,使得

  • them even more vulnerable. Especially since the mites attack the brood, aka bee babies.

    它們甚至更加脆弱。特別是由於蟎蟲會攻擊幼蟲,也就是蜜蜂的寶寶。

  • -The tropi mite will go into the brood cell, and begin feeding on them in pretty much the

    -託匹蟎會進入育雛室,並開始在相當大的程度上以它們為食。

  • rudest way possible. They've got like this mouth, but then there's like another mouth

    最粗魯的方式。他們有這樣一張嘴,但又有另一張嘴。

  • inside of their mouth. It's like the alien from Alien. They will bite holes in every

    他們的嘴巴里面。這就像《異形》中的外星人。他們會在每個人的嘴裡咬出洞來

  • section of the bee's body, providing so many entry points for bacteria, for fungi, for

    蜜蜂身體的一部分,為細菌、真菌和病毒提供了許多入口。

  • viruses, but also breaking down tissue as they go,

    病毒,但也會在它們的過程中分解組織。

  • creating wounds all over the bee's body.

    在蜜蜂的身體上製造出各種傷口。

  • -This can result in bees having deformed body parts, reduced longevity, and illnesses like

    -這可能會導致蜜蜂的身體部位變形,壽命縮短,以及諸如以下的疾病

  • Deformed wing virus.

    畸形的翅膀病毒。

  • -As you end up with more and more and more sick bees,

    -因為你最終會有越來越多的病蜜蜂。

  • the colony can then collapse.

    然後蜂群就會崩潰。

  • -Now, these tropi mites aren't just bad news for honey bees. They also present a huge threat

    -現在,這些tropi蟎蟲不僅僅是對蜜蜂的壞消息。它們還構成了一個巨大的威脅

  • to U.S. agriculture, meaning they're a threat to our economy and food security.

    對美國農業來說,這意味著它們是對我們的經濟和食品安全的威脅。

  • -We grow crops at levels that are unsustainable for the environment in normal settings. And

    -我們種植的作物在正常情況下對環境來說是不可持續的。而且

  • we bring in the bees to boost the yield, such that we can feed a lot more people on a much

    我們引入蜜蜂來提高產量,這樣我們就可以用更多的錢養活更多的人。

  • smaller amount of land in a much more efficient way.

    以更有效的方式獲得更少量的土地。

  • -As much as 75% of the crops we grow rely in part on pollination. So without honey bees'

    -我們種植的多達75%的農作物部分依靠授粉。是以,如果沒有蜜蜂的

  • contributions, a lot of the foods we love, like coffee, avocados, and almonds would

    貢獻,很多我們喜歡的食物,如咖啡、鱷梨和杏仁會

  • not be possible to grow at volume, and would therefore be a lot more expensive.

    不可能大量增長,是以會昂貴得多。

  • -A single colony of honey bees can have 60,000 bees in it, and millions, and millions, and

    -一群蜜蜂可以有60,000只蜜蜂,還有幾百萬只,還有幾百萬只,還有幾百萬只。

  • millions of those bees are moved around the United States every year to take them on a

    每年有數以百萬計的這些蜜蜂被轉移到美國各地,帶著它們去旅行。

  • pollination tour.

    授粉之旅。

  • -All the crops honey bees pollinate result in more than 15 billion dollars put into our

    -所有蜜蜂授粉的農作物為我們帶來了超過150億美元的收入。

  • economy every year. And it's not just our agricultural systems that depend on bees...

    每年的經濟。而且,不僅僅是我們的農業系統依賴於蜜蜂...

  • -Honey bees are a staple of terrestrial ecosystems in general, because so many flowering plants

    -蜜蜂是一般陸地生態系統的主食,因為有許多開花植物

  • maintain important balances within the ecosystems that we know of...

    在我們所知的生態系統中維持重要的平衡...

  • -Bees and other pollinators interact with flowering plants. In turn, these plants maintain soil

    -蜜蜂和其他傳粉者與開花植物相互作用。反過來,這些植物維持土壤

  • health, and purify water in terrestrial ecosystems like grasses, prairies, and wetlands. And

    健康,並淨化草地、大草原和溼地等陸地生態系統的水。而且

  • these ecosystems are already threatened by the changing climate. On top of that, tropi

    這些生態系統已經受到了氣候變化的威脅。除此以外,熱帶雨林

  • mites aren't picky and research shows these mites can spread from species to species.

    蟎蟲並不挑剔,研究表明這些蟎蟲可以在物種之間傳播。

  • -We have found them in pretty much all of the different subgenera of honey bees that are

    -我們在幾乎所有不同的蜜蜂亞屬中都發現了它們。

  • out there. And that is a huge concern, because its also not just the honey bees where we've found .

    在那裡。這是一個巨大的擔憂,因為它也不僅僅是我們發現的蜜蜂。

  • where we've found them. Research out of India

    我們在哪裡發現了它們。印度以外的研究

  • has shown that they can also feed on Carpenter bees.

    已經表明,它們也可以以木匠蜜蜂為食。

  • If it were to be the case that we had this parasite transitioning to Carpenter bees,

    如果是這樣的話,我們有這種寄生蟲過渡到木匠蜂。

  • bumble bees, we could end up in a lot of trouble.

    大黃蜂,我們最終可能會有很多麻煩。

  • -There are more than 20,000 bee species globally, of those, 4,000 are native to the U.S. And

    -全球有超過20,000種蜜蜂,其中4,000種原產於美國。

  • if they fell victim to these mites, it could cause the collapse of beekeeping systems and

    如果它們成為這些蟎蟲的受害者,可能會導致養蜂系統的崩潰和

  • devastate many of the world's ecosystems across all continents, except Antarctica.

    除南極洲外,世界各大洲的許多生態系統都遭到破壞。

  • That's why we need to act fast, because the tropi mites have already started to move

    這就是為什麼我們需要快速行動,因為託皮蟎已經開始移動了。

  • out of Southeast Asia and are making their way to other parts of the world. So how exactly

    從東南亞出來,正在向世界其他地區進軍。那麼,究竟如何

  • can we stop these mites?

    我們能阻止這些蟎蟲嗎?

  • One major win is that scientists have successfully developed

    一個主要的勝利是,科學家們已經成功地開發了

  • a test to identify Tropilaelaps species.

    鑑定Tropilaelaps物種的測試。

  • But we still don't know a tried and true method to fight the mite.

    但是,我們仍然不知道有什麼行之有效的方法來對抗蟎蟲。

  • -The more that we know about this organism, the more ways we can find to mitigate the

    -我們對這種生物體瞭解得越多,就能找到更多的方法來減輕其危害。

  • damage that it causes within honeybee colonies, the more ways that we can find to manage populations

    我們可以找到更多的方法來管理蜜蜂種群。

  • of this parasite. I've been trying to make sure that I can increase awareness

    這種寄生蟲的問題。我一直在努力確保能夠提高人們的認識

  • about this organism, such that more people understand the issues that it could cause

    關於這種生物體,使更多人瞭解它可能導致的問題。

  • were it to arrive in the US.

    如果它能到達美國。

  • -And raising awareness is important in order to highlight the urgency of this issue. This

    -而為了強調這個問題的緊迫性,提高意識是很重要的。這

  • is the first step in getting governments and organizations to fund critical researchlike

    是讓政府和組織資助關鍵研究的第一步,如

  • Dr. Ramsey's—that will help mitigate the agricultural and ecological impact, should

    拉姆齊博士的--這將有助於減輕農業和生態的影響,應

  • these mites arrive in the U.S. So... when exactly will that be?

    那麼......到底什麼時候才會到?

  • -We really don't know for sure how long it would take for these organisms to get here.

    -我們真的不知道這些生物體需要多長時間才能到達這裡。

  • It's possible that it could be anything from a matter of years to a matter of decades,

    這有可能是幾年到幾十年的事情。

  • or they potentially could never arrive at all.

    或者他們有可能根本就沒有到達。

  • -That would be the best case scenario. But that doesn't mean we shouldn't be prepared.

    -這將是最好的情況。但這並不意味著我們不應該做好準備。

  • And that's why Dr. Ramsey's work with different international institutions to help

    這就是為什麼拉姆齊博士與不同的國際機構合作以幫助

  • gather important research is crucial to help ensure we get the most complete picture of

    收集重要的研究是至關重要的,以幫助確保我們獲得最完整的資訊。

  • this tropi mite, while protecting our food, our economy, and our bee friends.

    在保護我們的食物、經濟和我們的蜜蜂朋友的同時,也要保護這種託皮蟎。

  • If you're bee crazy, and want to learn more about different species of bees

    如果你是蜜蜂愛好者,想了解更多關於不同種類的蜜蜂的資訊

  • other than the honey bee, make sure to check out the documentary, My Garden of a Thousand

    除了蜜蜂之外,一定要看看紀錄片《我的千人花園》。

  • Bees, streaming now on Nature on PBS. So what do you think about the tropi mite threat?

    蜜蜂》,正在PBS的《自然》欄目中播放。那麼,你對託匹蟎的威脅有什麼看法?

  • Let us know down in the comments below. Make sure to subscribe to Seeker, and thanks for

    請在下面的評論中告訴我們。請務必訂閱Seeker,並感謝

  • watching. I'll see you next time.

    看著。下次見。

It's no secret, bees are super important.

這不是什麼祕密,蜜蜂是超級重要的。

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你所不知道的對我們食品供應的威脅 (The Threat to Our Food Supply You Never Knew Existed)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 25 日
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