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  • Rising sea levels, coupled with an increase in severe storms,

    海平面上升,再加上嚴重風暴的增加。

  • destroy homes and ruin livelihoods.

    摧毀家園,破壞生計。

  • But how can the law help?

    但是,法律能提供什麼幫助?

  • Can it help provide a solution?

    它能幫助提供一個解決方案嗎?

  • You'll learn what lawmakers are doing to deal with this threat.

    你將瞭解到立法者們正在做什麼來應對這一威脅。

  • What is behind rising sea levels

    海平面上升的背後是什麼

  • and increasingly severe and unpredictable storms?

    以及越來越嚴重和不可預測的風暴?

  • Can anyone be blamed?

    這能怪誰呢?

  • Why those most affected are often least to blame...

    為什麼受影響最嚴重的人往往最不應該受到責備...

  • and how the law can help them.

    以及法律如何能夠幫助他們。

  • 40% of people live within 100km of the coast

    40%的人居住在距離海岸100公里以內的地方

  • and one in ten of us live in coastal areas

    而我們有十分之一的人生活在沿海地區

  • that are less than 10m above sea level.

    海平面以上不足10米的地方。

  • Sea levels are rising.

    海平面正在上升。

  • According to the United Nations,

    根據聯合國的說法。

  • recent rises are the fastest in nearly 3,000 years.

    最近的上升是近3000年來的最快速度。

  • Rising seas and storms wash away the land, flood homes,

    海水上漲和風暴沖走了土地,淹沒了房屋。

  • ruin drinking water supplies

    破壞飲水供應

  • and poison our crops.

    並毒害我們的農作物。

  • It's driven by rising temperatures melting polar ice

    這是由氣溫上升導致的極地冰雪融化所推動的。

  • and even expanding the water that is already there.

    甚至擴大已經存在的水。

  • And scientists agree:

    科學家們也同意。

  • humans are the cause.

    人類是原因。

  • It's impossible to blame any one person,

    不可能責怪任何一個人。

  • country or company,

    國家或公司。

  • but it's clear the impact won't be fair.

    但很明顯,這種影響不會是公平的。

  • Smaller island countries will be hardest hit,

    較小的島嶼國家將受到最嚴重的打擊。

  • but they often create very little pollution.

    但它們通常只創造很少的汙染。

  • So, how can they get help?

    那麼,他們如何才能得到幫助?

  • Francesco Sindico, from the University of Strathclyde

    弗朗西斯科-辛迪科,來自斯特拉斯克萊德大學

  • and the Climate Change Litigation Initiative,

    和氣候變化訴訟倡議。

  • explained why this issue would take a long time to solve internationally.

    解釋了為什麼這個問題在國際上需要很長的時間來解決。

  • It will be very difficult for international law

    國際法將很難

  • to operate at the same speed of national law,

    以國家法律的相同速度運作。

  • where you have laws created by a parliament,

    在那裡,你有由議會制定的法律。

  • enforced byfor examplethe police,

    由--比如說--警察來執行。

  • and judges that can take decisions.

    和能夠作出決定的法官。

  • That's not how international law works,

    國際法不是這樣運作的。

  • and because there are so many countries,

    而且因為有這麼多的國家。

  • on such a very complex matters, often there is a compromise,

    在這樣一個非常複雜的問題上,往往會有一個妥協。

  • which means that things will be dealt with slowly.

    這意味著事情將被慢慢處理。

  • Unlike national law,

    與國家法律不同。

  • international law doesn't have just one country making rules;

    國際法並不是只有一個國家在制定規則。

  • lots of countries are involved,

    很多國家都參與其中。

  • which means they take time to come to a compromise agreement.

    這意味著他們需要時間來達成妥協的協議。

  • So, how easy is it to find out who's responsible?

    那麼,找出責任人有多容易呢?

  • It is very difficult to pinpoint

    準確定位是非常困難的

  • a country or an actor responsible

    一個國家或一個行為者負責

  • for an island that may... or is already sinking.

    為一個可能......或已經沉沒的島嶼。

  • The problem is climate change.

    問題是氣候變化。

  • The emissions are coming from all over the world.

    這些排放物來自世界各地。

  • Having said that, in the last five to ten years,

    話雖如此,在過去的五到十年裡。

  • there is a clearer understanding

    有了更清晰的認識

  • that some countries and some private actors

    一些國家和一些私人行為者

  • are more responsible than others.

    比其他人更負責任。

  • The nature of climate change makes it very hard to identify

    氣候變化的性質使得它很難確定

  • who is responsible for something like a sinking island.

    誰對沉沒的島嶼這樣的事情負責。

  • So, what have people done

    那麼,人們都做了什麼

  • to identify who is responsible, legally?

    以確定誰在法律上負責?

  • Five or ten years ago, a study called the Carbon Majors study

    五年或十年前,一項名為 "碳主修 "的研究

  • highlighted that the overwhelming majority

    著重指出,絕大部分的

  • of the emissionsof the problem

    排放的問題--的問題--的問題

  • really comes from a handful of companies.

    真正來自於少數幾個公司。

  • And individuals have used this study

    而個人也利用這項研究

  • to go in front of a judge and tell him or her:

    到法官面前去告訴他或她。

  • 'Look. Now, we know that there's a connection

    '看。現在,我們知道,有一種聯繫

  • between the problemclimate change

    問題--氣候變化--之間的關係

  • and the activity of these companies.'

    和這些公司的活動'。

  • More research is being done into climate change.

    目前正在對氣候變化進行更多的研究。

  • Some campaigners use studies as evidence

    一些運動者將研究作為證據

  • to prove a company's responsibility.

    來證明一個公司的責任。

  • And who are these campaigners?

    這些運動者又是誰?

  • We have children, literally,

    我們有孩子,真的。

  • going after the governments of the countries where they live.

    追求他們所居住國家的政府。

  • At the same time, you also have elderly people

    同時,你也有老年人

  • who are seeing their livelihood suffering because of climate change

    看到他們的生活因氣候變化而受到影響的人

  • and are using all sorts of law:

    並正在使用各種法律。

  • human rightsthey're using international law

    人權--他們在利用國際法

  • and they're using a number of very interesting,

    而且他們正在使用一些非常有趣的。

  • even creative, new legal strategies.

    甚至創造性的、新的法律策略。

  • A huge range of people are campaigning.

    有大量的人在進行競選。

  • Children and the elderly are getting involved,

    兒童和老人正在參與其中。

  • using human rights and international laws in creative ways.

    以創造性的方式利用人權和國際法。

  • So, that shows how hard it can be for the law

    是以,這表明法律是多麼的困難

  • to protect a sinking island.

    以保護一個下沉的島嶼。

  • Now, let's take a look at the people

    現在,讓我們來看看這些人

  • who are trying to live on these vanishing islands.

    試圖在這些消失的島嶼上生活的人。

  • The entire Pacific region contributes

    整個太平洋地區的貢獻

  • just 0.03% of total greenhouse gas emissions.

    僅佔溫室氣體總排放量的0.03%。

  • Seventeen-year-old Hereiti lives on Rarotonga,

    17歲的Hereiti住在拉羅東加島。

  • one of the Cook Islands in the Pacific Ocean.

    太平洋上的庫克群島之一。

  • As a Polynesian person, I have a connection to it.

    作為一個波利尼西亞人,我與它有聯繫。

  • Since we first started voyaging across it,

    自從我們第一次開始航行穿越它。

  • it's been the lifeblood of our islands and our culture.

    它一直是我們島嶼和文化的命脈。

  • But with rising sea levels and pollution, I feel like that...

    但隨著海平面的上升和汙染,我覺得這...

  • that history that we've had for thousands of years

    我們幾千年來的那段歷史

  • might end up being lost.

    可能最終會丟失。

  • Rising sea levels result in strong wave action and coastal flooding,

    海平面上升導致強烈的波浪作用和沿海洪水。

  • causing the coast to erode.

    導致海岸被侵蝕。

  • We're seeing a lot of coastal erosion happening

    我們看到大量的海岸侵蝕正在發生

  • on all our islands here in the Cook Islands,

    在我們庫克群島的所有島嶼上。

  • particularly around the northern islands

    特別是在北部島嶼周圍

  • because there are low-lying atolls.

    因為那裡有低窪的環礁。

  • We might have to consider relocating to higher areas

    我們可能不得不考慮搬遷到更高的地區 --

  • so, inland moreand abandon the coast.

    是以,在內陸更多--而放棄海岸。

  • But where do people like these go?

    但像這樣的人到哪裡去了?

  • And how can the law help them?

    法律又能如何幫助他們?

  • We spoke to Simon Behrman,

    我們採訪了西蒙-貝赫曼。

  • a law professor from the University of Warwick.

    華威大學的一位法律教授。

  • He specialises in how the law helps refugees.

    他專門研究法律如何幫助難民。

  • He explained the situation for people forced to move by climate change.

    他解釋了因氣候變化而被迫遷移的人們的情況。

  • So, there's not much, in terms of laws,

    是以,就法律而言,沒有什麼。

  • that allow people to move from one country to another.

    允許人們從一個國家移動到另一個國家。

  • Some parts of the world have their own individual laws

    世界上有些地方有自己的個別法律

  • that give some rights to people to enter for work visas,

    賦予人們進入工作簽證的一些權利。

  • but in the main the only recourse that people will have

    但主要的是,人們將有的唯一追索權

  • are to some aspects of human rights law,

    是對人權法的某些方面。

  • such as, for example, the right to life,

    比如說,生命權。

  • which may help people claim a right to live elsewhere.

    這可能有助於人們要求獲得在其他地方生活的權利。

  • People aren't allowed to move to another country due to climate change.

    人們不允許因為氣候變化而搬到另一個國家。

  • But human rights laws can help them try.

    但人權法可以幫助他們嘗試。

  • He explains the limits of refugee law.

    他解釋了難民法的侷限性。

  • But a refugee is defined in very narrow terms in international law.

    但在國際法中,難民的定義非常狹窄。

  • Essentially, you have to prove that you have been persecuted

    基本上,你必須證明你受到了迫害

  • and that is why you have left your country of origin,

    這就是為什麼你離開了你的原籍國。

  • but obviously climate changeor the effects of climate change

    但顯然,氣候變化--或者說氣候變化的影響--的影響。

  • don't persecute people, and so as a result,

    不迫害人,所以作為一個結果。

  • unfortunately, at the moment, people fleeing the effects of climate change

    不幸的是,目前,逃離氣候變化影響的人們

  • do not have access to the protection of international refugee law.

    沒有機會獲得國際難民法的保護。

  • You can only be a refugee if you are being persecuted

    只有當你受到迫害時,你才能成為難民 --

  • treated badly because of something like your gender, race or beliefs.

    因為你的性別、種族或信仰等原因而受到惡劣對待。

  • Climate change doesn't persecute.

    氣候變化並沒有迫害。

  • So, what laws are being used to help?

    那麼,用什麼法律來幫助?

  • The main route at the moment is to bring cases

    目前的主要途徑是將案件

  • related to the principle of non-refoulement.

    與不驅回原則有關。

  • This principle simply means that people cannot be sent back

    這一原則只是意味著不能將人送回

  • to places where they face a serious risk of harm.

    到他們面臨嚴重傷害風險的地方。

  • Lawyers are attempting to argue that in some parts of the world

    律師們正試圖論證,在世界的某些地方

  • the effects of climate change are so severe,

    氣候變化的影響是如此嚴重。

  • that sending people back there would violate that principle.

    將人們送回那裡將違反這一原則。

  • Without refugee status, lawyers are using 'non-refoulement' principles:

    在沒有難民身份的情況下,律師採用'不驅回'原則。

  • they ban sending people back into a dangerous place

    他們禁止把人送回危險的地方

  • where they are at risk of harm.

    他們有可能受到傷害的地方。

  • So, is this enough?

    那麼,這樣做夠嗎?

  • The numbers of climate refugees are estimated

    氣候難民的數量估計為

  • to reach many tens of millions of people this century,

    本世紀將有數千萬人受益。

  • possibly many more than those displaced by wars and persecution.

    可能比那些因戰爭和迫害而流離失所的人多得多。

  • Already, millions of people every year are having to leave their homes

    每年已經有數百萬人不得不離開他們的家園

  • because of climate change. Some entire countries,

    因為氣候變化。一些整個國家。

  • such as certain Pacific island states,

    如某些太平洋島國。

  • are predicted to become completely uninhabitable

    預計將完全不適合居住

  • over the next ten to twenty years.

    在未來10到20年內。

  • We have a responsibility to help these people.

    我們有責任幫助這些人。

  • Simon thinks the size of the problem means

    西蒙認為問題的規模意味著

  • the law around people forced out of their homes

    圍繞人們被迫離開家園的法律

  • due to climate crisis should change.

    由於氣候危機的影響,應該改變。

  • We've seen the scale of the problem for the law.

    我們已經看到了法律問題的規模。

  • It's very hard to say who's responsible for a sinking island.

    很難說誰該對一個沉沒的島嶼負責。

  • But we've seen that the law is changing to fix that.

    但我們已經看到,法律正在改變,以解決這個問題。

  • And we've seen that lawyers are working to keep people

    而且我們已經看到,律師正在努力讓人們

  • who are at risk safe in the future.

    處於危險中的人在未來是安全的。

Rising sea levels, coupled with an increase in severe storms,

海平面上升,再加上嚴重風暴的增加。

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 氣候 法律 島嶼 變化 國家 海平面

我們怎樣才能阻止島嶼沉沒?- BBC學習英語 (How do we stop islands sinking? - BBC Learning English)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 19 日
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