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  • - Thank you, sir. - Alright. See you later, thanks.

    謝謝你,先生

  • Hi, my name is Tony

    好的,等會見,謝謝

  • and this is Every Frame a Painting.

    嗨,我是Tony,這是幀影幀畫

  • Today's topic is the oner, AKA a long take.

    今天討論的主題是"一鏡到底",也稱之為"長鏡頭"

  • This is probably the most jerked-off-to type of shot in filmmaking.

    這可能是最被捧上天的拍攝技巧了

  • But basically, all it means

    簡單來說它的定義是

  • is doing an entire scene in a single, unbroken shot.

    以不間斷及單一鏡頭拍攝而成的完整場景

  • And let's face it, it's pretty awesome.

    不得不承認,這真的頗屌的

  • We all have our favorites.

    我們都有各自的最愛

  • There's six dozen lists on the internet about this.

    網路上列表出有用到這手法的電影至少有六打

  • But we tend to notice the ones that draw attention to themselves.

    因為我們總被那些高調使用此手法的作品吸引

  • So let's skip all of these guys

    所以今天我們跳過這些人

  • and go to one filmmaker who does oners all the time,

    來討論這位也總是一鏡到底的導演

  • except his goal is to remain invisible.

    不同的是,他目的卻是潛跡遁形

  • This dude.

    這傢伙

  • Truthfully, Spielberg's takes aren't even that long.

    老實說,史匹柏的一鏡到底時間都不長

  • He tends to keep them less than 3 minutes.

    通常控制在三分鐘內

  • In fact, he really likes that one minute to two-minute zone,

    事實上,他更喜歡維持在一到兩分鐘的區間

  • which is long enough to cover an entire scene,

    既可顧到整個場景

  • but short enough to keep the pace brisk.

    又可維持節奏輕快

  • And while other directors seem to have

    其他導演似乎

  • a dominant formal technique to their long takes

    也各自擁有其常用的一鏡到底技巧

  • for instance, Wes Anderson likes to move laterally,

    如 魏斯.安德森 喜愛橫移

  • the only thing that really defines a Spielberg oner

    唯一能定義史匹柏一鏡到底風格的:

  • is that it's supposed to be invisible.

    就是理應不被發現

  • So maybe I'm full of shit for even saying it exists.

    所以我說它存在 聽起來可能像是在胡言亂語

  • Now, I'm gonna cut these shots down for this video,

    為了配合解說,以下鏡頭我都有剪短

  • but if you want to see the full scenes,

    但是如果你對於完整鏡頭有興趣

  • I've put them all in two separate videos linked below.

    我將它們放在下面兩個不同的連結中

  • First off, a shot from Raiders of the Lost Ark.

    首先,這是《法櫃奇兵》的場景

  • This is a single unbroken, 90-second take.

    這是一個90秒的不間斷鏡頭

  • The great thing about it is that it's basically four different shots in one:

    很高竿的地方在於它包含了四種拍攝手法

  • there's a push-in, two matching singles, and an insert.

    有推進、兩個對應的單鏡,還有插入鏡頭

  • So Spielberg combines all four into a single moving master.

    史匹柏用單一移動主鏡頭融合了四種技巧

  • It's really simple and elegant,

    簡潔又優雅

  • and it probably saved a bunch of time on set.

    而且說不定還幫拍攝省下不少時間

  • Also, it really works for the scene,

    而且,它很適合這個場景

  • because there's suspense in the drinking contest.

    因為這場喝酒比賽中有著懸疑性

  • And no matter how many times I watch it,

    不管我重看多少次

  • I still forget the exact timing,

    因為總是無法感覺到時間流逝

  • so it's always funny when this happens.

    所以每次看到這裡時,我都覺得很好笑

  • Next up is a shot from Minority Report.

    下一個是《關鍵報告》中的鏡頭

  • This time, they're on a steadicam.

    這一次他運用了攝影機穩定器

  • But notice how the camera never moves unmotivated.

    注意這裡鏡頭從來沒有無意義的移動

  • It's always following a motion or an action.

    它總是緊隨著動作或行為

  • Hold that, please.

    請等我一下

  • The pacing is fantastic,

    節奏控制得非常好

  • you really get the sense that the scene is unfolding in front of you,

    有著故事就在你眼前展開的感覺

  • rather than a cameraman hitting his marks.

    而非單純攝影師側面拍攝而已

  • You're in a lot of trouble, John.

    你麻煩大了,約翰

  • The blocking of the actors is really fluid

    演員們的走位很流暢

  • and the shot goes from favoring one character...

    然後鏡頭由賦予這位演員優勢

  • ...to favoring another.

    轉變為賦予另一位演員優勢

  • Seems I've found a flaw.

    冷靜點,似乎我找到瑕疵了

  • Flashing back in time, this is Jaws.

    回到過去,到《大白鯊》

  • The great thing about this one is how restrained it is.

    這一段最棒的是由侷限產生出的效果

  • The cameraman barely moves.

    攝影師幾乎沒有動過

  • All of the movement is in the blocking of the actors

    所有的移動都是演員的走位,

  • and specially, the really smart choice of location.

    和高明的拍攝地點選擇所產生

  • By shooting on a real ferry,

    在渡船上拍攝

  • Spielberg can use the background action to keep the pace snappy.

    史匹柏讓背景轉換保持節奏流動

  • One of the reasons I forgot how long this shot is

    讓我忘卻這整個鏡頭時間很長的一個原因就是

  • is because the background keeps shifting

    背景持續的移動

  • and you're always looking at something new.

    你一直有新的東西可以觀看

  • You yell "shark",

    你若是喊出 "鯊魚"

  • we've got a panic on our hands on the 4th of July.

    今年國慶日就滿城人心惶惶

  • Next up, Saving Private Ryan.

    下一個,《搶救雷恩大兵》

  • One of the hallmarks of a Spielberg oner

    史匹柏招牌一鏡到底的特點之一

  • is that he tends to do almost all of his special FX or his vis FX in the master.

    就是他總是將所有的特效 或是視覺技巧放在主鏡頭中

  • And this one's a doozy.

    這一段很了不起

  • Explosions, rubble, dust, smoke, gunfire, squibs, and you know...

    爆炸、

  • A tank.

    瓦礫、

  • Good shit.

    塵土、

  • Now, I do want to emphasize,

    煙霧、

  • Spielberg did not invent this type of shot.

    炮火、

  • In fact, it used to be a very common choice.

    爆破、

  • How about you, handsome?

    還有你知道的...

  • Haven't I seen you somewhere before?

    一台坦克

  • In the 40s and 50s and 60s,

    好傢伙

  • studio directors frequently employed

    我還是要強調

  • a moderate-length oner to move the story along.

    這種用鏡不是史匹柏發明的

  • How do you like this? I'm running outta alibis.

    事實上,這技巧曾被大量使用

  • But really, beginning with Rope and Touch of Evil,

    你呢,帥哥?

  • the oner became a calling card for directors.

    我有在哪裡見過你嗎?

  • Audiences noticed it,

    在40、50及60年代

  • film critics and students got raging hard-ons for it,

    導演們經常使用

  • and for the last 50 years, it's been a game of one-upmanship.

    適當長度的一鏡倒底技巧來推進故事

  • Yours is 3 minutes? Well mine's 17.

    你覺得這樣如何? 我快要沒藉口了

  • Hitchcock did a movie seemingly in one take?

    但真的,由《奪魂鎖》及《歷劫佳人》開始

  • Well we did it actually in one.

    一鏡到底變的很浮濫

  • Now, I'm not saying that these long takes are bad.

    觀眾注意到了

  • Most of them are fun as shit.

    影評、學生導演們瘋狂的吹捧

  • All of them are a little awe-inspiring.

    然後過去50年來,已經變的有點像是在競賽了

  • But there used to be a real type of shot in at least American cinema that was

    你的那段三分鐘? 我這段可有17分鐘

  • for lack of a better word, really robust.

    希區考克拍了部看似是全片一鏡到底的電影?

  • Like, it didn't break down.

    好,我們貨真價實整片一鏡到底

  • It worked, it got the job done.

    我不是說這些一鏡到底不好

  • It was always interesting to watch.

    它們大部分都有趣至極

  • It didn't call attention to itself.

    但它們有點過於華麗

  • You know, you could rely on it.

    但曾經,這種拍攝技巧..至少在美國影史中是

  • Now, it's split.

    找不到更好的形容詞:很紮實

  • You got one branch of filmmaking

    很實用、有效、達到目的

  • that is trying to go faster, shorter, more chaotic.

    觀看起來總會覺得有趣

  • And another that is almost willfully doing the opposite.

    但又不會喧賓奪主

  • Some people are still in the middle.

    你知道,很可靠

  • Alfonso Cuarón comes to mind

    如今,狀況變的很兩極

  • as someone trying to mine the long take for dramatic purposes.

    有一派導演

  • But even Alfonso isn't trying to be invisible.

    熱愛快節奏、短剪接、混亂感

  • Hell, even Spielberg sometimes wants you to notice.

    另一派則是故意的朝反方向操作

  • This one from Minority Report

    有些人還沒有選邊站

  • is practically a De Palma or Hitchcock shot.

    艾方索.柯朗就是其中之一

  • This one from Duel is, I mean, it's almost like a slasher movie.

    擅長置入一鏡到底手法達到戲劇化效果

  • This one from Always,

    但就算是艾方索也沒想讓這手法完全隱形

  • which is a terrible movie,

    就算史匹柏有時也希望博取注意

  • is done in sync with a 747.

    這一個《關鍵報告》的鏡頭

  • And this is just insane.

    基本上就是 狄帕瑪 或是 希區考克 經典角度

  • But otherwise, Spielberg plays it quiet.

    這個《飛輪喋血》的鏡頭...

  • Which is weird to say, because you know, Spielberg.

    幾乎是變態殺人狂電影的手法了

  • But compared to his peers,

    這是《直到永遠》的

  • this technique, which he has been doing this for 40 years at this point,

    一部很差勁的電影

  • makes him stand out all the more.

    這鏡頭跟著這台747同步完成

  • Which car were you planning on?

    還有,還有

  • Whichever one you are.

    這個就太誇張了

  • So I guess that's maybe the closest I can get to defining a Spielberg oner.

    除了這些,史匹柏其實是很低調的

  • It uses any and all possible tricks to remain invisible.

    這樣說很奇怪因為...

  • So if you're a director

    我們講的可是史匹柏

  • and you want to pull off a Spielberg oner,

    但是跟他的同行比較起來

  • there's only a few simple rules to follow.

    40年來不斷精進此拍攝手法

  • First, move your actors.

    讓他更能脫穎而出

  • Move 'em around.

    你...

  • Don't just have them stand there and talk

    想坐哪一輛車?

  • like they're in a 2014 blockbuster.

    跟你坐同一輛

  • Don't mind him.

    所以我想的到最能定義史匹柏一鏡到底手法就是

  • - English humor? - Scottish whiskey.

    它會盡可能的隱身匿跡

  • Second, follow that movement.

    所以如果你是個導演

  • The camera doesn't have to follow on a leash,

    你想要來一段史匹柏牌的一鏡到底

  • it can swing around, it can move counter to them,

    有以下幾個簡單規則:

  • it can track laterally, whatever.

    第一點,移動你的演員們

  • But watch the scene and place the camera accordingly.

    多動動他們

  • Third, break down the shot

    不要讓他們只呆站在原地對話

  • into multiple compositions and smaller angles.

    跟那些2014年的賣座片一樣

  • You are essentially linking five or six different shots

    別把他當一回事

  • into a single moving master.

    英式幽默?

  • So you can think in terms of

    蘇格蘭威士忌喝多了

  • single, over-the-shoulder, insert, wide.

    第二點,緊隨著動態

  • It all flows together.

    鏡頭不一定只能直線前進

  • Ah, Frank.

    它可以擺動鏡頭

  • Oh, and if you can accomplish all this

    它可以反方向進行

  • without even moving the camera?

    它可以軌道橫移,都可以

  • Even better.

    但請配合場景擺放鏡頭

  • All of you?

    第三點,將場景拆解成

  • Fourth, do your vis FX or special FX,

    多種成份及各種小角度

  • anything you need to keep the "magic" alive,

    你可以將五或六個獨立鏡頭

  • do it in the wide shot.

    連結成單一的移動主鏡頭

  • Don't cheat and construct your elements

    所以你可以理解成將

  • out of close-ups and cutaways,

    固定、跟隨、插入、全景等鏡頭

  • put 'em in the wide shot and let the actors interact with them.

    匯流整合在一起

  • And don't fucking green screen shit that should be practical

    阿,法蘭克

  • The audience can tell

    如果你可以不移攝影機就完成拍攝

  • when an actor is reacting to something that's there

    更厲害

  • versus something that isn't.

    你們全部?

  • Fifth, if you need to, shoot a cutaway.

    第四點,如果有使用視覺效果或特效

  • All of the shots in this video are completely unbroken takes,

    或是任何想讓視覺魔術效果如靈活現時

  • but Spielberg isn't stupid.

    使用全景

  • He often shoots an insert or a cutaway for a oner

    不要拼湊特寫或是旁跳鏡頭來作弊走捷徑

  • even if he's sure they nailed it.

    擺在全景裡,讓演員和它們互動

  • This gives him the ability to tighten in editing if he needs to,

    他媽別在用道具就可達到效果的地方使用綠幕

  • or perhaps use the beginning of one take

    演員是否真的與人或物互動,觀眾是看得出來的

  • and the end of another.

    第五點,如果狀況需要,使用旁跳鏡頭

  • It also helps if he needs someone

    所有這個場景的鏡頭都沒有間斷

  • to hit a particularly difficult mark,

    但是史匹柏可不笨

  • like making a gun land in the right spot.

    就算是原本一鏡到底已經達到效果

  • ...cautious fellow I am.

    他還是常常加入插入鏡頭或旁跳鏡頭

  • And last, keep it short.

    這容許他在剪接時,更能擁有縮緊的空間

  • Don't outstay your welcome.

    或是可以由一鏡到底鏡頭

  • The Spielberg oner is designed to get through scenes quickly

    藉此銜接到另一個

  • and keep the pace up.

    如果他需要演員

  • You should not be spending an entire day

    完成難度高的動作時也很有幫助

  • trying to get it perfect.

    比如,讓這把槍落在完美的地方

  • That's for shit like this.

    我是個很小心的人

  • So in conclusion,

    最後一點,簡潔有力

  • I understand that there's sometimes a lot of backlash

    見好就收

  • with regards to talking about Spielberg as a serious artist.

    史匹柏的一鏡到底的功能是進行快速場景轉換

  • I mean, sometimes the sentimental stuff is a little hard to swallow.

    並且保持節奏

  • I'm not gonna talk about his legacy,

    你不應該花一整天

  • but I do think he should be celebrated for his oners.

    硬要拍出完美的鏡頭

  • Especially considering it's a technique

    這種電影才需要這樣搞

  • generally abandoned by mainstream directors

    所以,結論是

  • for either this kinda incomprehensible bullshit

    我理解這種話題可能會引起爭論;

  • or this really good, but also really noticeable style.

    因為我們以嚴肅、藝術的角度來討論史匹柏

  • Ironically, this dude,

    我是說,太煽情的作品有時還真的難以下嚥

  • who was once considered responsible for destroying 70's Hollywood filmmaking,

    這裡不是在評論他的歷史地位

  • is probably the greatest living practitioner

    但是我覺得他的一鏡到底值得被傳頌

  • of a classic Hollywood tradition.

    特別是這種用鏡技巧

  • I wonder if he feels sad about that.

    常被主流導演們捨棄不用

  • Fuck that, he's rich!

    取而代之的,不是

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

    這種令人費解的垃圾

- Thank you, sir. - Alright. See you later, thanks.

謝謝你,先生

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The Spielberg Oner(The Spielberg Oner)

  • 6 1
    SATORU MORIICHI 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 13 日
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