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  • "Migration [...] is one of the main coping and survival mechanisms that is available to those affected by environmental degradation." - Sylvia Lopez-Ekra

    「遷移 [...] 對於受到環境退化影響的人們來說,是種主要的應對與生存機制之一。」- Sylvia Lopez-Ekra

  • Mohammadpur has always had a unique relationship with the weather.

    莫哈馬德普爾和天氣一直有著很獨特的關係。

  • Located at the mouth of the Bay of Bengal, this coastal village was built on top of the Meghna River delta.

    位於孟加拉灣的出海口,這個海岸村莊座落於梅克納河的三角洲之上。

  • Deltas are a kind of landmass formed when sediment carried by rivers is deposited where that river meets a larger body of water.

    三角洲是一種大片的陸地,形成原因是河流遇到更大的水體時,其所攜帶的沉積物會沉澱下來。

  • River deltas are incredibly fertile ecosystems capable of supporting abundant agriculture and marine life.

    河流三角洲擁有非常豐沃的生態系統,可以維持大量的農業和海洋生命。

  • However, their borders gradually change as rivers bring more sediment in and storms wash sediment away.

    然而,三角洲的邊界漸漸改變,因為河流帶來更多沉積物,暴風雨則會把沉積物沖走。

  • The residents of Mohammadpur are well-accustomed to managing the ebbs and flows of this ever-shifting landscape.

    莫哈馬德普爾的居民很習慣處理這塊不斷變化的地景的漲落。

  • But lately, an abundance of intense cyclones have caused frequent flooding that impedes farming and fishing.

    然而最近大量強大的氣旋經常造成洪水,影響到農業與漁業。

  • These floods also erode the coastline, allowing later storms to wipe away land altogether.

    這些洪水也侵蝕了海岸線,讓後續的暴風雨把土地一起沖刷殆盡。

  • Since 2000, the Meghna River has overtaken the coastline by 2.5 kilometers, forcing many villagers to move inland or to nearby cities.

    2000 年起,梅克納河已經侵襲了 2.5 公里的海岸線,迫使許多村民搬到內陸或鄰近的城市。

  • Mohammadpur isn't the only place where erratic weather is impacting people's mobility.

    莫哈馬德普爾不是唯一一處不穩定的天氣影響到人民移動性的地方。

  • Repeated typhoons in the Philippines have displaced thousands from their homes.

    菲律賓不斷遭遇颱風,迫使數以千計的人們流離失所。

  • In Fiji, the government is already moving many coastal villages inland to get ahead of predicted land loss.

    在斐濟,政府已經將許多海岸村落遷至內陸,提早為預期的土地縮減做準備。

  • And in the United States, melting permafrost is causing chunks of the Alaskan coastline to erode.

    在美國,永久凍土層融解讓大塊的阿拉斯加海岸被侵蝕掉。

  • In some ways, this is nothing new.

    就某些方面來說,這並不是什麼新鮮事。

  • Humanity has always adapted to changing weather and moved to regions that best support cultural lifestyles and livelihoods.

    人類本來就一直會適應不斷改變的天氣,並搬遷到最能維持其文化之生活方式和生計的地方。

  • However, scientists agree that this rise in extreme weather is a by-product of Earth's rapidly changing climate.

    然而,科學家認為極端天氣之所以越來越多,是地球氣候快速改變之下的產物。

  • Global warming increases the frequency and intensity of storms, flooding, and drought, while also melting polar ice caps and raising sea levels.

    全球暖化增加了暴風雨、洪水,和乾旱的頻率和強度,同時也讓北極冰帽融化,使海平面上升。

  • These factors are changing the environment much faster than they have in the past.

    這些因素改變環境的速度比以往更快。

  • Even for communities with the resources to take action, the variable pace and nature of these changes makes them difficult to adapt to.

    即便是有資源可以採取行動的村莊,這些改變的多變步調和本質,仍讓他們很難適應。

  • And the vulnerable populations most impacted by climate change are often those least responsible.

    而受到氣候變遷影響最大的弱勢族群,卻通常也都是最不應該為此負責的族群。

  • Many facing climate mobility live in farming and fishing communities in countries that generate dramatically fewer emissions than their larger counterparts.

    許多因氣候而得搬移的人都居住在農、漁業村莊,且所屬國家所產生的排放都遠少於其他排放量更大的國家。

  • Bangladesh is one such country.

    孟加拉就是其中一個國家。

  • The nation has a unique combination of low-lying geography and heavily-populated coastal regions.

    該國有個獨特的組合:地勢很低,而沿岸地區的人口眾多。

  • Most of these vulnerable coastal families, like those in Mohammadpur, don't want to abandon their homes and livelihoods.

    大部分這類易受影響的沿岸家庭,例如莫哈馬德普爾的居民們,並不想就此拋棄他們的家園和生計。

  • And for others, leaving Bangladesh isn't financially practical.

    對其他人而言,從財務角度來看,離開孟加拉並不實際。

  • So, to stay with their communities, many have moved a few meters inland and built more resilient homes on higher ground or elevated stilts.

    所以為了留在村莊裡,許多人只是向內陸搬移了幾公尺,在較高處建造更具韌性的房子或者把住家架高。

  • Others have tried to buy land on newly-emerging islands in the delta, while some have sent family members to find work in nearby cities.

    其他人則嘗試購買三角洲新出現的島嶼上的土地,有些人則是派家人到鄰近的城市找工作。

  • A handful of individuals might even cross international borders if they have family, friends, or work connections on the other side.

    如果在另一個國家有家人、朋友或工作人脈的話,少數人甚至可能會跨過國際邊界。

  • But many of the residents who've left are eager to return home.

    但許多離開家園的居民都迫切著想要返鄉。

  • Unfortunately, it's unclear when weather extremes will die down, and the government has repeatedly delayed projects to build concrete embankments that would prevent further erosion.

    不幸的是,我們無法明確得知何時極端天氣才會減輕,而政府又不斷延遲能預防進一步侵蝕的堤岸建設計畫。

  • In other parts of the world, people couldn't move inland even if they wanted to.

    在世界上其他地方,有人就算想要搬到內陸也沒辦法。

  • The low-lying Pacific Island nations of Kiribati and Tuvalu are only 811 square kilometers and 26 square kilometers, respectively.

    吉里巴斯和吐瓦魯是地勢很低的太平洋島國,國土大小分別只有 811 平方公里和 26 平方公里。

  • So, migration would mean moving to a different country altogether.

    所以,遷移的意思就是要搬到另一個國家。

  • Instead, their governments and citizens have united in physically, legally, and politically, fortifying their countries.

    而相反的,它們的政府和人民在實體上、法律上,及政治上團結合作,想盡辦法強化其國家。

  • Island residents are planting coastal mangrove forests and building up low-lying areas of land with dredged sand to shield themselves against storms and rising sea levels.

    島民們在沿岸種植紅樹林,挖掘海沙並將地勢低的地區建高,協助他們抵禦暴風雨和上升的海平面。

  • And the islands' governments have repeatedly lobbied on the global stage for countries with the highest emissions to reduce pollution and take responsibility for climate change.

    這些島嶼的政府一直不斷在國際場合遊說,希望排放最高的國家能減少污染,並為氣候變遷負起責任。

  • The challenges facing each coastal community are unique, and the diversity of the people's experiences can make climate mobility a difficult phenomenon to measure and define.

    每個沿岸村莊所面臨的挑戰都是獨一無二的,且人們的經驗十分多樣化,讓氣候造成的移動現象很難測量也很難定義。

  • But as new communities are endangered by extreme weather, it's more important than ever to listen to those on the front lines of this crisis.

    然而隨著更多村莊開始受到極端天氣威脅,聆聽身在危機最前線的人們的主張比以往任何時候都顯得更加重要。

  • Have you ever wondered what the difference between a migrant and a refugee is?

    你有曾經想過移民和難民的差別嗎?

  • Find out with this video. Or, if you want to understand exactly how we get to net-zero emissions, click on this video.

    觀看這部影片來找到答案吧。或是如果你想要知道我們該如何真的達到碳中和的目標,就點擊這部影片吧。

"Migration [...] is one of the main coping and survival mechanisms that is available to those affected by environmental degradation." - Sylvia Lopez-Ekra

「遷移 [...] 對於受到環境退化影響的人們來說,是種主要的應對與生存機制之一。」- Sylvia Lopez-Ekra

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    nao 發佈於 2022 年 02 月 04 日
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