字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 The Australian outback is the last true cathedral on earth. You are just in this enormous expanse and there's something quite spiritual about that, I think. Where we’re going to, in Pipalyatjara, that’s maybe 800 ks south-west of Alice; so it’s a long way inland. The first time I went out there I found it really overwhelming I felt that I didn't belong there and I still get a sense of that when I go to the APY lands that you do feel honoured to be allowed to be there because it is, a very strictly, tightly controlled Aboriginal space. When Damon was very young he did “The Tracker” with David Gulpilil and they had a really close connection. I respect Aboriginal law as much as you respect whitefella’s law – maybe more It was the first time I'd ever met an Aboriginal man and was just completely captivated with him and his stories. Them blackfellas – they probably cooked him and ate him. You know, we’re all cannibals... LAUGHS To go and spend time with him and live with his family and live off the land and hunt. It was just a complete ... I was only 23 and it blew my mind, because I'd never experienced something like that. But I felt the magic of that, and the simplicity of it, and that it just made me feel different. But there was an element ... when I’d seen how much Coke people were consuming and that kind of really shocked me And that image stayed with him, and little did he know at the time how pertinent it would be to his unfolding story around sugar, down the track. Damon: It’s not just saying fizzy drinks are bad – drink water but understanding why, especially regards kidneys and Type 2 diabetes and what not... People in the APY Lands, I think, live ... their average life expectancy is about 55 years, so it’s 20 years less than we do. This is a dry community, there’s no alcohol here, hasn’t been there for 40 years. So all these diseases we are seeing there are predominantly diet-related. How’s it all going well? Yeah, yeah, Kellie’s been busy. I’ve been sort of going around spreading the news – prepping everything. John Tregenza's one of those people that I, you know, I feel very, very fortunate to meet. In the last 35 years, he's seen the health deteriorate, and that would be very hard to watch, so that's what drives him, I think, to keep going and trying to, try and make a difference. Damon discussed with me what we might be able to do in tackling these chronic illness problems. Myself and Kelly and Fiona, the two nutritionists, really want to help out. I think one of the important things that has really helped is the fact that they're volunteers, cos Anangu relate to the fact that people come out here out of their own goodwill to try and do something to help them. For me, it's like, can't we at least give these people healthy, nutritious food, you know and I guess that's the driving motivation for doing what we're doing at the moment. When I met Zoe, self-care wasn't high on the list, I was still enjoying a packet of cigs a day and a couple of Cokes. I was aware of eating healthful foods. When Damon came into the picture, I think he was, he was curious. We met in Timor, in a place called One More Bar. I was over there shooting a documentary, and Damon came over for ‘Balibo’. Damon as Shackleton: The buildings here are deserted. We spoke to one soldier today who believes that a potion given to him by his family, BOOM!!! Bomb goes off And I remember thinking, wow, he’s handsome, he’s intelligent, he’s charming, and doesn’t he know it. And I just, yeah, every cliché in the book, I just, I was like, oh wow, that's the girl I'm going to be with for the rest of my life, I just had one of those things. Damon was very much in that acting world. When you're part of that scene you're inclined to go out, get a bit drunk, or have a good time. But I knew as soon as I met her, I'm going to have to change some things in my life. She's the one, but I've got some work to do. I hadn't been drinking for quite some time, and he'd been dabbling with the idea of not drinking, and that sort of bonded us in a small way, we kind of both liked the lucidity of our relationship. It was tough, early on, because I was so used to sweet things that I was sitting at dinner going, no, give me some salt or sweetness, for god’s sake, smother this in barbecue sauce. But I got to a point where I started going, wow, I feel different, I'm sleeping like I've never slept before and people keep commenting on my, on my eyes and my skin and I've lost some weight and, what's going on here. I started seeing some articles about sugar, and I thought, well, I know my experience from that is quite real, so I wonder and then it kind of all snowballed from there. My name is Damon Gameau. Sugar has become so prevalent in today's society, that if you removed all the items containing it from a standard supermarket's shelves, just 20 per cent of items would remain. Having been an actor it was an inevitable transition for him to be making films eventually. There was a few stats that were quite motivating to me, and one was that Type 2 diabetes now kills someone every six seconds, around the world, and this is a disease that's preventable by diet, um, the fact that one in four Aussie kids are now overweight or obese, and so we're seeing, for the first time in history, children get type two diabetes. From my perspective, I didn’t want that to happen to my child. And there’s so much debate and conjecture on the topic that it's hard to know what to believe. The only real way to get some answers is for me to start eating sugar again and see what it does to my body. So here are the rules for my next 60 days. I must consume 40 teaspoons of sugar a day. When he was gearing up to shoot and make the sugar film, he was almost in perfect physical condition to do such an experiment on himself, because he had very little refined food already in his diet. I was thinking about how to tell the narrative – how do you tell the story – and I picked up a can of tomato soup and I saw that it had seven teaspoons of sugar in it, and this was just like a one-serve tomato soup, and I thought, I don't reckon many people would know that there's almost as much sugar in that as a can of Coke, you know, and yet this is really perceived as a healthy, savoury meal. So, that's really how, how it started, and I thought, I wonder if I could eat what most Australians are eating every day, but actually do it through the foods they're not aware of. Because we did the experiment where I didn't have any chocolates or ice cream or lollies or, you know, I was only eating perceived healthy foods, I genuinely didn't think, or know, that we'd get any effect. But the fact that things started happening to me so quickly, and my body started deteriorating very quickly, we probably could have stopped the experiment after 30 days. After 60 days and 2360 teaspoons of sugar, I gained 8.5 kilograms over all. The speed at which my high sugar diet was affecting me, took us all by surprise. I was going to have to expand the scope of the experiment and this would take me out of town for a few days. By the end I'd developed pre-Type 2 diabetes, I had heart disease, I had 11 centimetres of visceral fat, which is the fat on the inside of your body – that is the more toxic, dangerous fat. The big one was the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was almost in a full-blown state where, if it goes much further, you know, it starts to harden and you get the cirrhosis of the liver. One of the things that was always important to me was, I thought I don't want to just make a film. Part of me was, what are the next steps, like how do you actually impact change? Just 100 kilometres from Uluru is the small town of Amata. In 2007, its population of just under 400 people consumed 40,000 litres of soft drink. I just found this story about this town Amata in the APY Lands where the elders had got together and decided to remove full-strength Coca Cola, I just went, wow, that's ... that, that needs to be told. When Damon approached me he said he was making a film and he asked if it was possible to come onto the lands to sort of argue the case of reducing people's sugar consumption, um, I was fairly wary. I undertook to help Damon on the basis that he would give something back, he just can't come onto these lands and make a film and go away, er, without what we call ‘Ngapartji Ngapartji’ – what are you going to give back in return for this favour – and he said that if the film was a success, he would set up a foundation to assist the people to understand the sugar message. So one Aboriginal man decided to do something about it. His name is John Tregenza. This is his case, this is his puturu, and this is his nickname. Why? John: Cos I cut through the bullshit. Yeah, I arrived on these lands in the early ’70s, and at that time most of the diet was coming from the bush, and only supplemented from the store. John Tregenza was a social worker at Amata, he saw the effect the reserve was having on the Pitjantjatjara. When they asked him to come here as community advisor, he agreed. John Tregenza understands the Pitjantjatjara because he is a man in their terms – that is, an initiated man. Life was, good, long time, there was no store, no houses, long time, they were like a warriors, you know, and feed their families in the bush. John: These little communities have sprung out of these people's desire to get away from settlements and missions, with all of the social problems that those places create. Back in the ’70s people were probably sourcing 90 per cent of their food from, from the bush, and about 10 per cent from the store. Now that's changed over the last 30, 40 years to pretty much round the other way; in fact it's probably more like 95 per cent out of the store and about 5 per cent out of the bush. They lost access to bush tucker. People used to live a lot off rabbits – calecivirus wiped out the rabbits, the Port Arthur massacre and the response from the Australian government to that essentially disarmed the men. So “once were hunters” can now only point their finger at the game. They don’t have the weaponry to go out and hunt. Apart from the fact, of course, that the game is scarce because of the buffel and the camels. What we’ve got now is a changed environment. That’s native grass, that, but that there’s buffel and the rest of the plain, as you go out there, is choked with buffel. The problem is that not only don’t ’roos and big game not eat it, it’s also very hard for predators – the birds and others to find their feed so it doesn’t only impact on the big game, it impacts on the whole food-chain. In the early ’90s, the defunding of the homelands forced people to come into the larger settlements and with that event, the reliance on the store became stronger. All the stores were operating with non-Aboriginal managers, and the prices were outrageous and the products were terrible. In those days it was basically the store manager became responsible for the nutrition of the community. People were having tons of sugar added to their normal diet. Sugar came, so people they had a taste, hey, this is beautiful taste, sweet, I might get one for my children. We didn't know, we thought it was a good, like sugar, instead of eating um, fruit and vegies. Insulin resistance syndrome increased, obesity increased, and diabetes, Type 2 diabetes. All of the health problems including diabetes and the kidney failure is all related to the diet. I've known almost everyone buried here, I've got family members buried here. Most of these, um, these deaths here are premature, and could have been avoided, um, with correct diet and access to affordable healthy food. It's a complete tragedy. We formed an Aboriginal Anangu steering committee to have a look at the whole problem. John and his team with the local committees there, formed a group called Mai Wiru, which meant “good food”. They would operate the stores with good food, good education, and try and restore the health of the local people. I was the first general manager of the Mai Wiru stores policy. We were funded at that stage through the Department of Health and Ageing and we had in-house, a nutritionist. The original intention of Mai Wiru was that stores should be seen as an essential service. They're the only source of food and nutrition in the community and they should be allowed to be not for profit. The Mai Wiru itself, the, the stores group, makes up of five stores now. Mai Wiru it has help this community and other communities too so everybody like it, oh yeah, we might try and put up something, I think that's a good idea, Mai Wiru, it's good. Mai Wiru was working, and in a very short time Amata had the lowest rate of sugar consumption in the region. So things were going along in that way until the Federal Labor government decided that the Mai Wiru group no longer was to be funded under the health budget and we became the responsibility of, essentially, the Aboriginal Affairs Department of the Commonwealth Government. The stores were told that they had to be economically viable in their own right. They have a great word in Pitjantjatjara, ‘tungungpunganyi’ – we're stubborn, we're just going to keep going, you know. We got there, over two years, and developed the Mai Wiru stores policy and we certainly improved on lots of the retail structures within the stores. So they're very well run stores, they're very efficient, they've got good managers. There's no government funding comes into Mai Wiru at all, so that's weaned ourselves off that, which is good. We've now run a weekly service. So from the Adelaide markets, we're getting fresher fruit and veg into the lands, quicker than what people in Alice Springs is getting it. But in this whole process, whilst everything's fine commercially, there are still huge amounts of sugar being consumed and the emphasis on health has sort of been lost on the way. When they lost the funding from Department of Health that also meant they lost the funding for a nutritionist and that's been difficult to sustain a nutrition focus, because you also need somebody who's dedicated to looking and monitoring the nutrition of the store. What people are consuming here is not a lot different to what people are consuming everywhere else. The difference with here is there's one store. They try to provide as much choice as possible in that store but there's a lot of other factors producing chronic health effects a lot quicker. There's a lot of sugar consumed by children. It’s not as clear cut as it would be maybe in a city. One statistic that we found out about today – only today – was that there's 100 kilos of raw sugar sold a week in Pip for about 150 people. So, we have some work to do. And the AACTA award goes to ‘That Sugar Film’ – Nick Batzias and Damon Gameau. Thank you very, very much. So many people to thank … It is the highest-grossing Australian documentary of all time now. Because of the success of the film and the attention it gave Mai Wiru, we were able to establish the foundation, which has raised about $100,000 so far and made it possible for nutritionists to return to the APY Lands with an education program around added sugar. Today, part of the deal of getting a meal is that you also get a free movie screening thrown in. So we’re going to serve the dinner after showing – we’ve got an Aboriginal version of ‘That Sugar Film’. Just to get everyone on board with what we’re trying to do Given the level of funding that the foundation had, I considered it was best to start in one community. Pipalyatjara was seen as a good place to start. The store is in quite a good state. It's a smaller community, um, and John Tregenza has good relationships with people in that community, so it was just chosen as a pilot really. JOHN TREGENZA: I have family and friends out here and that's where I've lived for many years. It's a lot more comfortable out here, to introduce something new and to talk to people about it. So that's really what the foundation was about and teaming up with John again was to try and help reinvigorate that aspect and provide the nutritionist and employ that nutritionist that they couldn't afford anymore so that's really what we're trying to do. Things are quite embryonic at the moment. We’re just beginning but one of the first things we’re focusing on is just the store itself. We’re going around, sort of, educating the local people as well to understand what we’re trying to do about putting clearer labelling on the foods to make sure we’re aware of the foods that have got added sugar in. In an ideal world it would be lovely just to take everything off the shelf and just put (laughs) everything that you want in there, as a nutritionist, but it takes time to change. It was just fantastic having Damon and Kellie and Fiona. We had no idea how much sugar was in some of this stuff. They just came and said, look, how about coming in and putting some labels up in the store about the thumbs up, thumbs down and helping people make those choices. So the key is to try and get familiar foods that are comfort foods but they’re sort of, we can use slightly different ingredients – lots of colours so we get lots of vitamins and nutrients in there. We had a few of those children come in and help us. They've all done cooking before; cooking's a big thing out here. Keenan, who was my little helper all day, he wants to be a chef, which is music to my ears. A healthy chef, hopefully. The thing that I say in community meetings all the time is that the reason we're doing this is so that the young children now, our grandchildren now, do not end up going down the same track of diabetes, kidney failure, dialysis machines and early death, which is the track that many, many people out here are on now.