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  • In 2018, it was estimated that more than 175 million Americans would go out and celebrate Halloween.

    在 2018 年一項統計中,顯示超過 1.75 億位美國人會出門慶祝萬聖節。

  • The total amount spent on costumes, candies, and decorations nationwide?

    你猜全美國人一共在萬聖節服裝、糖果和裝飾上花了多少錢呢?

  • A whopping $9 billion.

    高達 90 億美元!

  • Putting on a costume and going out trick-or-treating is the most well-known Halloween tradition.

    穿上主題服裝和出門要糖果是萬聖節最知名的傳統。

  • The top two costumes worn by adults in 2018?

    2018 年大人最愛的前兩名裝扮是?

  • Witch and vampire.

    女巫和吸血鬼。

  • Even pets participate in this holiday.

    這個普天同慶的日子,連寵物都參與其盛。

  • The top costume for our furry friends that same year was a pumpkin.

    毛孩們那年最受歡迎的裝扮是南瓜。

  • Halloween is a holiday that celebrates all things terrifying, but its origins are closer to all things holy.

    雖然萬聖節是一個慶祝恐懼的節日,但其實它的起源是比較接近神聖的。

  • In fact, the celebration was once called "All Hallows' Eve", and it celebrated the lives of Catholic saintsbut more on that later.

    這個節日在過去被叫作「萬聖夜」,主要慶祝天主教聖徒的一生。這個故事我們稍後會再介紹。

  • So, when did we start to dress up as monsters and carve out pumpkins for a holiday that commemorated saints?

    所以我們是從哪時候開始穿得像怪物,雕刻南瓜來紀念聖人的節日?

  • And what does trick-or-treating have to do with an ancient Catholic holiday?

    還有,不給糖就搗蛋跟古代天主教節日有什麼關聯?

  • You're watching Explore Mode, and in this episode, we're going to dive into the origins of Halloween.

    你正在收看的是 Explore Mode,我們將在本期節目當中探索萬聖節的起源。

  • Halloween as we know it today does not have a single origin.

    我們現今所知道的萬聖節不只有一個起源。

  • It's more of a mix and match of different traditions that evolved and migrated with the people who practiced them from Europe to the rest of the world.

    從歐洲到全世界,各地的人們都有他們慶祝萬聖節的傳統,隨著時間推移,現在的萬聖節更像是不同傳統的混搭組合。

  • But let's start with a 2,000-year-old Celtic festival called Samhain.

    我們先來看有 2,000 年歷史的凱爾特族節日,薩溫節。

  • This pagan holiday marked the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter.

    這個異教的節日是代表豐收季的結束,和冬天的開始。

  • It was celebrated on the eve of October 31st and ended on November 1st.

    節日是在 10 月 31 日的前夕開始,並在 11 月 1 日結束。

  • On October 31, the Celts would burn livestock and part of the summer harvest as sacrifices to the Celtic deities to symbolically share their harvest with the gods.

    在 10 月 31 日,凱爾特人會燃燒家畜和部分夏季的收成當作祭祀凱爾特眾神的祭品。象徵與眾神分享豐收。

  • Apart from marking the end of the year's most abundant period, the Celts believed that on the night winter started, a door to the world of the dead would open, allowing spirits and supernatural beings to wander into the world of the living.

    除了代表豐收季的結束,凱爾特人相信在冬天開始的那晚,亡界大門會打開,讓靈魂和超自然生命體潛入人間。

  • In order to please the potential monsters and fairies crossing over to the human world, the Celts would prepare offerings for them and wear costumes and masks to hide their true identities from the spirits.

    凱爾特人為了討好那些穿越到人間的潛在怪獸和妖精,他們會準備供品給祂們,並穿上服飾和面具隱藏他們的真實身份來躲避惡靈。

  • The festival was celebrated in parts of the United Kingdom, Ireland, and northern France, which is until Catholicism entered the picture.

    這個節慶在英國、愛爾蘭、法國北部地區被慶祝,直到後來天主教出現。

  • Around the 8th Century, Catholicism was expanding and they weren't too fond of pagan festivities like Samhain.

    約 8 世紀時,天主教正在擴張,但他們不太滿意像薩溫節那種異教節慶。

  • So Pope Gregory III took a church-sanctioned holiday that celebrated martyrs and saints on May 31st and moved it to November 1st.

    所以教宗額我略三世把一個有教會認可和紀念殉教者和聖人的節日,從 5 月 31 日移到 11 月 1 日。

  • We know this holiday today as All Saints Day.

    我們現在稱這個節日為諸聖節。

  • But back then, it was known as "Hallowmas", which can be roughly translated into "the mass for the holy people".

    不過在當時,它被叫作「萬聖節」,大概可以被解釋成「聖人的彌撒」。

  • And the evening before, October 31st, was known as All Hallows' Eve, which eventually ended up being abbreviated into Halloween.

    在前一晚,也就是 10 月 31 日,被稱為萬聖夜。最後就縮短成萬聖節。

  • Ironically, the Christian celebration was heavily influenced by Samhain.

    諷刺地是,這個基督教節慶受到薩溫節很深的影響。

  • Because the holiday celebrated the souls of those who had passed, Christian devouts believed that the spirits of the deceased were allowed to roam the Earth to seek their final vengeance from those who had harmed them before moving on to the afterlife.

    因為這個節日是為了慶祝死者的靈魂,虔誠基督教徒相信亡靈能夠在地球上流浪。並在來世以前,對那些曾傷害過他們的人進行最終的復仇。

  • As a precaution, the living would dress up in costumes or wear masks to avoid being targeted by vengeful ghosts.

    作為預防,活著的人會進行裝扮或戴上面罩來避免被復仇的鬼魂盯上。

  • In Guatemala, people didn't hide away from the evil spirits that visited on Hallowmas, instead, they scared the ghouls away.

    在瓜地馬拉,人們並沒有躲避那些在萬聖節造訪的惡靈,反而是要嚇跑惡靈。

  • During All Saints Day, people in some Latin American countries visit the graves of their loved ones to decorate their tombs with offerings and mementos from their past lives on Earth.

    在諸聖節,拉丁美洲國家的人民會前往他們親人的墳墓,並用他們過去在世時的紀念物和祭品裝飾他們的墳墓。

  • In the town of Sumpango in Guatemala, though, locals realized that evil spirits would also come down during this holiday, scaring the souls of their loved ones.

    然而,在瓜地馬拉的孫潘戈鎮上,當地人意識到惡靈也會在這個節日降臨,並嚇壞他們親人的靈魂。

  • Finally, after years of this inconvenience, the people of Sumpango went to the town elders to look for a solution.

    在多年的不便之後,孫潘戈的人民最後到鎮上的長輩那找尋解決方法。

  • Their answer?

    他們的方法是?

  • Scare those evil spirits back.

    把惡靈嚇回去。

  • The town leaders told their people that the loud sound of paper against the wind would be enough to ward off these demons and so the townspeople got to work.

    鎮長告訴人民說,風刮著紙張的噪音可以驅散那些惡魔,於是鎮上的人們開始動起手來。

  • They created large, colorful kites and flew them across the sky on All Saints Day, warding off the spirits and allowing their loved ones to visit peacefully.

    他們打造出色彩繽紛的大型風箏,並在諸聖節當天放上天空。驅趕那些惡靈,好讓他們親人的靈魂能夠平安地來訪。

  • This tradition lives on today, and every year, the people of Sumpango spend months making these enormous kites that can reach from 16 to 52 feet in height.

    這項傳統延續到現代,每年孫潘戈的人民都會花數個月時間製作出長達 16 到 52 呎高的大型風箏。

  • However, the kites made today aren't only to ward off ghouls.

    不過,他們現在製作風箏可不只是為了嚇跑惡靈。

  • Now, they're seen as mystical message carriers that can connect the human world to the spirit world.

    現在,風箏被視為聯繫人界和靈界的神秘訊息媒介。

  • Halloween traditions have their roots in Europe.

    至於歐洲的萬聖節,起源據說是這樣的。

  • In 15th-century England, poor children would go out "souling", which means they would go from door to door asking for soul cakes in exchange for prayers for the giving family's deceased to be liberated from purgatory.

    在 15 世紀的英格蘭,窮困的小孩會出門去乞討。他們挨家挨戶地去要「靈魂蛋糕」,作為回報,他們會幫施捨他們「靈魂蛋糕」的家庭祈禱,以將該家庭的亡者從煉獄中解放出來。

  • The Scottish and people in other parts of Britain and Ireland practiced another tradition called "guising", in which children would put on costumes and, in exchange for treats, they'd put up a performance of some sort.

    在蘇格蘭、英國和愛爾蘭其他地區的人則有另外一項傳統——「化妝遊戲」。在這項傳統下,小孩會穿上特別的服裝,並用某些形式的表演來換取獎勵。

  • If the neighbors liked the kids' tricks, they'd get gifts such as nuts, apples, or coins.

    如果鄰居很喜歡那些小孩的表演,他們會拿到像是堅果、蘋果或硬幣的獎勵。

  • This is thought to be the origin of trick-or-treating.

    這是不給糖就搗蛋的起源。

  • As the years passed, the celebration became more and more popular in Europe, but it didn't make its way into America until the 1840s during the Potato Famine,

    隨著時間過去,這個節慶在歐洲越來越普遍。直到 1840 年發生愛爾蘭馬鈴薯大饑荒,才傳入美國。

  • which caused a large group of Irish and Scottish immigrants to enter the US and Canada, and with them, they brought Halloween.

    當時一大批的愛爾蘭和蘇格蘭人移民美國和加拿大,並帶入了萬聖節。

  • The Irish and Scottish families introduced Halloween traditions like pumpkin carving, bobbing for apples, dressing up in costumes, and of course, trick-or-treating.

    愛爾蘭人和蘇格蘭人引入萬聖節的傳統,像是雕刻南瓜、咬蘋果、穿上特別裝扮,還有最重要的,不給糖就搗蛋。

  • When kids were denied candy, they'd play a small prank on the neighbors, like stealing a wheel from their wagon or stealing the gates to their houses.

    當小孩沒拿到糖果時,他們會對鄰居惡作劇。像是偷走他們馬車上的一顆輪子或是他們屋外的柵欄門。

  • Although bobbing for apples was popularized by Halloween celebrators, its roots are both Celtic and Roman.

    儘管咬蘋果是受萬聖節活動而普及,但它的起源是來自凱爾特人和羅馬人。

  • When Romans conquered Celtic territories, they brought with them apple trees, which to them, represented Pomona, the goddess of plenty.

    當羅馬人征服凱爾特人的領土時,他們帶了象徵波摩納豐收女神的蘋果樹過去。

  • Many rituals surrounding abundance, wealth, and fertility would be celebrated with apples.

    許多和豐收、財富、生育相關的儀式都會用蘋果來慶祝。

  • It was particularly popular to predict romance.

    這也是一個預言戀愛的熱門方式。

  • It was believed that if a woman placed an apple under her pillow, she would meet her future partner in her dreams.

    人們相信,如果女性在她的枕頭下放一顆蘋果,她就能在夢中見到她未來的另一半。

  • An early version of bobbing for apples would have women race towards a line of hanging apples, the first to bite one would be the first to marry.

    另一個咬蘋果的早期說法是,女性會衝向一排掛著的蘋果,第一個咬到蘋果的人就會是最早嫁出去的。

  • Eventually, the apple made its appearance in Halloween parties.

    最後蘋果出現在了萬聖節的派對上。

  • In the 1800s, the most popular game was Snap-Apple.

    在 19 世紀,最受歡迎的遊戲是咬蘋果。

  • Here's how it worked:

    這是它的玩法:

  • A piece of wood would be hung horizontally from the roof, on one side there'd be an apple, on the other, a burning candle.

    人們把一根木棍懸掛在天花板,木棍的一邊是蘋果,而另一邊是正在燃燒的蠟燭。

  • The stick was then spun around by the players, and the participants had to take a bite of the apple without getting burned by hot wax.

    玩家會旋轉木棍,玩家要在不被熱蠟滴到的情況下咬到一口蘋果。

  • Needless to say, Snap-Apple wasn't a kid-friendly game.

    無庸置疑地,咬蘋果是一個兒童不宜的遊戲。

  • So, later on, bobbing for apples in a container full of water became more popular among family Halloween parties.

    所以後來在裝滿水的水箱裡咬出蘋果,成為萬聖節家庭派對的流行遊戲。

  • But, although now we see trick or treating as an innocent holiday activity for children, in the past, it was associated with teenage rioters.

    儘管我們現在認為不給糖就搗蛋是一個無害的兒童節慶活動,但在過去,這與青少年暴徒有關。

  • Time for an Express Explore Explanation!

    是時候進行快速地深入解釋了!

  • Start the clock.

    開始計時。

  • In 1920s America, the tradition of trick-or-treating was taken over by mischievous youngsters that would use Halloween as an excuse to commit acts of vandalism.

    在 1920 年代的美國,那些愛惡作劇的青少年利用萬聖節不給糖就搗蛋的傳統之名,故意破壞公物。

  • Teenagers reportedly started slashing car tires, setting fires, stoning windows, and attacking authorities.

    根據報導,青少年們割破車子輪胎、放火、用石頭砸破窗戶和攻擊警方。

  • Things got so bad that in 1925, police broke up a Halloween teenage gathering by shooting at the adolescents.

    事情持續惡化到 1925 年,警方透過槍擊青少年來終止他們在萬聖節的群聚。

  • Trick-or-treating for children didn't come back until after the Second World War, during which sugar rationing regulations were set.

    直到第二次世界大戰後,政府解除糖的配給制度,兒童的不給糖就搗蛋活動才再次回歸。

  • However, in the 1950s, the Baby Boomer Generation brought back the innocence of trick-or-treating, and it hasn't left since.

    在 1950 年代時,無害的不給糖就搗蛋傳統獲得嬰兒潮年代出生的人發揚,這項傳統自此永續流傳。

  • Halloween celebrations today seem to attract more young adults.

    現在的萬聖節慶似乎吸引到很多年輕人參與。

  • According to the National Retail Federation, consumers ages 18 to 24 years old are the most likely demographic to celebrate the scary holiday this year.

    根據全美零售聯合會的統計,18 到 24 歲的顧客是最有可能在今年慶祝這個恐怖節日的客群。

  • Data shows 73% of American young adults will dress in a costume and, surprisingly, 23% of them will go out trick-or-treating.

    數據顯示有 73% 的美國青少年會穿著主題裝扮。令人驚訝的是,他們之中有 23% 的人會去要糖果。

  • Social media also plays a role in modern Halloween.

    社群媒體也在現代萬聖節中扮演了重要角色。

  • 25% of women looked for costumes on Pinterest and 19% of men took to YouTube to look for their disguises.

    25% 的女性會在 Pinterest 上尋找主題服裝,而 19% 的男性會在 YouTube 上搜尋他們的裝扮。

  • But regardless of where you get your DIY costume inspiration from or how you celebrate Halloween, it's still the one holiday that will bring everyone together in the name of all things terrifying, and that is worth dressing up for.

    但不管你是從哪得到 DIY 裝扮的靈感或你怎麼慶祝萬聖節,它仍是一個用所有恐怖名義把大家聚在一塊的節日,並值得好好打扮。

  • Thanks for watching Explore Mode, if you liked this video, hit the thumbs-up button.

    感謝你觀看 Explore Mode。如果你喜歡這個影片,請幫我按讚。

  • If you want to explore even more with us, make sure to hit the subscribe and bell button so you get a notification whenever we upload a new episode.

    如果你想更跟著我們更深入探索,請記得訂閱我們,並開啟小鈴鐺。這樣當我們發布新影片時,你就能收到通知。

  • If you're interested in more of our videos, check out our playlist.

    如果你對我們其它影片感興趣,歡迎參考我們整理的影片清單。

  • See you next week, in the meantime, remember to keep your explore mode on.

    要繼續保持對世界的好奇心喔!我們下週見!

In 2018, it was estimated that more than 175 million Americans would go out and celebrate Halloween.

在 2018 年一項統計中,顯示超過 1.75 億位美國人會出門慶祝萬聖節。

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「不給糖就搗蛋!」你知道萬聖節的由來是什麼嗎?The Origin of Halloween | Why do we wear costumes for Halloween? | EXPLORE MODE

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    nao 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 25 日
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