Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Is this what the future of agriculture looks like?

  • Vegetables and lettuces stacked on several floors,

  • artificially lit. Fully automated farming. Protected from

  • drought, frost and storm. This isn't a futuristic vision. In

  • Japan this is already the reality.

  • In this system we can produce food under optimal

  • conditions with high nutritional content and good

  • taste all year round. That's the big difference to working

  • in the field.

  • Working the fields in Brandenburg. These thick dust

  • clouds are due to the drought.

  • Without massive artificial irrigation, there would be no

  • harvest. Are these fields facing an imminent collapse?

  • As the conditions are currently, I would have to

  • recommend my children look for a different profession.

  • Devastating drought here, heavy flooding elsewhere.

  • Food production is in danger, and catastrophic famines

  • wreak havoc. Throughout the world, researchers are

  • searching for solutions.

  • A typical harvest in Japan. The workers wear protective suits,

  • that are hygienically prepared.

  • The environment is clinical, these lettuce heads are

  • cultivatedwithout soil, and free of pesticides.

  • In this room, the temperature always remains the same.

  • I find it pretty good that I can always work indoors,

  • regardless of the weather, it's better than in the rice fields.

  • "Vertical Farming" is the name of this method from Japan as

  • seen here at the company Spread in Kyoto. The roots

  • thrive in a liquid nutrient solution, without topsoil but

  • with the same natural ingredients, such as sodium

  • and potassium. Lamps, with a similar color temperature to

  • sunlight are used.

  • Solar collectors and the building's green façade

  • indicate that progress is at home here. The University of

  • Chiba in Japan. In this futuristic-looking greenhouse,

  • experiments with vertical vegetable cultivation are being conducted.

  • Professor Toyoki Kozai invented this method in the

  • 1970s. Back then he initially had problems finding the right

  • light and had high electricity costs. The breakthrough came

  • with LED technology.

  • Originally I wanted to help the small farmers who own

  • small land parcels. Vertical farming enables one to

  • achieve 100 times more annual harvest, on a single

  • area, than with conventional farming. So it's worth

  • investing in such vegetable factories. These facilities can

  • be set up anywhere. It is an important step towards

  • sustainable agriculture. There are no losses during

  • the harvest, and we use less energy for transport.

  • Productivity and profitability can be increased

  • even further, with the latest technology.

  • This method is mainly used for vegetables and salads.

  • As far as staple foods go such as cereals or potatoes, more

  • research is still needed.

  • In Japan, after the Fukushima catastrophe,

  • there was a lot of interest in these new greenhouses,

  • because it is possible to produce all year round,

  • regardless of external influences. Thanks to our

  • methods, the farmers have a stable production without

  • damage from insects or worms. And of course, the

  • system is sustainable. You can run these vegetable

  • factories in the middle of the city and produce local food

  • as needed.

  • The contrast: agriculture in the fields. Once again the farmers

  • lack water. A lot of water. And the weather is much too hot.

  • Temperatures of up to 40° can dry up the soil to two meters deep.

  • Large parts of Germany are affected by drought in the

  • summer. The result can be the total loss of the harvest, with

  • high financial losses.

  • Hans-Heinrich Grünhagen in Brandenburg is one of the

  • farmers who suffer. He grows potatoes and corn. His farm is

  • located in an area with light, dry soil. Without the help of

  • expensive irrigation systems, nothing would grow on his farm.

  • The water already needs to be pumped from deep

  • underground. And climate experts predict that even more

  • extreme dry periods are expected.

  • If you look at the ground here, there is no moisture.

  • No plant can survive. That's why there's not much on this.

  • Here are two miserable potatoes, here are a few

  • more, which might have been okay, if they had

  • enough water. Like last year, we are having a very dry

  • year again. It's only rained half the amount that we

  • normally would have had, at this time of year. The soil is

  • so dry from last year that even the little rain we've had

  • over the last few days, is not enough for the plants.

  • But how can the farmers' problems be solved, how can

  • we ensure that food supply in the future is safe?

  • Wageningen University in the Netherlands is looking into

  • these questions. At the renowned agricultural

  • university, scientists are working on using new ideas

  • and methods to finally defeat hunger in the 21st century.

  • They are working on the assumption that in just 30

  • years, twice as much food will have to be produced as today.

  • But the conditions for this have become worse. In order

  • not to exacerbate the climate crisis, the area available for

  • food cultivation should not increase. New methods are

  • therefore needed to produce food in the future.

  • Ernst van den Ende is head of the Plant Science Department.

  • He understands how grave the situation is.

  • So, if we change nothing, and we keep on consuming the

  • way we are doing, if we do not optimize the way we

  • produce our food, then for the next forty years we will

  • need to produce as much food as we did over the last

  • 8000 years. And I think that really gives a good

  • impression how big the challenge is, to feed the

  • world in 2050.

  • With its huge greenhouses, the Netherlands is the second

  • largest food exporter in the world. And they take care of

  • their resources: vegetable growers here need much less water

  • to grow tomatoes than elsewhere - thanks to new

  • irrigation techniques.

  • Our research is focusing on to produce more food but at

  • the same time to do it with less inputs so we need to

  • produce more nutritious food, more safe food. And

  • this challenge more with less and better, is really the

  • overarching theme of our research programs.

  • This is how daily life looks in the Spanish region of

  • Almeria. Under this sea of plastic tarpaulins lies Europe's

  • largest vegetable garden. Artificially irrigated, grown

  • for export. Millions of tons of tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers

  • and other varieties are shipped from here, mostly to Germany.

  • But intensive cultivation has its price. Pesticides and

  • fertilizers contribute to the fact that hardly anything grows

  • here outside the greenhouses. And the Spanish vegetable

  • farmers are running out of water. The whole area is

  • drying up.

  • The situation in Africa is even more extreme. Especially

  • south of the Sahara. The reason: an increase in weather

  • catastrophes. It's almost impossible for the poor and

  • hungry to lift themselves out of their misery without

  • external help, says the Secretary General of German Agro Action.

  • Since 2014, the number of hungry people has continued

  • to rise, and currently 821 million people suffer. We can

  • see quite clearly that about 30 million people have been

  • affected as a direct result of the climate change.

  • People are personally and very acutely affected by this,

  • because the storms currently hitting these countries were

  • previously completely unknown. And this is just

  • such a sign of the destructive force that a change in

  • climate can trigger, and how the people in the countries

  • where we work, are quite defenseless and at the mercy

  • of the elements.

  • Catastrophes, drought, floods destroy not only the living

  • space of the inhabitants but also valuable agricultural land.

  • Although Brandenburg farmer Grünhagen can solve his

  • drought problems with technical help, supported by

  • the EU, he nevertheless is pessimistic about his future.

  • Irrigation is the only way we can still grow things here.

  • Grain cultivation is actually not feasible anymore and we

  • are no longer competitive worldwide. The potatoes that

  • we irrigate are sold here in the region, where we still

  • have a market that we can sell to.

  • Back in Japan, at the company SPREAD in Kyoto.

  • Headquarters for the new world of agriculture. SPREAD

  • is currently the world's largest farm for vertical production.

  • An employee of the company on her way to work. Her

  • clothes are more similar to what people wear in an

  • operating theatre, than on an outdoor farm. Here hygiene

  • regulations are very strict.

  • All precautions are used to prevent germs from the

  • outside entering the production, as the food should be clean

  • and unspoiled.

  • In this closed, sterile environment, the plants grow

  • without the use of pesticides and fertilizers.

  • A good 50,000 heads of lettuce leave the factory every

  • day. This hall is only used for packaging, others are used for

  • growing various vegetables, including mushrooms and

  • exotic herbs. The selection is large. None of the produce is

  • washed, as there are germs in the water that may cause the

  • vegetables to spoil. Another advantage of this type of

  • "indoor farming" is that the plants thrive on several floors

  • above each other, and need very little, valuable, floor

  • space. The cultivation in some of halls is already fully

  • automatic. Shinji Inada founded the factory 15 years ago.

  • Back then, climate change or the explosion of the world's

  • population was not a big issue. Nor was there a

  • market for factory grown vegetables. But now we make

  • a good profit. I don't think that factories will replace

  • conventional farming completely, but I think that

  • our way of farming will play a central role in 20 or 30

  • years. We want to share the technology with poor

  • countries, so that they can produce their own food.

  • Thanks to the short distances to supermarkets and

  • restaurants, no goods are spoiled during transport

  • unlike in conventional supply chains.

  • On the other hand, conventional agriculture in

  • Japan is also in a deep crisis.

  • Farmers use pesticides as a necessary tool in rice

  • cultivation. Rice, which is sacred to many Japanese, is

  • heavily subsidized in Japan. The market is largely protected

  • by high customs duties. Rice imports are considered an

  • attack on cultural heritage. But the areas under cultivation are

  • dwindling. The average size of a Japanese farm is just 1.8

  • hectares, which makes it difficult for farmers to make

  • ends meet. That is why there are hardly any young people

  • farming, with the average age of a farmer being 66 years old.

  • Cooperatives are formed in many places, in order to be

  • able to farm more effectively. But the increase in natural

  • disasters is also causing them problems.

  • To avoid being held hostage by these changes, the farmer

  • Akira Iijima was inventive. This is my aquaponic system.

  • - he proudly explains. In his small greenhouse, he is trying

  • out a new form of agriculture: aquaponic. Here, fish are bred

  • in large tanks. Akira Iijima has 250 sturgeons in his facility.

  • The fish excrement is pumped out and used as fertilizer for

  • various vegetables. The water purified by the plants, is then

  • returned to the fish tanks.

  • From rice farmer to modern aquaponic farmer. Almost all

  • vegetables thrive here all year round and are independent of

  • climate changes. The greenhouse has even withstood

  • an earthquake. The neighboring farmers have

  • already suffered this year; it rained too much and their

  • plants did not get enough sun.

  • Akira Iijima however can still carry his harvest to the market.

  • And dreams of an even bigger plant.

  • Such as this one in the Schöneberg district in Berlin.

  • In the grounds of an old industrial complex:

  • Greenhouses for vegetable growing - in the middle of the city.

  • Groups of visitors from all over the world come here to

  • learn about the goings on inside. This is also an

  • aquaponic farm, but on a grand scale. The current product:

  • Capital City Basil. Grown with the excrement of the fish bred

  • in these tanks. The fish that is marketed in Berlin is of course

  • called Capital City Perch.

  • We want to produce where people consume, so we don't

  • have long supply chains, or long cold storage times, and

  • we have a much better CO2 balance. I think our fish, the

  • capital city perch, is the freshest fish you can buy

  • here in Berlin.

  • The principle is as old as the hills: the water that is polluted

  • by the fish is extracted and used as manure for the plants.

  • It has been used this way for centuries in China and by the

  • Mayans of Central America. The plants grow faster, on

  • shelves or on raised beds in these rooms, than in a natural

  • environment. The young entrepreneurs produce 9,500

  • basil pots per week for a supermarket chain. So it won't

  • take long before the costs, for the 1.4 million euro

  • construction, are recovered.

  • 7.8 billion people currently live on our planet, in a mere 30

  • years, it will be 11 billion. More and more people are

  • leaving the rural areas, and according to a United Nations

  • study, two-thirds of the world's population will be living in

  • cities in 2050. So more of these farms will have to be

  • built, especially in Asia.

  • There the megacities already that extend over huge areas

  • without any agriculture. More plants, and more greenery is

  • needed in the cities!

  • Urban planners face a new challenge. The inhabitants of