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  • Hi! Neil from BBC Learning English here.

    嗨!我是 BBC 學英文的尼爾。

  • Did you know that we are now offering a new weekly extra episode of 6 Minute English exclusively on our website?

    你知道嗎?現在每週在官網有獨家提供一集額外的 6 分鐘英語喔。

  • So go to to find your favorite presenters on your favorite program.

    請上 找尋你最喜歡的節目及主持人。

  • The extra episodes are only available on our website:


  • See you there! 上才能觀看。在那裡見!

  • Hello. This is 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English.

    嗨。這是 BBC 學英語的 6 分鐘英語。

  • I'm Neil.


  • And I'm Sam.


  • "No one is too small to make a difference."


  • Do you know who said that, Sam?


  • Wasn't it climate change activist, Greta Thunberg?


  • That's right. She went on to say this in her message to world leaders: "I don't want you to be hopeful. I want you to act as if your house is on fire. Because it is."


  • Her speech reflected the feelings of many young people around the world who think that not enough action is being taken on climate change.


  • And they may be right, judging by the record-breaking temperatures that hit Canada and the north-west of the United States in July this year.

    而以今年 7 月加拿大及美國西北部破紀錄的高溫來看,他們可能是對的。

  • Greta Thunberg's plea "to act like your house is on fire" became a reality for residents of the small town of Lytton, Canada which burned to the ground in a shocking wildfire - a fire that is burning strongly and out of control.

    格蕾塔·童貝里「像你自己的房子著火了一樣採取行動」的訴求,對加拿大利頓小鎮的居民來說,已成為事實。 利頓小鎮在一場失控的野火中被燒為平地。

  • So, was the Lytton wildfire yet another climate change wake-up call?


  • A wake-up call is the expression used to describe a shocking event that should make people realize that action is needed to change something.


  • Maybe not, according to some climatologists who, worryingly, say that what happened in Lytton should not even have been possible.


  • So in this program, we'll be asking if scientists have dangerously misunderstood the realities of climate change.


  • But first it's time for my quiz question and it's about that extreme weather in Canada.


  • It broke records when the temperature in Lytton hit an all-time high on 1st July - but just how hot did it get?

    利頓 7 月 1 日的氣溫創歷史新高,但溫度到底有多高?

  • Was it:


  • a) 39 point 6 degrees?

    a) 39.6 度?

  • b) 49 point 6 degrees?

    b) 49.6 度?

  • or c) 59 point 6 degrees Celsius?

    還是 c) 59.6 度?

  • All those temperature look really high, especially for snowy Canada.


  • I'll say a) 39 point 6 degree C.

    我選 a) 39.6 度。

  • OK, Sam, we'll find out the answer later on.


  • Seeing your hometown burn to the ground is bad enough, but perhaps even worst was the fact that the wildfires were so unexpected.


  • According to weather pattern modeling done by a team of Oxford University researchers, such extreme heat was impossible - in theory, at least.

    根據牛津大學研究人員所做的氣後模擬,這樣的極端高溫是不可能的 -- 至少理論上而言。

  • The research team was led by climatologist, Geert Jan van Oldenborgh.

    該研究小組由氣候學家 Geert Jan van Oldenborgh 領導。

  • Here he is in conversation with BBC World Service program, Science in Action:

    這是他在 BBC 國際頻道 -- 科學在行動中的談話。

  • This is a wake-up call beyond the wake-up calls that we've had before.


  • Yes, and it's a very big shock in the sense that we thought we knew how heatwaves react to global warming and within which boundaries they're increasing (of course they're increasing in temperature)


  • but it's a gradual process we thought, and then you get this thing, and it's not gradual at all - it's a huge jump!

    但我們以為這是個循序漸進的過程,然而事情就突然發生了,完全沒有依循規律 - 這是個巨大的變動!

  • Professor Van Oldenborgh had been studying the impact of global warming on heatwaves - short periods of time when the weather is much hotter than usual.

    Van Oldenborgh 教授一直在研究全球暖化對熱浪,也就是短期內溫度急遽升高的影響。

  • Along with other climatologists, he thought that climate change was gradual - changing or happening slowly, over a long period of time.


  • But the Canadian heatwaves caused him to think again.


  • Instead of being gradual the temperatures saw a jump, or a sudden increase, of five degrees.


  • And it's this sudden jump that‘s got Professor Van Oldenborgh and his team worried.

    這種突然的躍升,讓 Van Oldenborgh 教授和他的團隊十分憂心。

  • By collecting data from all over the world climatologists try to predict changes in the pattern of global warming.


  • But, as Geert Jan van Oldenborgh told BBC World Service's, Science in Action, the heatwave in Lytton didn't fit these predictions at all:

    但正如 Geert Jan van Oldenborgh 於 BBC 世界頻道的 - 科學在行動所言,利頓的熱浪並不符合預測。

  • Everything looked like a nice regular gradual trend like we were used to up to last year and then you suddenly break all your records by four or five degrees.

    一切看起來都像以往規律漸進的趨勢,直到突然 4 或 5 度的升溫打破了記錄。

  • I mean, this is something that's no supposed to happen and it has really shaken our confidence in how well we understand the effect of climate change on heatwaves.


  • Despite all his research, Professor Van Oldenborgh is still unable to explain such extreme and sudden changes in the climate - and this, he says, has shaken his confidence - made him doubt something that he was certain was true.

    儘管做了很多研究,Van Oldenborgh 教授仍無法解釋這種極端氣候變化。就像他說的,這已動搖了他的信心,使他懷疑過往堅信的想法。

  • And it's this lack of understanding worrying researchers because, as the story of the town of Lytton shows, the effects of climate change may be even worse than expected.


  • Maybe it's time we all took notice of Greta Thunberg's wake-up call to take action on climate change.


  • Especially if even cold, northern countries like Canada, or Britain for that matter, can experience such extreme changes.


  • Speaking of which, Neil, what was the answer to your quiz question?


  • Ah yes, in my quiz question I asked you exactly how high the temperature reached in the Canadian town of Lytton.


  • What did you say, Sam?


  • I thought it was a) 39 point 6 degrees Celsius.

    我選 a) 39.6 度。

  • Was I right?


  • Well, you were close but, in fact, it got even hotter, actually reaching 49 point 6 degrees Celsius - the highest temperature ever recorded in Canada by at least 5 degrees!

    很接近,但其實溫度更高,實際上高溫達到了 49.6 度,有史以來的最高溫,比過往溫度至少高 5 度!

  • Phew! That's hot.


  • Well, we'd better recap the vocabulary from this program because we might be hearing these words a lot more in the future!


  • Let's start with a wildfire which is an out-of-control fire that is burning the countryside.


  • A wake-up call is an event which should make people realize that action needs to be taken to change a situation.


  • A heatwave is a period of days or weeks when the weather is much hotter than usual.


  • A jump is a sudden increase.


  • Whereas gradual means happening slowly, over a long time.


  • And finally, if something shakes your confidence, it makes you doubt something that you thought was true.


  • That's it for our look at one of the hottest years on record.


  • Bye for now!


  • Bye!


Hi! Neil from BBC Learning English here.

嗨!我是 BBC 學英文的尼爾。

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