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  • Literary critic Northrop Frye once observed

    文學評論家諾思羅普弗萊曾觀察到 (Northrop Frye)

  • that in our primitive days, our literary heroes were -- well, nearly gods,

    在原始時代 文學中的英雄差不多跟神一樣

  • and as civilization advanced, they came down the mountain of the gods, so to speak,

    隨文明演進 他們從眾神之山走了下來

  • and became more human, more flawed, less heroic.

    變得更人性化、更有缺點、 更不像英雄

  • From the divine heroes like Hercules,


  • down the mountain below the miraculous but mortal heroes such as Beowulf,


  • the great leaders such as King Arthur,


  • and the great but flawed heroes like Macbeth or Othello.

    和偉大但有缺陷的英雄 如馬克白和奧賽羅

  • Below even the unlikely but eventual heroes such as Harry Potter,

    再到不像是英雄 但最後成功的哈利波特、

  • Luke Skywalker, or Hiccup,

    星際大戰的天行者路克、 或是馴龍高手的小嗝嗝、

  • until we reach the bottom and meet the anti-hero.

    最底下才是「非傳統英雄」 (anti-hero)

  • Contrary to the sound, the anti-hero is not the villain, not the antagonist.


  • The anti-hero is actually the main character in some contemporary works of literature.


  • Guy Montag in "Fahrenheit 451," Winston Smith in "1984,"

    《華氏 451 度》的蒙塔格 (Guy Montag) 《1984》的溫斯頓史密斯 (Winston Smith)

  • who unwittingly ends up challenging those in power -- that is,

    他們在不知不覺中挑戰了當權者 -那就是

  • those who abuse their power to brainwash the populace to believe that the ills of society have been eliminated.

    濫用權力對民眾洗腦 說社會一切美好的人

  • Ideally, those who challenge the establishment should be wise, confident, brave,

    理想中,敢挑戰權力的人 應該是聰明、自信、勇敢、

  • physically strong, with a type of charisma that inpires followers.


  • The anti-hero, however, at best demonstrates a few underdeveloped traits,

    然而非傳統英雄最多只有 幾種發展並不完全的特質

  • at worst, is totally inept.


  • The story of the anti-hero usually unfolds something like this.


  • The anti-hero initially conforms, ignorantly accepting the established views,


  • a typical, unquestioning, brainwashed member of society.

    是個典型、不質疑、 被洗腦過的社會人士

  • The anti-hero struggles to conform, all the while starting to object,

    他一直掙扎想遵守規範 然後開始反抗

  • perhaps finding other outsiders with whom to voice his questions,


  • and naïvely, unwisely, sharing those questions with an authority figure.


  • The anti-hero openly challenges society,


  • and tries to fight against the lies and tactics used to oppress the populace.


  • This step, for the anti-hero, is seldom a matter of brave, wise and heroic opposition.

    非傳統英雄此時通常 不勇敢、不聰明、也不像反抗英雄

  • Maybe the anti-hero fights and succeeds in destroying the oppressive government,


  • with a lot of impossible luck.


  • Perhaps he or she runs away, escapes to fight another day.


  • All too often though, the anti-hero is killed, or brainwashed


  • to return to conformity with the masses.


  • No heroic triumph here, no brave individual standing up against impersonal institutions of a modern world,

    沒有英雄式勝利,沒有勇氣站出來 對抗現代世界的不人道組織

  • inspiring others to fight, or resourcefully outwitting and outgunning the massive army of the evil empire.

    沒有鼓舞別人戰鬥,也沒有過人的 智力與武力對抗邪惡帝國的大部隊

  • Our storytelling ancestors calmed our fears of powerlessness

    我們的祖先藉由故事 安撫我們對無力感的恐懼

  • by giving us Hercules and other heroes strong enough to fight off the demons and monsters

    給我們海克力斯這樣的英雄 強到可以打敗

  • that we suspected haunted the night beyond our campfires.

    那些可能在夜晚的營火旁 把我們抓走的惡魔與怪獸

  • But eventually, we realized the monsters did not lie out there,


  • they reside inside of us.


  • Beowulf's greatest enemy was mortality.


  • Othello's, jealousy.


  • Hiccup, self-doubt.


  • And in the tales of the ineffectual anti-hero, in the stories of Guy Montag and Winston Smith,

    在《華氏 451 度》及《1984》裡 作用不大的非傳統英雄

  • lie the warnings of contemporary storytellers playing on very primitive fears:


  • that we are not strong enough to defeat the monsters.


  • Only this time, not the monsters chased away by the campfire,

    只在此時出現的 不是被營火嚇跑的怪獸

  • but the very monsters who built the campfire in the first place.


Literary critic Northrop Frye once observed

文學評論家諾思羅普弗萊曾觀察到 (Northrop Frye)


影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 英雄 怪獸 傳統 文學 對抗

【TED-Ed】一個人的反英雄--蒂姆-亞當斯。 (【TED-Ed】An antihero of one's own - Tim Adams)

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    Kevin Tan 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日