Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • What a child experiences during the first year of their life has a lasting impact on the development of their brain.

    生命最初那幾年的經歷,對孩子日後的大腦發展有著長期性影響。

  • While genes set the roadmap, experiences create the neural connection inside the brain that sets the foundations of our emotions, language, motor skills, vision, and memories.

    雖然基因設定了路線圖,不過體驗會促使腦內神經互相連結,為孩子奠定情緒、語言、運動技能、視覺和記憶能力。

  • If one region gets additional stimulation, the neural pathways within that area and the connections to other areas grow stronger.

    當大腦某個區域接收到更多的刺激,則該區域的神經通路與其他領域的連結會變得越來越強。

  • This process is called synaptic pruning.

    這個過程被稱為突觸修剪。

  • You can also imagine your brain as a planet.

    你可以試著把你的大腦想像成一顆星球。

  • There is Motor Skill Metropolis, Memory Mountain and Vision Village.

    星球上有著運動技能大都會、記憶山和視覺村。

  • Through the years, popular cities grow bigger and links between them get larger.

    隨著一年年的發展,熱門的城市會變得越來越大,而城市之間的連結也會變得越來越強。

  • Now if one area was never developed, there can be traffic jams.

    不過,如果城市的發展不一致,其中有一塊區域未曾被開發,那城市之間就可能會出現交通堵塞。

  • This then slows down the development of the entire brain.

    進而延緩整個大腦的發展速度。

  • Some neurotransmitters will be tired getting to work.

    一些神經傳導物質會疲於應付工作。

  • Others will take shortcuts and get lost.

    其他神經傳導物質則會試著走捷徑,最後導致迷路。

  • Betty Hart and Todd Risley studied children's exposure to language.

    Betty Hart 和 Todd Risley 曾經展開一項有關兒童語言能力的研究。

  • On average, children from families on welfare were exposed to about 600 words per hour.

    他們發現,來自弱勢家庭的孩子平均每小時接觸約 600 個單字。

  • Kids from rich families got about 2,000.

    而來自富裕家庭的孩子則每小時能接觸約 2000 個單字。

  • By the age of 3, the gap becomes 30 million words.

    到了 3 歲,弱勢家庭和富裕家庭孩子之間的單字差距累積到了三千萬字。

  • But it didn't end there.

    這兩種家庭背景孩子的差距不只是這樣而已。

  • Children from privileged families received much more positive feedback.

    來自富裕家庭的孩子,收穫更多的正面反饋。

  • For every six words of praise, there was only one word of discouragement.

    他們每收穫六句讚美,就只有一句是負面的字詞。

  • Welfare kids however, heard twice as much discouragements as praise.

    反觀來自弱勢家庭的孩子,所聽到的負面字詞比讚美還要多上一倍。

  • This could make a difference that lasts a lifetime.

    這可能會造成影響一生的差異。

  • In a study that began in 1963, psychologist David Weikart and his team randomly divided 123 underprivileged kids into two groups.

    在 1963 年開始的一項研究中,心理學家 David Weikart 和他的團隊將 123 名貧困兒童隨機地分為兩組。

  • One group spent 2 years at a top preschool with excellent teachers.

    其中一組在一個擁有優秀教師的頂級學前班學習了兩年。

  • They made art, discussed problems, and received a lot attention, respect and love.

    他們上藝術課、討論問題,並得到了很多關注、尊重和愛。

  • For the other, life went on as usual, often without much attention from anyone.

    而另外一組則一切照常進行,這些兒童往往在沒有受到任何人關懷的情況下長大。

  • 40 years later, the Highscope Perry Preschool Study was published.

    40 年後,前瞻佩里 (Highscope Perry) 學前教育研究報告出版了。

  • At age 5, 67% of the children in the top preschool group had an IQ of over 90, they were school-ready.

    五歲時,頂級學前教育組中有 67% 的兒童擁有超過 90 的智商。他們已經做好了上學的準備。

  • Of the others, only 28% achieved that.

    而另一組中,只有 28% 實現了這一點。

  • At 14, there was a big difference in basic classroom achievements.

    十四歲時,兩組在課堂的基本表現上差異甚大。

  • At 27, the top preschool group were more likely to own their own home.

    二十七歲時,頂級學前教育組更有可能擁有自己的住房。

  • And at age 40, they earned more money and were less likely to ever be sentenced to jail.

    而在四十歲時,他們賺到了更多的錢,且曾被判刑入獄的可能性更小。

  • The researchers concluded that the two years at preschool nourished the children not only intellectually, but also gave them social skills, courage and perseverance.

    研究人員認為,在學前班的兩年時間裡不僅在智力上滋養了孩子們,也給了他們社會技能、勇氣和毅力。

  • This combination of character strength, also called Grit, was later responsible for their success in life.

    這種性格力量的結合也被稱為意志力 (Grit),並且是他們後來在生活中取得成功的原因。

  • The 15,000 dollars invested in putting those kids into preschool, later benefited the entire society, mainly through a reduction in crime.

    為了把這些孩子送進學前班而投入的一萬五千美元,後來主要是以通過減少犯罪的方式,讓整個社會都受益。

  • The total return of investment was estimated to be at a $195,000.

    投資的總回報估計為十九萬五千美元。

  • In 2006, Nobel Prize winning economist James Heckman published what became known as the Heckman Curve.

    2006 年,曾獲諾貝爾獎的經濟學家詹姆斯·赫克曼發表了後來被稱為「赫克曼曲線」的文章。

  • It shows the return of investments in education, which is the highest in the early years.

    該文章揭露投資教育所能獲得的回報,而報告顯示在早年投資時報酬率是最高的。

  • Governments have since started to act.

    此後,各國政府便開始採取了行動。

  • In Germany, parents get a lot of financial support to raise their kids.

    在德國,父母能夠得到政府的大量財務支援來幫助他們撫養孩子。

  • In Japan, mothers or fathers can take a full year of paid leave.

    在日本,母親或父親可以享受一整年的帶薪休假。

  • In France, all children go to kindergarten free of charge.

    在法國,所有兒童都可以免費上幼兒園。

  • If you happened to be in charge, know that with every extra minute you spend encouraging and talking to that little troublemaker, you might be doing him a favor for life.

    如果你正好是負責帶小孩的人,要知道,你每多花一分鐘鼓勵並與那個小搗蛋鬼交談,你便能為他的一生做出貢獻。

  • According to the University of Michigan: "Regular family dinners are a stronger predictor of good grades than doing homework."

    根據密歇根大學的說法,「定期的家庭聚餐比做家庭作業更能預測出好成績。」

What a child experiences during the first year of their life has a lasting impact on the development of their brain.

生命最初那幾年的經歷,對孩子日後的大腦發展有著長期性影響。

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 兒童 家庭 神經 孩子 技能 研究

別吝嗇讚美小孩!讚美對於腦部發展其實有深遠影響! (Early Childhood Education: The Research)

  • 6034 374
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 10 月 03 日
影片單字