字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 Prof: All right? All right. Let us begin. Let us--we'll turn down the music of Charles Ives. We'll come back to the music of Charles Ives, but let us begin with our discussion of musical form--continuing our discussion of musical form. Last time we talked really about three forms. We talked about verse and chorus in popular music and we had a wonderful presentation by Frederick Evans. And I hope you came away with the following: that in dealing with verse and chorus, basically, you have the same material; you have the same musical material coming back again and again and again. With the chorus we actually have the same text coming back again and again and again. But with the verses although the music is the same, the text keeps changing each time. We get new strophes--or new verses--of text. So keep that in mind: verse, chorus, verse, chorus. Sometimes this can start with the chorus. Sometimes there's a harmonic change in here that we would call the bridge, but essentially it's the repetition of the same material over and over again in terms of the music-- but in terms of the text, you get new text each time for the verses. We also talked about the simplest of all of these musical forms: ternary form. Right? And that was simply this idea of statement, contrast, statement--A, B, A. Very straightforward, not too much we need do with that. Today we're going to go on and talk about theme and variations, and with regard to all three of these I should say that all three of these forms are very old. I could go back into the Middle Ages and get a responsory of the Middle Ages that is in A B A form. I could go back into the Middle Ages and bring up an early fifteenth-century English carol that's in verse and chorus form. I could go back into the Middle Ages and find you instrumental pieces that are in theme and variation form. So these three are very old. Now, the fourth one that we talked about, sonata-allegro form, is adventitious. It's something constructed in the eighteenth century-- adventitious to the eighteenth century-- so it's something put together in some measure by Joseph Haydn and then passed on to his good friend, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. So sonata-allegro form--this big, complex musical form--is a little bit different than the other. It's a lot younger. It's a lot newer--beginning with the period of classical music--Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven. All right. With that by way of an introduction, let's go back to sonata-allegro form. We said that was the largest, the most complex, of these musical forms. Why are we dealing with this? Well, next--a week from Saturday--we will go to this concert and we will sit there and we listen to pieces on this concert. The opening piece will be in sonata-allegro form. It will be by Mozart. Then we will have a piece by Johannes Brahms in theme and variation form. Then we will have a symphony by Beethoven in five movements--it's an exception and we'll explain why when we get to it--in five movements. But within those movements we have a couple of instances of sonata-allegro form, a couple of instances of theme and variation form, and one instance of ternary form. So all of these forms will be necessary. We will have to understand how these forms work in order for us to really engage that particular concert. For example, you'll be asked to write a review of that concert. And I was thinking this morning, well, a kind of mediocre review would say, "Well, in the middle of the first movement of the Beethoven piece-- and we--once again, we wouldn't call it a 'song'-- in the middle of the Beethoven--first movement of the Beethoven symphony-- things seem to be disorganized." What I'd like to hear there is "Well, in the development section--in the development section-- of the first movement of the Beethoven symphony, it seemed disorganized because the counterpoint was not clear, because the imitative entries of the parts was not clearly articulated." And that would be a much more specific sort of response to the music, a much more educated, if you will, response to the music. So that's where we're going with all this to get you to think about precisely where you are and precisely what should be happening, and then, is it really happening the way it should be. Now as said, sonata-allegro form is the most difficult of these, and it takes a little extra time to get familiar with it. We're going to be reviewing this in section starting this evening. And don't forget we have this model of what sonata-allegro form is. I didn't want to put that up on the board again--did that last time--but you've got it on page one hundred ninety-three of your textbook. If you want that complex diagram, one hundred ninety-three of your textbook. So get familiar with that. And do, once again, bring your books to section this time, 'cause we'll read them in section this time. So we've got this complex form. nd I've figured out over the years the way to sort of wrap your arms around this or get into this, understand this. And it involves the fact that music in the classical period is what we would call rhetorical music. It's doing something at every moment. It is doing, as I see it, one of four things. It's presenting a theme so we'll have a--what we call a thematic function. It's moving from point A to point B. Remember with the Beethoven > --that's the opening theme, and then the second theme is >. Well, those are both themes. That's stating something that we can sing, that we can remember. But Beethoven has to get from point A, the minor, to point B, the more lyrical major, so he writes a transition. So the second functional type here is transitional music. We want to be able to differentiate thematic music from transitional music. Then there are passages--and in sonata-allegro form it's in the middle of the movement-- that are exclusively developmental, where you take the material and play with it. You could make it--expand it and change it that way. You could shorten it as Beethoven often does in working with just particular motives. It tends to sound very complex. There's a lot going on in the development section. It's the most polyphonic, the most contrapuntal-- counterpoint and polyphony--sort of synonymous-- the most complex in terms of the counterpoint and, as we said before, it tends to move around a lot because they pass-- the composers will pass through different keys in the development section. So we've got, so far, three of what we call the four functional types-- or what I have called the four functional types: thematic, transitional, developmental. And now we have to talk about the last one, which is the simplest in some ways: cadential-- where the composer will just throw on a lot of heavy, simple harmonic motion to slow the music down psychologically-- not the tempo actually--but psychologically sort of bring it to a close, so we can say a closing functional type. Again to review: thematic, transitional, developmental and cadential. Those are our four functional types that will show up with any movement of sonata-allegro form. Question. Student: What was the last one? Prof: Cadential, with--was that it, Dan? It's Daniel.