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  • Prof: All right?

  • All right.

  • Let us begin.

  • Let us--we'll turn down the music of Charles Ives.

  • We'll come back to the music of Charles Ives,

  • but let us begin with our discussion of musical

  • form--continuing our discussion of musical form.

  • Last time we talked really about three forms.

  • We talked about verse and chorus in popular music and we

  • had a wonderful presentation by Frederick Evans.

  • And I hope you came away with the following:

  • that in dealing with verse and chorus, basically,

  • you have the same material; you have the same musical

  • material coming back again and again and again.

  • With the chorus we actually have the same text coming back

  • again and again and again.

  • But with the verses although the music is the same,

  • the text keeps changing each time.

  • We get new strophes--or new verses--of text.

  • So keep that in mind: verse, chorus,

  • verse, chorus.

  • Sometimes this can start with the chorus.

  • Sometimes there's a harmonic change in here that we would

  • call the bridge, but essentially it's the

  • repetition of the same material over and over again in terms of

  • the music-- but in terms of the text,

  • you get new text each time for the verses.

  • We also talked about the simplest of all of these musical

  • forms: ternary form.

  • Right?

  • And that was simply this idea of statement,

  • contrast, statement--A, B, A.

  • Very straightforward, not too much we need do with

  • that.

  • Today we're going to go on and talk about theme and variations,

  • and with regard to all three of these I should say that all

  • three of these forms are very old.

  • I could go back into the Middle Ages and get a responsory of the

  • Middle Ages that is in A B A form.

  • I could go back into the Middle Ages and bring up an early

  • fifteenth-century English carol that's in verse and chorus form.

  • I could go back into the Middle Ages and find you instrumental

  • pieces that are in theme and variation form.

  • So these three are very old.

  • Now, the fourth one that we talked about,

  • sonata-allegro form, is adventitious.

  • It's something constructed in the eighteenth century--

  • adventitious to the eighteenth century--

  • so it's something put together in some measure by Joseph Haydn

  • and then passed on to his good friend,

  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

  • So sonata-allegro form--this big, complex musical form--is a

  • little bit different than the other.

  • It's a lot younger.

  • It's a lot newer--beginning with the period of classical

  • music--Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven.

  • All right.

  • With that by way of an introduction,

  • let's go back to sonata-allegro form.

  • We said that was the largest, the most complex,

  • of these musical forms.

  • Why are we dealing with this?

  • Well, next--a week from Saturday--we will go to this

  • concert and we will sit there and we listen to pieces on this

  • concert.

  • The opening piece will be in sonata-allegro form.

  • It will be by Mozart.

  • Then we will have a piece by Johannes Brahms in theme and

  • variation form.

  • Then we will have a symphony by Beethoven in five

  • movements--it's an exception and we'll explain why when we get to

  • it--in five movements.

  • But within those movements we have a couple of instances of

  • sonata-allegro form, a couple of instances of theme

  • and variation form, and one instance of ternary

  • form.

  • So all of these forms will be necessary.

  • We will have to understand how these forms work in order for us

  • to really engage that particular concert.

  • For example, you'll be asked to write a

  • review of that concert.

  • And I was thinking this morning, well,

  • a kind of mediocre review would say,

  • "Well, in the middle of the first movement of the

  • Beethoven piece-- and we--once again,

  • we wouldn't call it a 'song'-- in the middle of the

  • Beethoven--first movement of the Beethoven symphony--

  • things seem to be disorganized."

  • What I'd like to hear there is "Well,

  • in the development section--in the development section--

  • of the first movement of the Beethoven symphony,

  • it seemed disorganized because the counterpoint was not clear,

  • because the imitative entries of the parts was not clearly

  • articulated."

  • And that would be a much more specific sort of response to the

  • music, a much more educated, if you will,

  • response to the music.

  • So that's where we're going with all this to get you to

  • think about precisely where you are and precisely what should be

  • happening, and then, is it really

  • happening the way it should be.

  • Now as said, sonata-allegro form is the most

  • difficult of these, and it takes a little extra

  • time to get familiar with it.

  • We're going to be reviewing this in section starting this

  • evening.

  • And don't forget we have this model of what sonata-allegro

  • form is.

  • I didn't want to put that up on the board again--did that last

  • time--but you've got it on page one hundred ninety-three of your

  • textbook.

  • If you want that complex diagram, one hundred

  • ninety-three of your textbook.

  • So get familiar with that.

  • And do, once again, bring your books to section

  • this time, 'cause we'll read them in section this time.

  • So we've got this complex form.

  • nd I've figured out over the years the way to sort of wrap

  • your arms around this or get into this, understand this.

  • And it involves the fact that music in the classical period is

  • what we would call rhetorical music.

  • It's doing something at every moment.

  • It is doing, as I see it,

  • one of four things.

  • It's presenting a theme so we'll have a--what we call a

  • thematic function.

  • It's moving from point A to point B.

  • Remember with the Beethoven >

  • --that's the opening theme, and then the second theme is

  • >.

  • Well, those are both themes.

  • That's stating something that we can sing, that we can

  • remember.

  • But Beethoven has to get from point A, the minor,

  • to point B, the more lyrical major, so he writes a

  • transition.

  • So the second functional type here is transitional music.

  • We want to be able to differentiate thematic music

  • from transitional music.

  • Then there are passages--and in sonata-allegro form it's in the

  • middle of the movement-- that are exclusively

  • developmental, where you take the material and

  • play with it.

  • You could make it--expand it and change it that way.

  • You could shorten it as Beethoven often does in working

  • with just particular motives.

  • It tends to sound very complex.

  • There's a lot going on in the development section.

  • It's the most polyphonic, the most contrapuntal--

  • counterpoint and polyphony--sort of synonymous--

  • the most complex in terms of the counterpoint and,

  • as we said before, it tends to move around a lot

  • because they pass-- the composers will pass through

  • different keys in the development section.

  • So we've got, so far, three of what we call

  • the four functional types-- or what I have called the four

  • functional types: thematic,

  • transitional, developmental.

  • And now we have to talk about the last one,

  • which is the simplest in some ways: cadential--

  • where the composer will just throw on a lot of heavy,

  • simple harmonic motion to slow the music down psychologically--

  • not the tempo actually--but psychologically sort of bring it

  • to a close, so we can say a closing

  • functional type.

  • Again to review: thematic, transitional,

  • developmental and cadential.

  • Those are our four functional types that will show up with any

  • movement of sonata-allegro form.

  • Question.

  • Student: What was the last one?

  • Prof: Cadential, with--was that it,

  • Dan?

  • It's Daniel.