字幕列表 影片播放 自動翻譯 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 Flipping through magazines as a teen, it was impossible not to compare myself 少年時翻閱雜誌，不可能不拿自己做比較 to the airbrushed faces and bodies on the pages. 對書頁上的臉和身體都進行了刷洗。 Today, these images have gone digital. 今天，這些影像已經數字化了。 And it's not just models in magazines anymore, because anyone can alter their appearance online. 而且，現在不僅僅是雜誌上的模特，因為任何人都可以在網上改變自己的外表。 Want bigger lips? Smaller waist? Bigger biceps? Bigger boobs? A six pack? You got it. 想要更大的嘴脣？更小的腰圍？更大的二頭肌？更大的胸部？六塊腹肌？你可以的。 You can completely change your online image from the one staring back at you in the mirror. 你可以完全改變你在網上的形象，而不是在鏡子裡盯著你看的那個。 But that disconnect, the gap between real flesh and blood human to modified, idealized online persona, 但是這種脫節，真實的有血有肉的人與經過修改的、理想化的網絡角色之間的差距。 is starting to have an effect on how we see ourselves. And researchers are asking more questions about 正開始對我們如何看待自己產生影響。而且研究人員正在提出更多關於 what these digital manipulations are doing to our perceptions of our bodies and self-image IRL. 這些數字操縱正在對我們的身體和自我形象的感知造成影響。 A growing number of studies show that social media can have a measurable negative impact on body image and self esteem. 越來越多的研究表明，社交媒體可以對身體形象和自尊心產生可衡量的負面影響。 Some research even suggests that scrolling through altered or filtered photos and videos on social media feeds 一些研究甚至表明，在社交媒體上滾動瀏覽經過修改或過濾的照片和視頻時 may be a trigger for more serious mental health conditions like anorexia, bulimia and body dysmorphic disorder. 可能是厭食症、貪食症和身體變形障礙等更嚴重的心理健康狀況的觸發因素。 Body dysmorphic disorder, BDD, is a condition in which people think there's something very wrong with their physical appearance. 身體變形障礙，即BDD，是一種人們認為自己的身體外表有很大問題的情況。 People with BDD obsess about these perceived imperfections. It's not just a fleeting thought, or a few minutes a day. 患有BDD的人沉迷於這些被認為是不完美的地方。這不僅僅是一個轉瞬即逝的想法，或每天幾分鐘的時間。 They think about it and worry about it a lot, typically between three and eight hours a day. 他們經常思考和擔心，通常每天有三到八個小時的時間。 It's probably a little bit more common in women than in men. 這在女性中可能比在男性中更常見一些。 That's what we find in the general population studies. 這就是我們在普通人群研究中發現的情況。 BDD is only diagnosed when the perceived flaw in appearance is actually nonexistent or only slight. 只有當感知到的外觀缺陷實際上不存在或只是輕微的缺陷時，才能診斷為BDD。 But most people with BDD don't realize that the flaws they perceive are actually minimal or not even there. 但大多數患有BDD的人沒有意識到，他們認為的缺陷實際上是最小的，甚至不存在。 They believe the flaw is clearly noticeable and seems unattractive or ugly to others. 他們認為缺陷是明顯的，在別人看來是不吸引人的或醜陋的。 And like Dr. Phillips said, BDD can be found in people of all gender identities. 正如菲利普斯博士所說，BDD可以在所有性別身份的人身上找到。 Unfortunately, there've only been a handful of nationwide studies into how common BDD really is in the general population. 不幸的是，對於BDD在普通人群中到底有多普遍，只有少數幾個全國性的研究。 But these early studies have revealed startling numbers. It's estimated that BDD affects close to 2 to 3 percent of the population, 但這些早期研究揭示了令人吃驚的數字。據估計，BDD影響了接近2%到3%的人口。 and that's somewhere between 5 to 10 million people in the U.S. alone. 而且僅在美國就有大約500萬到1000萬人。 So that makes it more common than obsessive compulsive disorder, anorexia nervosa, schizophrenia, 所以這使得它比強迫症、神經性厭食症、精神分裂症更常見。 so it's very under-recognized, under-diagnosed. 所以它的認知度很低，診斷率很低。 Every case of BDD is different and they can range in severity. 每個BDD案例都是不同的，它們的嚴重程度也不盡相同。 In some cases it can be incredibly debilitating, 在某些情況下，它可能是令人難以置信的衰弱。 to the point where a person withdraws completely from school, work, and social life, like Kitty. 到一個人完全退出學校、工作和社會生活的地步，就像吉蒂。 I was spending hours in front of the mirror obsessively picking at my skin, putting makeup on, taking it off, 我在鏡子前花了好幾個小時，痴迷地挑剔我的皮膚，化妝，卸妝。 because it wasn't right and putting it back on again. And what I saw in the mirror was a monster. 因為它不對，又把它重新穿上。而我在鏡子裡看到的是一個怪物。 I just thought everyone would be horrified if they saw me, so it was just safer to stay at home. 我只是覺得如果每個人看到我，都會感到害怕，所以呆在家裡比較安全。 This mental health disorder most often begins in early adolescence, and those with BDD often focus on multiple body parts. 這種心理健康障礙最常在青春期早期開始，患有BDD的人經常關注身體的多個部位。 Some people who suffer from it have likened their experience to staring into a permanent funhouse mirror, 一些患有這種疾病的人把他們的經歷比作是盯著一個永久的歡樂屋鏡子。 where your self image is wildly distorted by your own brain. 你的自我形象被你自己的大腦瘋狂地扭曲了。 Basically, people with BDD perceive themselves differently. 基本上，患有BDD的人對自己的看法是不同的。 In one of the first studies looking into this, researchers compared the fMRI brain scans 在最早的一項研究中，研究人員比較了fMRI的大腦掃描結果 of a small group of people with BDD to those without the disorder, 一小部分患有BDD的人與那些沒有BDD的人相比，他們的情況是不同的。 and they found a clear difference. 而且他們發現了明顯的差異。 When viewing a batch of highly detailed photos of strangers and a batch of blurred images of those same strangers, 當查看一批高度詳細的陌生人照片和一批同樣的陌生人的模糊影像時。 individuals with BDD used the left side of their brains much more than the control group. 患有BDD的人比對照組更多地使用他們的左腦。 And the left side is the part that processes detail. 而左邊是處理細節的部分。 Those without BDD, or the control group, used the right side of their brain more, taking in a more holistic image, 那些沒有BDD的人，或者說對照組，更多地使用了他們的右腦，接受了更全面的影像。 and they only switched to using their left side when processing the highly detailed images. 而他們只有在處理高度詳細的影像時才改用左側。 The researchers concluded that those with BDD focus more on the details than on the bigger picture, 研究人員得出結論，那些患有BDD的人更關注細節而不是大局。 basically like one researcher put it, they were “losing the forest for the trees.” 基本上像一位研究人員所說的那樣，他們 "為了樹木而失去了森林"。 I focus in on different areas of my face, or my body, or whatever. 我專注於我臉上的不同區域，或我的身體，或其他。 And then in my mind, that creates a picture of what I look like. 然後在我的腦海中，這就形成了一幅我的樣子。 But of course, that creates a distorted image of how I look, 但當然，這造成了對我的形象的扭曲。 because certain features are distorted to be bigger or worse. 因為某些特徵被扭曲，變得更大或更壞。 I think a major misconception is that BDD is just vanity. 我認為一個主要的誤解是，BDD只是虛榮心作祟。 That trivializes it and it trivializes the suffering of people with BDD. 這使它變得輕描淡寫，也使BDD患者的痛苦變得微不足道。 For an illness that was first described over a century ago, it's only been in the past few decades that a continued research effort 對於一個在一個多世紀前首次被描述的疾病，只是在過去的幾十年裡才有了持續的研究努力。 has gone into better understanding this disorder. 為了更好地瞭解這種疾病，我們已經做了很多努力。 And there are still some key questions that researchers are trying to figure out. Like what exactly causes BDD, 而且仍有一些關鍵問題，研究人員正試圖弄清楚。比如到底是什麼導致了BDD。 and what are its triggers once someone has it? 一旦有人得了這種病，其觸發因素是什麼？ Now, the cause of BDD is very complex. And it's not any one thing that causes BDD. 現在，BDD的原因非常複雜。而且不是任何一件事導致BDD。 It's probably about 40 to 50% genetically based. 大概有40到50%是基於基因的。 The rest of BDD is due to, you know, we think broadly in terms of environmental factors, that's a very big bucket. 其餘的BDD是由於，你知道，我們廣泛地認為是環境因素，那是一個非常大的桶。 These risk factors may include a lot of things like being teased when you're young, societal messages dictating what you should look like, 這些風險因素可能包括很多東西，如年輕時被取笑，社會資訊規定你應該看起來像什麼。 or like we mentioned earlier, research now looking into whether the hyper-edited images on social media have become a trigger as well. 或者像我們之前提到的，現在的研究正在研究社交媒體上的超編輯圖片是否也成為了一個觸發因素。 And this is something Dr. Phillips has seen change over her 30 years of studying BDD. 而這是菲利普斯博士在研究BDD的30年中看到的變化。 I think for some people it is and we don't have good research studies on this issue. 我認為對某些人來說是這樣的，我們沒有關於這個問題的良好研究。 Studies in non BDD groups have shown that certain forms of social media can worsen body image concerns, 在非BDD群體中的研究表明，某些形式的社交媒體會使身體形象問題惡化。 which in turn can worsen depression. 這反過來又會使抑鬱症惡化。 In my own patients, my sense is that certain forms of social media can make BDD worse. 在我自己的病人中，我的感覺是，某些形式的社交媒體會使BDD惡化。 Social media platforms like Instagram, Tiktok, and Snapchat, where it's easy to compare your own appearance to that of others, 社交媒體平臺，如Instagram、Tiktok和Snapchat，在這些平臺上很容易將自己的外表與他人進行比較。 might be more likely to worsen body image than platforms that don't focus on appearance 與不注重外表的平臺相比，可能更有可能使身體形象惡化。 or don't allow editing of one's face or body. 或不允許編輯自己的臉或身體。 And in all of these apps, there are built-in features that can alter your looks 而在所有這些應用程序中，有一些內置功能可以改變你的外觀 like thinning your face, smoothing out your skin, or applying makeup. 如瘦臉，撫平皮膚，或化妝。 We just need studies of social media in people with BDD specifically. 我們只是需要對BDD患者的社交媒體進行專門研究。 And now I think increasingly, we see that certain forms of social media can be so distressing for people with BDD. 而現在，我認為我們越來越多地看到，某些形式的社交媒體會讓BDD患者感到非常痛苦。 Like Kitty for example, who used her own experience in her work with the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Foundation. 例如凱蒂，她在身體變形障礙基金會的工作中使用自己的經驗。 I would always say it's important to be mindful of how you're using anything. 我總是說，重要的是要注意你是如何使用任何東西的。 Because when you've got BDD, almost anything could be triggering. 因為當你有BDD的時候，幾乎任何東西都可能會觸發。 So it's about learning to cope with these challenges and find new ways of managing them. 所以要學會應對這些挑戰，找到管理這些挑戰的新方法。 But platforms like Instagram, Snapchat, and Tiktok aren't all bad, either. 但像Instagram、Snapchat和Tiktok這樣的平臺也不全是壞事。 They can provide a space to raise awareness about things like BDD and create a stronger sense of community. 他們可以提供一個空間來提高對BDD等事情的認識，並創造一個更強大的社區感。 And talking more openly about disorders like this, and the role social media may play in perpetuating them, helps tackle the stigma around these issues too. 更公開地談論像這樣的疾病，以及社交媒體在延續這些疾病方面可能發揮的作用，也有助於解決圍繞這些問題的恥辱。 And the good news is that BDD is treatable. One of the most effective ways to treat it is with medication called SRIs. 好消息是，BDD是可以治療的。治療它的最有效方法之一是使用稱為SRI的藥物。 These can limit compulsive behaviors, lessen obsessions, depression, and anxiety over the perceived flaw 這些可以限制強迫性行為，減少強迫症、抑鬱症和對感知缺陷的焦慮。 and also make it easier to be around other people and to function well in daily life. 並使其更容易與其他人相處，在日常生活中發揮良好作用。 Another treatment is a specialized form of cognitive behavioral therapy 另一種治療方法是一種專門的認知行為療法 that focuses on identifying the patient's appearance-related thoughts and behaviors 著重於識別病人與外表有關的想法和行為。 and then applying cognitive restructuring, ritual prevention, and exposure techniques. 然後應用認知重組、儀式預防和暴露技術。 And good treatment can be transformational for folks like Carly, who has dealt with BDD for over a decade. 良好的治療可以改變像卡莉這樣的人，她與BDD打交道已經超過十年了。 I often think of my journey, as, it's been a little friend that's come with me. 我經常想到我的旅程，因為，它一直是一個與我同行的小夥伴。 So from that 11 year old little girl who had a demon, 所以從那個11歲的小女孩，她有一個惡魔。 and she sort of latched on to me, and she obviously wanted to pick me apart. 她就像抓住了我的把柄，顯然她想把我拆穿。 She was a bully. I like to think that from then, to where we're at now, she's sort of become my friend. 她是個惡霸。我想，從那時起，到我們現在的位置，她有點成為我的朋友。 So I keep her at a distance. But when she does come, and she will hurt me, 所以我與她保持距離。但當她真的來了，而她會傷害我。 I just have to remind her that she's only allowed a few hours, maybe a day max, and then she's got to go back. 我只是要提醒她，她只允許呆幾個小時，也許最多一天，然後她就得回去了。 Some who suffer from BDD may think the solution is undergoing cosmetic procedures to alter the flaw they're fixated on, 一些患有BDD的人可能認為解決方案是接受整容手術，以改變他們所固著的缺陷。 but this usually doesn't improve their issue and can actually even make the fixation worse. 但這通常不會改善他們的問題，實際上甚至會使固著現象更加嚴重。 And the reason is that BDD is a body image problem. It's not a problem with actual appearance. 原因是，BDD是一個身體形象問題。它不是一個實際外觀的問題。 It's not really a body problem, it's a perception problem. 這其實不是一個身體問題，而是一個觀念問題。 Ultimately, we need more research. 歸根結底，我們需要更多的研究。 Body Dysmorphic Disorder is its own separate issue, but those who struggle with it may also struggle with 身體變形障礙是它自己的獨立問題，但那些與之鬥爭的人也可能在以下方面進行鬥爭 an eating disorder, obsessive compulsive symptoms, a great deal of anxiety, substance abuse, and even suicidal ideation. 飲食失調、強迫症狀、大量的焦慮、藥物濫用，甚至有自殺傾向。 So the more we know about what's going on in the brains of those with it, 是以，我們對患有這種疾病的人的大腦中發生的事情瞭解得越多。 the better equipped we'll be to help those who are dealing with BDD. 我們就越有能力幫助那些正在處理BDD的人。 If you think someone may have BDD, it's important to take it seriously and encourage the person to get help. 如果你認為某人可能患有BDD，重要的是要認真對待，並鼓勵該人獲得幫助。 Filters can be fun. Social media can be fun, and it's great place to be creative. 過濾器可以很有趣。社交媒體可以很有趣，它是發揮創造力的好地方。 But I hope you don't see the way other people look, or the way a filter makes you look, and think that's how you should look. 但我希望你不要看到其他人的樣子，或過濾器讓你看起來的樣子，並認為那就是你應該有的樣子。 I know it's easier said than done, but this is the only body we get, 我知道說起來容易做起來難，但這是我們唯一的身體了。 so better to spend our time making friends with it than being at war with it, right? 所以與其和它打仗，不如花時間和它交朋友，對嗎？ You are enough, just as you are. 你是足夠的，就像你自己一樣。 If you or someone you know is struggling with BDD or something similar, 如果你或你認識的人正在與BDD或類似的東西作鬥爭。 we've included resources in our description below for more information on where to find help. 我們在下面的描述中包括了資源，以瞭解在哪裡可以找到幫助的更多資訊。 Thanks so much for watching Seeker's new series, Body Language. 非常感謝你觀看Seeker的新系列節目《身體語言》。 I hope you've enjoyed this video. And if there's another health topic you want us to cover, 我希望你喜歡這個視頻。如果你還有其他的健康話題想讓我們介紹。 leave us a comment down below, and I'll see you next time! 請在下面給我們留言，我們下次再會!