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  • In August 1947, India gained independence after 200 years of British rule.

    1947 年 8 月,印度從統治兩百年的英國手中獲得獨立。

  • What followed was one of the largest and bloodiest forced migrations in history: an estimated one million people lost their lives.

    隨之而來的是歷史上規模最大、最血腥的迫遷事件之一:估計有 100 萬人喪生。

  • Before British colonization, the Indian subcontinent was a patchwork of regional kingdoms known as princely states, populated by Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, Christians, Parsis, and Jews.

    在英國殖民之前,印度次大陸是由印度教徒、穆斯林、錫克教徒、耆那教徒、佛教徒、基督徒、帕西人和猶太人居住的諸侯國拼湊而成。

  • Each princely state had its own traditions, caste backgrounds, and leadership.

    每個諸侯國都有自己的傳統、種姓背景和領導權。

  • Starting in the 1500s, a series of European powers colonized India with coastal trading settlements.

    從 1500 年代開始,一系列歐洲大國通過沿海貿易定居點殖民印度。

  • By the mid-18th century, the English East India Company emerged as the primary colonial power in India. The British ruled some provinces directly and ruled the princely states indirectly.

    到 18 世紀中葉,英國東印度公司成為印度的主要殖民力量。英國直接統治了一些省份,間接統治了諸侯國。

  • Under indirect rule, the princely states remained sovereign but made political and financial concessions to the British.

    在間接統治下,諸侯國仍然擁有主權,但在政治和財政上必須向英國做出讓步。

  • In the 19th century, the British began to categorize Indians by religious identity — a gross simplification of the communities in India.

    19 世紀,英國人開始根據宗教身份對印度人進行分類——這是對印度社會的粗略簡化。

  • They counted Hindus as "majorities" and all other religious communities as distinct "minorities," with Muslims being the largest minority.

    他們將印度教徒視為「多數派」,將所有其他宗教團體視為獨特的「少數派」,其中穆斯林是最大的少數派。

  • Sikhs were considered part of the Hindu community by everyone but themselves.

    除了他們自己之外,每個人都認為錫克教徒是印度教社區的一部分。

  • In elections, people could only vote for candidates of their own religious identification; these practices exaggerated differences, sowing distrust between communities that had previously co-existed.

    在選舉中,人們只能投票給具有自己宗教身份的候選人,這些做法加劇了差異,在以前共存的社區之間播下了不信任的種子。

  • The 20th century began with decades of anti-colonial movements, where Indians fought for independence from Britain.

    20 世紀開始於數十年的反殖民運動,印度人為從英國獨立而戰。

  • In the aftermath of World War II, under enormous financial strain from the war, Britain finally caved.

    二戰結束後,在戰爭帶來的巨大財政壓力下,英國終於屈服了。

  • Indian political leaders had differing views on what an independent India should look like.

    印度政治領導人對獨立的印度應該是什麼樣子有不同的看法。

  • Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru represented the Hindu majority and wanted one united India.

    聖雄甘地和賈瓦哈拉爾·尼赫魯代表了印度教的多數派,他們想要一個統一的印度。

  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who led the Muslim minority, thought the rifts created by colonization were too deep to repair. Jinnah argued for a two-nation division where Muslims would have a homeland called Pakistan.

    領導穆斯林少數民族的穆罕默德·阿里·真納認為,殖民化造成的裂痕太深而無法修復。真納主張兩國分裂,穆斯林將擁有一個名為巴基斯坦的家園。

  • Following riots in 1946 and 1947, the British expedited their retreat, planning Indian independence behind closed doors.

    在 1946 年和 1947 年的動亂之後,英國人加快了撤退的步伐,閉門計劃印度獨立。

  • In June 1947, the British viceroy announced that India would gain independence by August, and be partitioned into Hindu India and Muslim Pakistanbut gave little explanation of how exactly this would happen.

    1947 年 6 月,英國總督宣布印度將在 8 月獲得獨立,並分裂為印度教印度和穆斯林巴基斯坦——但對這究竟是如何發生的幾乎沒有解釋。

  • Using outdated maps, inaccurate census numbers, and minimal knowledge of the land, in a mere five weeks, the Boundary Committee drew a border dividing three provinces under direct British rule: Bengal, Punjab, and Assam.

    邊界委員會使用過時的地圖、不准確的人口普查數字以及對這片土地甚少的了解,在短短五個星期內劃出了一條邊界,將英國直接統治下的三個省分開:孟加拉、旁遮普和阿薩姆。

  • The border took into account where Hindus and Muslims were majorities, but also factors like location and population percentages.

    邊界考慮了印度教徒和穆斯林占多數的地方,但也考慮了位置和人口百分比等因素。

  • So if a Hindu majority area bordered another Hindu majority area, it would be included in India, but if a Hindu majority area bordered Muslim majority areas, it might become part of Pakistan.

    因此,如果一個印度教徒佔多數的地區與另一個印度教徒佔多數的地區接壤,它將被包括在印度境內,但如果一個印度教佔多數的地區與穆斯林占多數的地區接壤,它可能會成為巴基斯坦的一部分。

  • Princely states on the border had to choose which of the new nations to join, losing their sovereignty in the process.

    邊境上的諸侯國必須選擇加入哪些新國家,並在此過程中失去了主權。

  • While the Boundary Committee worked on the new map, Hindus and Muslims began moving to areas where they thought they'd be a part of the religious majoritybut they couldn't be sure. Families divided themselves.

    當邊界委員會在新地圖上下功夫時,印度教徒和穆斯林開始遷移到他們認為自己會成為宗教多數的一部分的地區——但他們並不確定,於是家庭自己分裂了。

  • Fearing sexual violence, parents sent young daughters and wives to regions they perceived to be safe.

    由於害怕性暴力,父母將年幼的女兒和妻子送到他們認為安全的地區。

  • The new map wasn't revealed until August 17th, 1947 — two days after independence.

    新地圖直到 1947 年 8 月 17 日(即獨立兩天後)才公佈。

  • The provinces of Punjab and Bengal became the geographically separated East and West Pakistan; the rest became Hindu-majority India.

    旁遮普省和孟加拉省成為地理上分離的東巴基斯坦和西巴基斯坦,其餘的成為印度教佔多數的印度。

  • In a period of two years, millions of Hindus and Sikhs living in Pakistan left for India, while Muslims living in India fled villages where their families had lived for centuries.

    在兩年的時間裡,數百萬生活在巴基斯坦的印度教徒和錫克教徒前往印度,而生活在印度的穆斯林則逃離了他們家人已經生活了幾個世紀的村莊。

  • The cities of Lahore, Delhi, Calcutta, Dhaka, and Karachi emptied of old residents and filled with refugees.

    拉合爾、德里、加爾各答、達卡和卡拉奇等城市,老居民已經空無一人,到處都是難民。

  • In the power vacuum British forces left behind, radicalized militias and local groups massacred migrants.

    在英國軍隊留下的權力真空中,激進的民兵和當地團體屠殺了移民。

  • Much of the violence occurred in Punjab, and women bore the brunt of it, suffering rape and mutilation. Around 100,000 women were kidnapped and forced to marry their captors.

    大部分暴力事件發生在旁遮普邦,婦女首當其衝,遭受強姦和殘害,大約 100,000 名婦女被綁架並被迫嫁給綁架她們的人。

  • The problems created by Partition went far beyond this immediate deadly aftermath: many families who made temporary moves became permanently displaced, and borders continue to be disputed.

    印巴分治造成的問題遠遠超出了這種直接的致命後果:許多臨時搬家的家庭永久流離失所,且邊界繼續存在爭議。

  • In 1971, East Pakistan seceded and became the new country of Bangladesh, meanwhile, the Hindu ruler of Kashmir decided to join India — a decision that was to be finalized by a public referendum of the majority Muslim population.

    1971 年,東巴基斯坦脫離並成為新的孟加拉國,與此同時,克什米爾的印度教統治者決定加入印度——這一決定將由多數穆斯林人口的公投最終確定。

  • That referendum still hasn't happened as of 2020, and India and Pakistan have been warring over Kashmir since 1947.

    到 2020 年,公投仍未發生,印度和巴基斯坦自 1947 年以來一直在為克什米爾問題交戰。

  • More than 70 years later, the legacies of the Partition remain clear in the subcontinent: in its new political formations and in the memories of divided families.

    70 多年後,分裂的痕跡在次大陸仍然清晰可見,就在其新的政治結構和分裂家庭的記憶中。

In August 1947, India gained independence after 200 years of British rule.

1947 年 8 月,印度從統治兩百年的英國手中獲得獨立。

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歷史課來了!為什麼印度會分裂成兩個國家?(Why was India split into two countries? - Haimanti Roy)

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    Minjane 發佈於 2021 年 09 月 08 日
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