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  • Hi! Neil from BBC Learning English here.

    嗨!我是 BBC 英語學習頻道的 Neil。

  • Did you know that we are now offering a new weekly extra episode of 6 Minute English exclusively on our website?

    你知道嗎,我們現在正在提供一個新的每週額外 6 分鐘學英文影片,只在我們的網站上獨家提供,

  • So go to to find your favorite presenters on your favorite program.

    所以快到 來尋找你最喜歡的節目中最喜歡的主持人吧 。

  • The extra episodes are only available on our website: See you there!


  • - Hello. This is 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English. I'm Neil. - And I'm Sam.

    - 你好,這裡是 BBC 英語學習頻道的 6 分鐘學英文,我是 Neil。- 而我是 Sam。

  • If you live in a city, you're probably familiar with this very modern sight: a man walking his dog drops a little black plastic bag into a rubbish bin. Inside the bag is dog poo.

    如果你住在城市,你可能很熟悉這種非常現代的景象: 一個遛狗的男人丟一個小黑塑膠袋到垃圾桶裡,袋子裡面裝的是狗大便。

  • It might make it seem that humans are hygienic creaturescertainly cleaner than dogs, who go to the toilet wherever they want. But is this the whole story?


  • How do us humans compare with other animals when it comes to keeping ourselves and our environment clean?


  • In this program, we'll be asking whether humans as a species are naturally clean and tidy.


  • In fact, from dumping raw sewage into rivers to littering the streets with trash, humans aren't always good at dealing with waste.


  • While some animals, on the other hand, are instinctively clean.


  • Right, cats, for example, dig a hole to bury their poo.


  • In the past, humans got rid of their waste by throwing it into the street or into streams and rivers, hoping the water would wash it away.


  • 'Out of sight, out of mind!' That's a phrase used to say that it's easier to forget something when you can't see it.


  • But this doesn't always work, as we'll discover from my quiz question, Sam.

    但 Sam,這並不總是有用,稍後會在我的問答中了解這點。

  • In Victorian times, the population of London boomed and so did all the pee and poo being thrown into the river Thames.


  • It got so bad that by the 1850s, the awful smell had its own name, but what? Was it a) The Great Stench, b) The Great Stink, or c) The Great Smell?

    情況變得非常糟糕,以至於到了 1850 年代,這種可怕的氣味有了它自己的名字,但是叫什麼呢?a) 大惡臭、b) 大臭氣,或 c) 大臭味?

  • Ugh! All sounds pretty disgusting, Neil, but I'll go for a) The Great Stench.

    嗚呼!聽起來都蠻噁心的,但我要選 a) 大惡臭。

  • OK, Sam, we'll find out if that's right later.


  • Earlier you mentioned cats as examples of animals who hide their waste, but leaf-cutter ants go even further: they kill any dirty ants trying to re-enter the group!


  • Zoologist, Professor Adam Hart, has spent years studying ants and other clean creatures. Here he is speaking with BBC World Service program, The Conversation:

    動物學家,Adam Hart 教授花了多年時間研究螞蟻和其他愛乾淨的生物,以下是他接受 BBC 國際頻道的《The Conversation》節目的訪問:

  • Some animals, you'll be watching, and it is just pouring out of the back end and they don't seem to care.


  • Other animals will go to quite great lengths to go to a specific area. Some antelope, for example, will go to a sort of latrine area.


  • It's really linked to their ecology so quite often animals are using dung and also urine as marking posts and territorial markers to say to other groups of animals and other individuals that, well, this is my territory, not yours.


  • Like cats and ants, antelopes 'go to great lengths,' meaning they try very hard to do something, in this case, to leave their poo, or dung, in a specific area, away from their home.


  • Antelopes leave smells, called 'territorial markers,' secreted in urine, or pee, to tell other animals that an area of land is already occupied.


  • OK, Sam, but just because most of us don't pee at the bottom of the garden, does that necessarily mean humans are dirtier?

    但 Sam,僅僅因為我們大多數人不會在遠離家裡的地方尿尿就意味著人類更髒嗎?

  • Well, no, not according to psychologist, Dr Michael De Barra.

    不是,心理學家 Michael De Barra 博士並不這麼認為。

  • He thinks that human attitudes to cleanliness are related to the problem of infectious diseases, something we've all experienced during the Covid pandemic.

    他認為人類對清潔的態度與傳染病問題有關,這是我們在 Covid 疫情期間都經歷過的。

  • Here is Dr De Barra explaining more to BBC World Service's, The Conversation:

    以下是 De Barra 博士向 BBC 國際台《The Conversation》解釋的更多內容:

  • So, in humans, it seems like the emotion disgust is a big part of how we deal with infectious diseases problems. It's characterized by avoidance, by sometimes feelings of nausea,


  • and what's interesting about it is that it is elicited by many of the things that are infectious disease threats in our environment, so that might be particular smells, or particular substances, body wastes, physical signs of infectious diseasecoughs, sneezes.


  • Our natural reaction to something which is dirty, and which therefore may be diseased and harmful to us, is 'disgust' — a strong feeling of dislike or repulsion.


  • We might feel so disgusted at the sight or smell of human waste that we actually want to vomit — a feeling known as 'nausea.'


  • These bodily reactions are the immune system's way of saying: Keep away! This will make you sick!"

    這些身體反應是免疫系統在說:「別靠近! 這會讓你生病!」

  • So, although getting a bit dirty won't kill you unless you're a leaf-cutter ant, human evolution has developed a psychological way of keeping us clean.


  • What's the matter, Sam? You look a little green!


  • I am, Neil! All this talk of pee and poo is disgusting! And just imagine how bad it must have been in the old days.

    Neil,我是不舒服啊!所有關於小便和便便的內容都太噁心了! 試想一下在過去情況有多麽糟。

  • Like in Victorian times, before the invention of modern sewers and sanitation. In my quiz question I asked you what people called the awful smell in London in the 1850s.

    就像在現代下水道和衛生設施發明之前的維多利亞時代一樣。 在我的問答中,我問你人們將 1850 年代倫敦的難聞氣味稱為什麼?

  • And I said it was a) The Great Stench. Was I right?

    而我回答 a) 大惡臭,我回答對嗎?

  • You were wrong! In fact, the answer was b) The Great Stink, which stunk up the River Thames all the way to Westminster.

    你錯了!事實上,答案是 b) 大臭氣,它從泰晤士河一直到西敏寺都發臭了。

  • It was only when the smell reached the noses of politicians in Parliament that something was done about it.


  • So starting another useful phrase 'to raise a stink about something', meaning to make a strong public complaint.

    另一個有用的習語是「對某事大吵大鬧」, 意思是提出強烈的公開投訴。

  • OK, let's recap the other vocabulary, starting with 'out of sight, out of mind,' a phrase meaning that it's easier to forget something when you can't see it.


  • 'To go to great lengths' means to try very hard to achieve something.


  • 'Territorial markers' are smells in animalsdung or urine marking their territory.


  • These may fill you with 'disgust' - a feeling of strong dislike or repulsion, or even give you 'nausea'- the feeling that you are going to vomit.


  • And that's all for this stinky edition of 6 Minute English. Join us again soon for more topical chat and useful vocabulary. Bye for now!

    以上就是就是這次臭氣熏天版的 6 分鍾學英文,歡迎再來收看更多的話題談話和有用的詞彙。再見!

  • Bye!


Hi! Neil from BBC Learning English here.

嗨!我是 BBC 英語學習頻道的 Neil。

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