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  • Hi! Neil from BBC Learning English here.

    嗨!我是 BBC 英語學習頻道的 Neil。

  • Did you know that we are now offering a new weekly extra episode of 6 Minute English exclusively on our website?

    你知道嗎,我們現在正在提供一個新的每週額外 6 分鐘學英文影片,只在我們的網站上獨家提供,

  • So go to bbclearningenglish.com to find your favorite presenters on your favorite program.

    所以快到 bbclearningenglish.com 來尋找你最喜歡的節目中最喜歡的主持人吧 。

  • The extra episodes are only available on our website: bbclearningenglish.com. See you there!

    額外的集數只能在我們的網站上找到噢,快到 bbclearningenglish.com,希望在那裡見到你!

  • - Hello. This is 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English. I'm Neil. - And I'm Sam.

    - 你好,這裡是 BBC 英語學習頻道的 6 分鐘學英文,我是 Neil。- 而我是 Sam。

  • If you live in a city, you're probably familiar with this very modern sight: a man walking his dog drops a little black plastic bag into a rubbish bin. Inside the bag is dog poo.

    如果你住在城市,你可能很熟悉這種非常現代的景象: 一個遛狗的男人丟一個小黑塑膠袋到垃圾桶裡,袋子裡面裝的是狗大便。

  • It might make it seem that humans are hygienic creaturescertainly cleaner than dogs, who go to the toilet wherever they want. But is this the whole story?

    這可能會讓人覺得,人類是衛生的生物,當然比狗更乾淨,因為牠們隨地而上,但是,真的是這樣嗎?

  • How do us humans compare with other animals when it comes to keeping ourselves and our environment clean?

    在保持我們自己和我們的環境清潔方面,我們人類與其他動物相比是如何的呢?

  • In this program, we'll be asking whether humans as a species are naturally clean and tidy.

    在這個節目中,我們將調查人類作為一個物種是否天生乾淨及整潔。

  • In fact, from dumping raw sewage into rivers to littering the streets with trash, humans aren't always good at dealing with waste.

    事實上,從向河流傾倒未經處理的污水到在街道上亂扔垃圾,人類並不總是擅長處理廢物。

  • While some animals, on the other hand, are instinctively clean.

    但在另一方面,有些動物是本能的愛乾淨。

  • Right, cats, for example, dig a hole to bury their poo.

    沒錯,比如說,貓會挖一個洞埋牠們的糞便。

  • In the past, humans got rid of their waste by throwing it into the street or into streams and rivers, hoping the water would wash it away.

    過去,人類將垃圾扔到街上或溪流中來處理垃圾,希望水能將其沖走。

  • 'Out of sight, out of mind!' That's a phrase used to say that it's easier to forget something when you can't see it.

    「眼不見,心不念!」這是用來表示當你看不到某事時更容易忘記它的習語。

  • But this doesn't always work, as we'll discover from my quiz question, Sam.

    但 Sam,這並不總是有用,稍後會在我的問答中了解這點。

  • In Victorian times, the population of London boomed and so did all the pee and poo being thrown into the river Thames.

    在維多利亞時代,倫敦人口激增,所有被扔進泰晤士河的小便和便便也是如此,

  • It got so bad that by the 1850s, the awful smell had its own name, but what? Was it a) The Great Stench, b) The Great Stink, or c) The Great Smell?

    情況變得非常糟糕,以至於到了 1850 年代,這種可怕的氣味有了它自己的名字,但是叫什麼呢?a) 大惡臭、b) 大臭氣,或 c) 大臭味?

  • Ugh! All sounds pretty disgusting, Neil, but I'll go for a) The Great Stench.

    嗚呼!聽起來都蠻噁心的,但我要選 a) 大惡臭。

  • OK, Sam, we'll find out if that's right later.

    好的,Sam,我們晚點會揭曉。

  • Earlier you mentioned cats as examples of animals who hide their waste, but leaf-cutter ants go even further: they kill any dirty ants trying to re-enter the group!

    剛剛你舉例貓是會將排泄物藏起來的動物,但切葉蟻做得更徹底:牠們會殺死任何試圖重新進入群體的骯髒螞蟻!

  • Zoologist, Professor Adam Hart, has spent years studying ants and other clean creatures. Here he is speaking with BBC World Service program, The Conversation:

    動物學家,Adam Hart 教授花了多年時間研究螞蟻和其他愛乾淨的生物,以下是他接受 BBC 國際頻道的《The Conversation》節目的訪問:

  • Some animals, you'll be watching, and it is just pouring out of the back end and they don't seem to care.

    你會看到,有些動物牠只是排泄出來,似乎並不關心;

  • Other animals will go to quite great lengths to go to a specific area. Some antelope, for example, will go to a sort of latrine area.

    其他動物會不遺餘力地前往特定區域,例如,一些羚羊會去某種廁所區域。

  • It's really linked to their ecology so quite often animals are using dung and also urine as marking posts and territorial markers to say to other groups of animals and other individuals that, well, this is my territory, not yours.

    這真的與牠們的生態有關,所以動物經常使用糞便和尿液作為標記柱和領土標記,告訴其他動物群體和其他個人,這是我的領地,而不是你的領地。

  • Like cats and ants, antelopes 'go to great lengths,' meaning they try very hard to do something, in this case, to leave their poo, or dung, in a specific area, away from their home.

    像貓和螞蟻一樣,羚羊會「竭盡全力」,這意味著牠們會非常努力地做某事,在這種情況下,將牠們的便便或糞便留在特定區域,遠離牠們的家。

  • Antelopes leave smells, called 'territorial markers,' secreted in urine, or pee, to tell other animals that an area of land is already occupied.

    羚羊會在尿液或小便中留下稱為「領土標記」的氣味,告訴其他動物這一塊土地已經被佔用。

  • OK, Sam, but just because most of us don't pee at the bottom of the garden, does that necessarily mean humans are dirtier?

    但 Sam,僅僅因為我們大多數人不會在遠離家裡的地方尿尿就意味著人類更髒嗎?

  • Well, no, not according to psychologist, Dr Michael De Barra.

    不是,心理學家 Michael De Barra 博士並不這麼認為。

  • He thinks that human attitudes to cleanliness are related to the problem of infectious diseases, something we've all experienced during the Covid pandemic.

    他認為人類對清潔的態度與傳染病問題有關,這是我們在 Covid 疫情期間都經歷過的。

  • Here is Dr De Barra explaining more to BBC World Service's, The Conversation:

    以下是 De Barra 博士向 BBC 國際台《The Conversation》解釋的更多內容:

  • So, in humans, it seems like the emotion disgust is a big part of how we deal with infectious diseases problems. It's characterized by avoidance, by sometimes feelings of nausea,

    在人類中,情緒厭惡似乎是我們處理傳染病問題的重要組成部分,它的特點是迴避,有時會感到噁心,

  • and what's interesting about it is that it is elicited by many of the things that are infectious disease threats in our environment, so that might be particular smells, or particular substances, body wastes, physical signs of infectious diseasecoughs, sneezes.

    而有趣的是,它是由我們環境中的許多傳染病威脅引起的,所以可能是特定的氣味,或特定的物質、身體廢物、身體傳染病的跡象,像是咳嗽、打噴嚏。

  • Our natural reaction to something which is dirty, and which therefore may be diseased and harmful to us, is 'disgust' — a strong feeling of dislike or repulsion.

    我們對可能對我們有害的骯髒東西的自然反應是「厭惡」,一種強烈的不喜歡或排斥的感覺。

  • We might feel so disgusted at the sight or smell of human waste that we actually want to vomit — a feeling known as 'nausea.'

    我們可能會因為看到或聞到人類排泄物而感到非常反感,以至於我們真的想吐——這種感覺被稱為「噁心」。

  • These bodily reactions are the immune system's way of saying: Keep away! This will make you sick!"

    這些身體反應是免疫系統在說:「別靠近! 這會讓你生病!」

  • So, although getting a bit dirty won't kill you unless you're a leaf-cutter ant, human evolution has developed a psychological way of keeping us clean.

    因此,儘管弄髒並不會殺死你,除非你是切葉蟻,但人類進化已經發展出一種保持我們清潔的心理方式。

  • What's the matter, Sam? You look a little green!

    Sam,怎麼了?你看起來不太舒服!

  • I am, Neil! All this talk of pee and poo is disgusting! And just imagine how bad it must have been in the old days.

    Neil,我是不舒服啊!所有關於小便和便便的內容都太噁心了! 試想一下在過去情況有多麽糟。

  • Like in Victorian times, before the invention of modern sewers and sanitation. In my quiz question I asked you what people called the awful smell in London in the 1850s.

    就像在現代下水道和衛生設施發明之前的維多利亞時代一樣。 在我的問答中,我問你人們將 1850 年代倫敦的難聞氣味稱為什麼?

  • And I said it was a) The Great Stench. Was I right?

    而我回答 a) 大惡臭,我回答對嗎?

  • You were wrong! In fact, the answer was b) The Great Stink, which stunk up the River Thames all the way to Westminster.

    你錯了!事實上,答案是 b) 大臭氣,它從泰晤士河一直到西敏寺都發臭了。

  • It was only when the smell reached the noses of politicians in Parliament that something was done about it.

    當這臭氣被議會政客聞到時才真正有所作為。

  • So starting another useful phrase 'to raise a stink about something', meaning to make a strong public complaint.

    另一個有用的習語是「對某事大吵大鬧」, 意思是提出強烈的公開投訴。

  • OK, let's recap the other vocabulary, starting with 'out of sight, out of mind,' a phrase meaning that it's easier to forget something when you can't see it.

    讓我們回顧一下其他詞彙,從「眼不見,心不念」這個詞開始,意思是當你看不見時更容易忘記某事。

  • 'To go to great lengths' means to try very hard to achieve something.

    「竭盡全力」意味著非常努力地實現某事。

  • 'Territorial markers' are smells in animalsdung or urine marking their territory.

    「領地標誌」是動物身上的氣味——糞便或尿液標誌著它們的領地。

  • These may fill you with 'disgust' - a feeling of strong dislike or repulsion, or even give you 'nausea'- the feeling that you are going to vomit.

    這些可能會讓你感到「厭惡」,一種強烈的厭惡或排斥的感覺,甚至讓你感到「噁心」——你會嘔吐的感覺。

  • And that's all for this stinky edition of 6 Minute English. Join us again soon for more topical chat and useful vocabulary. Bye for now!

    以上就是就是這次臭氣熏天版的 6 分鍾學英文,歡迎再來收看更多的話題談話和有用的詞彙。再見!

  • Bye!

    掰!

Hi! Neil from BBC Learning English here.

嗨!我是 BBC 英語學習頻道的 Neil。

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【BBC 英語】跟別的動物相比 人類是一個天生乾淨的物種嗎? (Are humans a messy species? - 6 Minute English)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 09 月 03 日
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